Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 11 de 11
Filter
1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337677

ABSTRACT

After the global spread of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2 lineage, some BA.2-related variants that acquire mutations in the L452 residue of spike protein, such as BA.2.9.1 and BA.2.13 (L452M), BA.2.12.1 (L452Q), and BA.2.11, BA.4 and BA.5 (L452R), emerged in multiple countries. Our statistical analysis showed that the effective reproduction numbers of these L452R/M/Q-bearing BA.2-related Omicron variants are greater than that of the original BA.2. Neutralization experiments revealed that the immunity induced by BA.1 and BA.2 infections is less effective against BA.4/5. Cell culture experiments showed that BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/5 replicate more efficiently in human alveolar epithelial cells than BA.2, and particularly, BA.4/5 is more fusogenic than BA.2. Furthermore, infection experiments using hamsters indicated that BA.4/5 is more pathogenic than BA.2. Altogether, our multiscale investigations suggest that the risk of L452R/M/Q-bearing BA.2-related Omicron variants, particularly BA.4 and BA.5, to global health is potentially greater than that of original BA.2. Highlights Spike L452R/Q/M mutations increase the effective reproduction number of BA.2 BA.4/5 is resistant to the immunity induced by BA.1 and BA.2 infections BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/5 more efficiently spread in human lung cells than BA.2 BA.4/5 is more pathogenic than BA.2 in hamsters

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337637

ABSTRACT

To control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there is a need to develop vaccines to prevent infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants. One candidate is a nasal vaccine capable of inducing secretory IgA antibodies in the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, the initial site of infection. However, regarding the development of COVID-19 vaccines, there is concern about the potential risk of inducing lung eosinophilic immunopathology as a vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease as a result of the T helper 2 (Th2)-dominant adaptive immune response. In this study, we investigated the protective effect against virus infection induced by intranasal vaccination of recombinant trimeric spike protein derived from SARS-CoV-2 adjuvanted with CpG oligonucleotides, ODN2006, in mouse model. The intranasal vaccine combined with ODN2006 successfully induced not only systemic spike-specific IgG antibodies, but also secretory IgA antibodies in the nasal mucosa. Secretory IgA antibodies showed high protective ability against SARS-CoV-2 variants (Alpha, Beta and Gamma variants) compared to IgG antibodies in the serum. The nasal vaccine of this formulation induced a high number of IFN-γ-secreting cells in the draining cervical lymph nodes and a lower spike-specific IgG1/IgG2a ratio compared to that of subcutaneous vaccination with alum as a typical Th2 adjuvant. These features are consistent with the induction of the Th1 adaptive immune response. In addition, mice intranasally vaccinated with ODN2006 showed less lung eosinophilic immunopathology after viral challenge than mice subcutaneously vaccinated with alum adjuvant. Our findings indicate that intranasal vaccine adjuvanted with ODN2006 could be a candidate that can prevent the infection of antigenically different variant viruses, reducing the risk of vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease.

3.
MAbs ; 14(1): 2072455, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839974

ABSTRACT

Many potent neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies have been developed and used for therapies. However, the effectiveness of many antibodies has been reduced against recently emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, especially the Omicron variant. We identified a highly potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody, UT28K, in COVID-19 convalescent individuals who recovered from a severe condition. UT28K showed efficacy in neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 in an in vitro assay and in vivo prophylactic treatment, and the reactivity to the Omicron strain was reduced. The structural analyses revealed that antibody UT28K Fab and SARS-CoV-2 RBD protein interactions were mainly chain-dominated antigen-antibody interactions. In addition, a mutation analysis suggested that the emergence of a UT28K neutralization-resistant SARS-CoV-2 variant was unlikely, as this variant would likely lose its competitive advantage over circulating SARS-CoV-2. Our data suggest that UT28K offers potent protection against SARS-CoV-2, including newly emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans
4.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 70(3): 199-201, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714684

ABSTRACT

MS is a powerful methodology for chemical screening to directly quantify substrates and products of enzymes, but its low throughput has been an issue. Recently, an acoustic liquid-handling apparatus (Echo®) used for rapid nano-dispensing has been coupled to a high-sensitivity mass spectrometer to create the Echo® MS system, and we applied this system to screening of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) 3CL protease inhibitors. Primary screening of 32033 chemical samples was completed in 12 h. Among the hits showing selective, dose-dependent 3CL-inhibitory activity, 8 compounds showed antiviral activity in cell-based assay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Protease Inhibitors , Acoustics , COVID-19/drug therapy , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Humans , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318387

ABSTRACT

Potently neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies often target the receptor binding site (RBS) of spike protein but the variability of RBS epitopes hampers broad neutralization of different clades of coronaviruses and emerging drifted viruses. Here, we identified a human RBS antibody that potently neutralizes SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 variants that belong to clade 1 SARS-related coronavirus. X-ray crystallography revealed coordinated recognition by the heavy chain to conserved sites and the light chain to RBS, allowing for the mimicry of ACE2 binding mode. The minimum footprints in the hypervariable region of RBS contributed to the breadth of neutralization, and the activity was further enhanced by IgG3 switching. Eventually, the coordinated binding resulted in broad neutralization of SARS-CoV and emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Furthermore, therapeutic treatment in a hamster model provided protection at low dosage. The structural basis for broadly neutralizing activity informs the design of broad spectrum of therapeutics and vaccines.Funding: This work was supported by Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development grant JP19fk0108111 (TH, YT), JP20fk0108298 (TK, TH, KM, YT), JP20am0101093 (KM), JP20ae0101047 (KM), JP20fk0108251 (HS), and JP20am0101124 (YK), by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology grant JPMXS0420100119 (KM) and 20H05773 (TH), by The Naito Foundation (TH), and by Joint Usage/Research Center program of Institute for Frontier Life and Medical Sciences, Kyoto University (KM).Conflict of Interest: AS is an employee of Shionogi & Co., Ltd. MO is a CEO, employee, and shareholder of Trans Chromosomics, Inc. These authors acknowledge a potential conflict of interest and attest that the work contained in this report is free of any bias that might be associated with the commercial goals of the company. TO, YA, MO, TH, KM, and YT declare that an intellectual property application has been filed using the data presented in this paper. The other authors declare that they have no competing interests.Ethical Approval: Animal procedures were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan, and performed in accordance with the guidelines of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. In vitro escape mutation screening experiments for SARSCoV-2 were performed at the Biosafety Level-3 facility of the Research Center for ZoonosisControl, Hokkaido University, and the National Institute of Infectious Diseases following the institutional guidelines.

6.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327166

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 variant Omicron which harbors a striking number of mutations in the spike protein has been raising concerns about the effectiveness of vaccines and antibody treatment1. Here, we confirmed a substantial reduction in neutralizing potency against Omicron in all convalescent and vaccinated sera. However, we found that some people infected by the early strain show relatively higher neutralization to Omicron. From those B cells, we developed neutralizing antibodies inhibiting broad variants including Delta and Omicron. Unlike reported antibodies, one had an extremely large interface and widely covered receptor binding motif of spike, thereby interfering with diversified variants. Somatic mutations introduced by long-term germinal center reaction contributed to the key structure of antibodies and the universal interaction with spike variants. Recalling such rare B cells may confer sustainable protection against SARS-CoV-2 variants emerging one after another.

7.
Immunity ; 54(10): 2385-2398.e10, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370548

ABSTRACT

Potent neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies often target the spike protein receptor-binding site (RBS), but the variability of RBS epitopes hampers broad neutralization of multiple sarbecoviruses and drifted viruses. Here, using humanized mice, we identified an RBS antibody with a germline VH gene that potently neutralized SARS-related coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 variants. X-ray crystallography revealed coordinated recognition by the heavy chain of non-RBS conserved sites and the light chain of RBS with a binding angle mimicking the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. The minimum footprints in the hypervariable region of RBS contributed to the breadth of neutralization, which was enhanced by immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) class switching. The coordinated binding resulted in broad neutralization of SARS-CoV and emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Low-dose therapeutic antibody treatment in hamsters reduced the virus titers and morbidity during SARS-CoV-2 challenge. The structural basis for broad neutralizing activity may inform the design of a broad spectrum of therapeutics and vaccines.


Subject(s)
Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Binding Sites, Antibody , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/chemistry , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cricetinae , Humans , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Mice , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
8.
Cell Rep ; 36(2): 109385, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283972

ABSTRACT

Administration of convalescent plasma or neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is a potent therapeutic option for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. However, SARS-CoV-2 variants with mutations in the spike protein have emerged in many countries. To evaluate the efficacy of neutralizing antibodies induced in convalescent patients against emerging variants, we isolate anti-spike mAbs from two convalescent COVID-19 patients infected with prototypic SARS-CoV-2 by single-cell sorting of immunoglobulin-G-positive (IgG+) memory B cells. Anti-spike antibody induction is robust in these patients, and five mAbs have potent neutralizing activities. The efficacy of most neutralizing mAbs and convalescent plasma samples is maintained against B.1.1.7 and mink cluster 5 variants but is significantly decreased against variants B.1.351 from South Africa and P.1 from Brazil. However, mAbs with a high affinity for the receptor-binding domain remain effective against these neutralization-resistant variants. Rapid spread of these variants significantly impacts antibody-based therapies and vaccine strategies against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
10.
iScience ; 24(4): 102367, 2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157438

ABSTRACT

Antiviral treatments targeting the coronavirus disease 2019 are urgently required. We screened a panel of already approved drugs in a cell culture model of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and identified two new agents having higher antiviral potentials than the drug candidates such as remdesivir and chroloquine in VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells: the anti-inflammatory drug cepharanthine and human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor nelfinavir. Cepharanthine inhibited SARS-CoV-2 entry through the blocking of viral binding to target cells, while nelfinavir suppressed viral replication partly by protease inhibition. Consistent with their different modes of action, synergistic effect of this combined treatment to limit SARS-CoV-2 proliferation was highlighted. Mathematical modeling in vitro antiviral activity coupled with the calculated total drug concentrations in the lung predicts that nelfinavir will shorten the period until viral clearance by 4.9 days and the combining cepharanthine/nelfinavir enhanced their predicted efficacy. These results warrant further evaluation of the potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of cepharanthine and nelfinavir.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL