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1.
Saudi J Gastroenterol ; 27(4): 201-207, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261400

ABSTRACT

Patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and liver transplant recipients are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although several studies demonstrated the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in the general population, data in CLD patients and liver transplant recipients are lacking. Two COVID-19 vaccines were approved by the Saudi Food and Drug Authority and rolled out to several million recipients in Saudi Arabia. These vaccines are mRNA-based vaccine BNT162b2 from Pfizer/BioNTech and adenovirus-based AZD1222 from Oxford/AstraZeneca from three manufacturing sites (EU Nodes, Serum Institute of India, and South Korea Bio). The Saudi Association for the Study of Liver diseases and Transplantation (SASLT) has reviewed the available evidence and issued interim recommendations for COVID-19 vaccination in CLD and liver transplant recipients. Since there is no evidence contradicting the safety and immunogenicity of the currently approved COVID-19 vaccines in patients with CLD and hepatobiliary cancer and liver transplant recipients, the SASLT recommends vaccination in those patient populations. CLD and hepatobiliary cancer patients and liver transplant recipients should be prioritized depending on the risk factors for severe COVID-19. In transplant recipients, the optimal timing of vaccination remains unknown; however, immunization is recommended after the initial immunosuppression phase. Patients with CLD and liver transplant candidates or recipients should be closely monitored after COVID-19 vaccination. These patient populations should be included in future clinical trials to provide further evidence on the efficacy and safety of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Liver Transplantation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia
3.
J Can Assoc Gastroenterol ; 4(3): 156-162, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted endoscopy services and education worldwide. This study aimed to characterize the impact of COVID-19 on gastroenterology trainees in Canada. METHODS: An analysis of Canadian respondents from the international EndoTrain survey, open from April 11 to May 2 2020 and distributed by program directors, trainees, and national and international gastroenterology societies' representatives, was completed. The survey included questions on monthly endoscopy volume, personal protective equipment availability, trainee well-being and educational resources. The primary outcome was change in procedural volume during the COVID-19 pandemic. Secondary outcomes included trainee's professional and personal concerns, anxiety and burnout. RESULTS: Thirty-four Canadian trainees completed the survey. Per month, participants completed a median of 30 esophagogastroduodenoscopies (interquartile range 16 to 50) prior to the pandemic compared to 2 (0 to 10) during the pandemic, 20 (8 to 30) compared to 2 (0 to 5) colonoscopies and 3 (1 to 10) compared to 0 (0 to 3) upper gastrointestinal bleeding procedures. There was a significant decrease in procedural volumes between the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 time periods for all procedures (P < 0.001). Thirty (88%) trainees were concerned about personal COVID-19 exposure, 32 (94%) were concerned about achieving and/or maintaining clinical competence and 24 (71%) were concerned about prolongation of training time due to the pandemic. Twenty-six (79%) respondents experienced some degree of anxiety, and 10 (31%) experienced some degree of burnout. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has substantially impacted gastroenterology trainees in Canada. As the pandemic eases, it important for gastrointestinal programs to adapt to maximize resident learning, maintain effective clinical care and ensure development of endoscopic competence.

4.
Postgrad Med J ; 97(1153): 706-715, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889925

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine how self-reported level of exposure to patients with novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) affected the perceived safety, training and well-being of residents and fellows. METHODS: We administered an anonymous, voluntary, web-based survey to a convenience sample of trainees worldwide. The survey was distributed by email and social media posts from April 20th to May 11th, 2020. Respondents were asked to estimate the number of patients with COVID-19 they cared for in March and April 2020 (0, 1-30, 31-60, >60). Survey questions addressed (1) safety and access to personal protective equipment (PPE), (2) training and professional development and (3) well-being and burnout. RESULTS: Surveys were completed by 1420 trainees (73% residents, 27% fellows), most commonly from the USA (n=670), China (n=150), Saudi Arabia (n=76) and Taiwan (n=75). Trainees who cared for a greater number of patients with COVID-19 were more likely to report limited access to PPE and COVID-19 testing and more likely to test positive for COVID-19. Compared with trainees who did not take care of patients with COVID-19 , those who took care of 1-30 patients (adjusted OR [AOR] 1.80, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.51), 31-60 patients (AOR 3.30, 95% CI 1.86 to 5.88) and >60 patients (AOR 4.03, 95% CI 2.12 to 7.63) were increasingly more likely to report burnout. Trainees were very concerned about the negative effects on training opportunities and professional development irrespective of the number of patients with COVID-19 they cared for. CONCLUSION: Exposure to patients with COVID-19 is significantly associated with higher burnout rates in physician trainees.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Internship and Residency/organization & administration , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Male , Personal Protective Equipment , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling , Safety , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine , Young Adult
6.
Ann Saudi Med ; 40(4): 273-280, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612198

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus was identified in patients in Wuhan, China. The virus, subsequently named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, spread worldwide and the disease (coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19) was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. Older adults and individuals with comorbidities have been reported as being more vulnerable to COVID-19. Patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) have compromised immune function due to cirrhosis and are more susceptible to infection. However, it is unclear if patients with CLD are more vulnerable to COVID-19 and its complications than other populations. The high number of severe cases of COVID-19 has placed an unusual burden on health systems, compromising their capacity to provide the regular care that patients with CLD require. Hence, it is incredibly crucial at this juncture to provide a set of interim recommendations on the management of patients with CLD during the current COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Amides/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azetidines/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Drug Combinations , Drug Interactions , Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/therapy , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/therapy , Liver Diseases/therapy , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Liver Transplantation , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Purines , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Pyrazoles , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Ultrasonography/methods
7.
Saudi J Gastroenterol ; 26(5): 263-271, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610898

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has caused significant disruption to patients with chronic illnesses. We explored the emotional state, perception, and concerns of Saudi patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during the crisis. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey from 30 March to 5 April, 2020 using a pre-designed questionnaire distributed through social media platforms to IBD patients. The five-part questionnaire included an assessment of psychological wellbeing using a previously validated Arabic version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), which includes domains for anxiety (HADS-A) and depression (HADS-D). A logistic regression analysis was used to uncover possible associations between patient characteristics and anxiety and depression. Results: The data from 1156 IBD patients were analyzed. Normal, borderline, and HADS-A scores consistent with a diagnosis of anxiety were reported by 423 (36.6%), 174 (15.1%), and 559 (48.4%) patients, respectively. However, 635 (69%) patients had normal scores and 273 (30.1%) had borderline HADS-D scores; no patients reported scores consistent with depression. Based on a multiple logistic regression analysis, patients educated till a high school diploma (OR = 2.57, 95% CI: 0.09-6.05, P = 0.03) and that had indeterminate colitis (OR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.27-3.89, P = 0.005) were more likely to express anxiety. Conclusions: Many patients expressed symptoms of anxiety, although not depression. Female patients, patients educated till a high school diploma, and those with indeterminate colitis were more likely to have anxiety. IBD patients require greater attention during a pandemic to avoid adverse disease-related outcomes.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/psychology , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
8.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 92(4): 925-935, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected endoscopy services globally, the impact on trainees has not been evaluated. We aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 on procedural volumes and on the emotional well-being of endoscopy trainees worldwide. METHODS: An international survey was disseminated over a 3-week period in April 2020. The primary outcome was the percentage reduction in monthly procedure volume before and during COVID-19. Secondary outcomes included potential variation of COVID-19 impact between different continents and rates and predictors of anxiety and burnout among trainees. RESULTS: Across 770 trainees from 63 countries, 93.8% reported a reduction in endoscopy case volume. The median percentage reduction in total procedures was 99% (interquartile range, 85%-100%), which varied internationally (P < .001) and was greatest for colonoscopy procedures. Restrictions in case volume and trainee activity were common barriers. A total of 71.9% were concerned that the COVID-19 pandemic could prolonged training. Anxiety was reported in 52.4% of respondents and burnout in 18.8%. Anxiety was independently associated with female gender (odds ratio [OR], 2.15; P < .001), adequacy of personal protective equipment (OR, 1.75; P = .005), lack of institutional support for emotional health (OR, 1.67; P = .008), and concerns regarding prolongation of training (OR, 1.60; P = .013). Modifying existing national guidelines to support adequate endoscopy training during the pandemic was supported by 68.9%. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to restrictions in endoscopic volumes and endoscopy training, with high rates of anxiety and burnout among endoscopy trainees worldwide. Targeted measures by training programs to address these key issues are warranted to improve trainee well-being and support trainee education.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Endoscopy/education , Internationality , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Endoscopy/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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