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1.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(3): 270.e1-270.e6, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1108498

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has spread rapidly worldwide, but the full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the field of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remains unknown. To understand this better, an 18-item online survey was disseminated by the Worldwide Network for Blood & Marrow Transplantation with questions exploring SARS-CoV-2 testing algorithms, mobilization, and cryopreservation strategies and COVID-19 infections in allogeneic related and autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) donors. The aim of this survey was to assess the impact of the outbreak on policies relating to HPC mobilization, collection, and processing with respect to changes in daily routine. A total of 91 individual responses from distinct centers in 6 continents were available for analysis. In these centers, the majority (72%) of allogeneic related and autologous donors are routinely tested for SARS-CoV-2 before HPC collection, and 80% of centers implement cryopreservation of allogeneic HPC grafts before commencing conditioning regimens in patients. Five related and 14 autologous donors who tested positive for COVID-19 did not experience any unexpected adverse events or reactions during growth factor administration (eg, hyperinflammatory syndrome). These data are limited by the small number of survey respondents but nonetheless suggest that centers are following the recommendations of appropriate scientific organizations and provide some preliminary data to suggest areas of further study.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Algorithms , Allografts , Bone Marrow Transplantation/trends , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cryopreservation/methods , Donor Selection/standards , Global Health , Health Care Surveys , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization/statistics & numerical data , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Procedures and Techniques Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Tissue Preservation/methods , Transplantation, Autologous , Unrelated Donors/statistics & numerical data
2.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(10): 2062-2064, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809469
4.
Open Heart ; 7(2)2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917800

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19, due to SARS-CoV-2, has uncovered many real-world issues when it comes to healthcare management and has led to a widespread mortality. Observations thus far from the reports of COVID-19 have indicated that certain risk groups for example, those with pre-existing cardiovascular (CV) disease, hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease and tobacco use are prone to disease development and specifically development of severe disease and possible fatality. It is increasingly evident that many CV conditions occur frequently. These include myopericarditis, acute coronary syndromes, thrombosis, arrhythmias, hypertension and heart failure. Many professional organisations and societies related to cardiology have produced guidelines or recommendations on most of the above-mentioned aspects. Given these rapid developments, the aims of this review manuscript were to summarise and integrate recent publications with newly developed guidelines and with the first-hand experience of frontline physicians and to yield a pragmatic insight and approach to CV complications of COVID-19. We emphasise on a strategic tier-based approach for initial assessment and management of COVID-19, and then delve into focused areas within CV domains, and additionally highlighting the role of point-of-care ultrasound especially lung ultrasound, echocardiography and electrocardiography, in the management of these patients. We hope this paper will serve as a useful tool in the CV management of COVID-19 for clinicians practicing in both developing and developed countries.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
5.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 11(1): 15-19, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810018

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly evolving global pandemic for which more than a thousand clinical trials have been registered to secure therapeutic effectiveness, expeditiously. Most of these are single-center non-randomized studies rather than multi-center, randomized controlled trials. Single-arm trials have several limitations and may be conducted when spontaneous improvement is not anticipated, small placebo effect exists, and randomization to a placebo is not ethical. In an emergency where saving lives takes precedence, it is ethical to conduct trials with any scientifically proven design, however, safety must not be compromised. A phase II or III trial can be conducted directly in a pandemic with appropriate checkpoints and stopping rules. COVID-19 has two management paradigms- antivirals, or treatment of its complications. Simultaneous assessment of two different treatments can be done using 2 × 2 factorial schema. World Health Organization's SOLIDARITY trial is a classic example of the global research protocol which can evaluate the preferred treatment to combat COVID-19 pandemic. Short of that, a trial design must incorporate the practicality of the intervention used, and an appropriate primary endpoint which should ideally be a clinical outcome. Collaboration between institutions is needed more than ever to successfully execute and accrue in randomized trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Information Dissemination , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Research Design , Safety Management , COVID-19/epidemiology , Early Termination of Clinical Trials/methods , Ethics , Humans , Information Dissemination/ethics , Information Dissemination/methods , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/ethics , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/methods , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/standards , Research Design/standards , Research Design/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety Management/ethics , Safety Management/standards
6.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110287, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-773387

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 affects males twice as frequently as females with significantly increased severity and mortality. Current data suggest a direct correlation between the lower level of serum testosterone, inflammatory cytokines, disease severity, and poor clinical outcomes among male patients with COVID-19. The gradual decline in total and free testosterone levels has a direct correlation with serious pulmonary complications requiring advanced care (ICU, ventilators, ECMO, etc.). SARS-CoV-2 utilizes Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme II (ACE2) for entry in the host cell, and Transmembrane Protease, Serine 2 (TMPRSS2) to prime spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Testosterone induces ACE-2 expression, a critical pulmonary protective enzyme. Low testosterone levels in males have a direct correlation with the high probability of ICU admission and the worse disease outcome (ARDS, duration of ICU stay, mortality). On the contrary, however, high testosterone levels can lead to thrombosis which is also one of the fatal manifestations in COVID-19 patients. A critical evaluation of the serum testosterone and its relevance to COVID-19 is warranted to re-evaluate strategies to effectively triage, prioritize, and manage high-risk patients for ICU admission, survival outcomes, targeted solutions, and operational algorithms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Testosterone/blood , Algorithms , Critical Care , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Probability , Risk Assessment , Sex Factors , Treatment Outcome
7.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(12): 2181-2189, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-722012

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has impacted many facets of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in both developed and developing countries. Realizing the challenges as a result of this pandemic affecting the daily practice of the HCT centers and the recognition of the variability in practice worldwide, the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (WBMT) and the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research's (CIBMTR) Health Services and International Studies Committee have jointly produced an expert opinion statement as a general guide to deal with certain aspects of HCT, including diagnostics for SARS-CoV-2 in HCT recipient, pre- and post-HCT management, donor issues, medical tourism, and facilities management. During these crucial times, which may last for months or years, the HCT community must reorganize to proceed with transplantation activity in those patients who urgently require it, albeit with extreme caution. This shared knowledge may be of value to the HCT community in the absence of high-quality evidence-based medicine. © 2020 American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow Transplantation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans
8.
Blood Rev ; 46: 100742, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712377

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have immune regulatory and tissue regenerative properties. MSCs are being studied as a therapy option for many inflammatory and immune disorders and are approved to treat acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and associated coronavirus infectious disease-19 (COVID-19) has claimed many lives. Innovative therapies are needed. Preliminary data using MSCs in the setting of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 are emerging. We review mechanisms of action of MSCs in inflammatory and immune conditions and discuss a potential role in persons with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; 39(8): 2638-2652, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691344

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused a global pandemic and become the most urgent threat to the entire world. Tremendous efforts and resources have been invested in developing diagnosis, prognosis and treatment strategies to combat the disease. Although nucleic acid detection has been mainly used as the gold standard to confirm this RNA virus-based disease, it has been shown that such a strategy has a high false negative rate, especially for patients in the early stage, and thus CT imaging has been applied as a major diagnostic modality in confirming positive COVID-19. Despite the various, urgent advances in developing artificial intelligence (AI)-based computer-aided systems for CT-based COVID-19 diagnosis, most of the existing methods can only perform classification, whereas the state-of-the-art segmentation method requires a high level of human intervention. In this paper, we propose a fully-automatic, rapid, accurate, and machine-agnostic method that can segment and quantify the infection regions on CT scans from different sources. Our method is founded upon two innovations: 1) the first CT scan simulator for COVID-19, by fitting the dynamic change of real patients' data measured at different time points, which greatly alleviates the data scarcity issue; and 2) a novel deep learning algorithm to solve the large-scene-small-object problem, which decomposes the 3D segmentation problem into three 2D ones, and thus reduces the model complexity by an order of magnitude and, at the same time, significantly improves the segmentation accuracy. Comprehensive experimental results over multi-country, multi-hospital, and multi-machine datasets demonstrate the superior performance of our method over the existing ones and suggest its important application value in combating the disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Deep Learning , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Algorithms , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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