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1.
Online Learning Journal ; 26(3):169-201, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026295

ABSTRACT

The transition from face-to-face classes to fully online learning (OL) during the spring semester of 2020 occurred almost globally because of the imposed COVID-19 lockdown. The present study investigated the perception and experiences of undergraduate students and faculty members of the Civil Engineering program at the United Arab Emirates University concerning switching to OL during COVID-19. Quantitative questionnaires were distributed to faculty members and students following the end of the spring semester of 2020. Students and faculty members identified student engagement and online exams as major areas that require improvement. Online exams were challenging for students and difficult to prepare, control, and administer for faculty. Providing technical support is critical for the successful streaming of online courses. Initially, half of the surveyed students began the transition with a positive attitude toward OL, and this percentage increased during the transition. The capacity to continue learning during the COVID-19 crisis and the availability of recorded materials were perceived by the students as the main advantages of OL while challenging online examinations and the lack of social interaction were the main disadvantages. © 2022, The Online Learning Consortium. All rights reserved.

2.
Scientific Reports ; 12(1):14639, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016833

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Epidemiological surveillance program of the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health has launched a rapid surveillance system for collecting COVID-19-related mortality data. In this study, we document the Lebanese experience of COVID-19 mortality surveillance and provide an analysis of the epidemiological characteristics of confirmed deaths. The implementation of the rapid COVID-19 mortality surveillance system, data sources, and data collection were described. A retrospective descriptive analysis of the epidemiological characteristics of confirmed cases occurring in Lebanon between February 20, 2020, and September 15, 2021, was performed. Epidemiological curves of Covid-19 confirmed cases and deaths as well as the geographic distribution map of mortality rates were generated. Between February 21, 2020, and September 15, 2021, a total of 8163 COVID-19-related deaths were reported with a predominance of males (60.4%). More than 60% were aged 70 years or above. Of all deaths, 84% occurred at hospitals and 16% at home. The overall cumulative mortality rate was 119.6 per 100,000. The overall case fatality ratio (CRF) was 1.3%. Of the total deaths, 82.2% had at least one underlying medical condition. The top reported COVID-19 comorbidities associated with COVID-19-related deaths are cardiovascular diseases including hypertension (59.1%), diabetes (37.2%), kidney diseases including dialysis (11%), cancer (6.7%), and lung diseases (6.3%). The CFR was 30.9% for kidney diseases, 20.2% for cancer, 20.2% for lung diseases, 18.1% for liver diseases, 14% for diabetes, and 12.2% for cardiovascular diseases. Considering the limited human and financial resources in Lebanon due to the economic and political crisis, the rapid mortality surveillance system can be considered successful. Improving this system is important and would contribute to better detection of deaths from emerging and re-emerging diseases during health crises.

3.
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics ; 19:19, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1999842

ABSTRACT

To assess the combined role of anti-viral monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and vaccine in reducing SARS-CoV-2 transmission and mortality in the US, an agent-based model was developed that accounted for social contacts, movement/travel, disease progression, and viral shedding. The model was calibrated to COVID-19 mortality between October 2020 and April 2021 (aggressive pandemic phase), and projected an extended outlook to estimate mortality during a less aggressive phase (April to August 2021). Simulated scenarios evaluated mAbs for averting infections and deaths in addition to vaccines and aggregated non-pharmaceutical interventions. Scenarios included mAbs as treatment of COVID-19 and for passive immunity for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) during a period when variants were susceptible to the mAbs. Rapid diagnostic testing paired with mAbs was evaluated as early Treatment-as-Prevention strategy. Sensitivity analyses included increasing mAb supply and vaccine rollout. Allocation of mAbs for use only as PEP averted up to 14% more infections than vaccine alone, and targeting individuals >=65 years averted up to 37% more deaths. Rapid testing for earlier diagnosis and mAb use amplified these benefits. Doubling mAb supply further reduced infections and mortality. mAbs provided benefits even as proportion of the immunized population increased. Model projections estimated that ~42% of expected deaths between April and August 2021 could be averted. Assuming sensitivity to mAbs, their use as early treatment and PEP in addition to vaccines would substantially reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission and mortality even as vaccination increases and mortality decreases. These results provide a template for informing public health policy for future pandemic preparedness.

4.
World Journal of Clinical Cases ; 10(23):8170-8185, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1998047

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic putting the population at a high risk of infection-related health hazards, mortality and a potential failure of proper medical therapies. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the potential use of the existing drugs that could be used as options for the medical management of COVID-19 patients. AIM To evaluate the role of the H2 receptor blocker “famotidine” in COVID-19 illness. METHODS This study was done on seriously ill COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) from different institutes in Bangladesh. Patients were divided into famotidine treatment group “A” (famotidine 40 mg to 60 mg oral formulation every 8 h with other treatment as given), and control group “B” (treatment as given). National early warning score (NEWS)-2, and sequential organ failure assessment day-1 score was calculated to evaluate the outcome. Outcomes were evaluated by the time required for clinical improvement, characterized as duration required from enrollment to the achievement of NEWS-2 of ≤ 2 maintained for 24 h;time to symptomatic recovery, defined as the duration in days (from randomization) required for the recovery of the COVID-19 symptoms;mortality rate;duration of ICU and hospital stay;total period of hospitalization;the rate of supplementary oxygen requirement;the computed tomography (CT) chest recovery (%), the time required for the viral clearance and “NEWS-2” on discharge. RESULTS A total of 208 patients were enrolled in this study with 104 patients in each group. The famotidine treatment group had comparatively better recovery of 75% and a low mortality of 25% than the control with a recovery of 70% and a mortality of 30%. Duration of clinical improvement (group A 9.53 d, group B 14.21 d);hospitalization period among the recovered patients (group A 13.04 d, group B 16.31 d), pulmonary improvement in chest CT (group A 21.7%, group B 13.2%), and the time for viral clearance (group A 20.7 d, group B 23.8 d) were found to be statistically significant P ≤ 0.05. However, the Kaplan Meier survival test was not significant among the two study groups, P = 0.989. CONCLUSION According to our study, treatment with famotidine achieved a better clinical outcome compared to the control group in severe COVID-19 illness, although no significant survival benefit was found.

5.
2nd International Conference on Advance Computing and Innovative Technologies in Engineering, ICACITE 2022 ; : 2498-2502, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1992632

ABSTRACT

A short time ago Internet of Things (IoTs) is being applied in many fields like healthcare systems, disease forecasting, etc. Even though the IoTs has enormous promise in a variety of applications, there are several areas where it may be improved. In the present work, we have concentrated on improvement of the performance of IoT by adding two technologies such as machine learning algorithms (Naïve Bayes (NB), Random Forest (RF)) and Ant Colony Meta-Heuristic (ACMH) algorithm to select best features from data. The efficient proposed framework applied on the data of SARS-Co V2 for disease prediction to minimize the time consumption and improve the accuracy of forecasting COVID disease. Thus, the lifetime network of IoT will lead to an increase. The performance of proposed work evaluated using reliable metrics such as precision, accuracy, running time, balance accuracy, recall, and F-Measure. We conclude from the results of evaluating, that ML algorithms in IoT achieved best performance than without using ACMH algorithm;RF with ACMH in IoT framework achieved best performance that NB with ACMH algorithm. But NB is best from RF in running time with and without ACMH algorithm. © 2022 IEEE.

6.
International Conference on Business and Technology, ICBT 2021 ; 486:661-692, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1971433

ABSTRACT

The ability of small to medium enterprises (SMEs) to effectively carry out their business activities within and without their business social capital networks in Covid-19 pandemic in no doubt will increase their entrepreneurial orientation and performance especially in emerging countries like Ghana. The aim of this study is to investigate how social capital activates the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) of SMEs performance in an emerging country in Covid-19 pandemic. Through simple random sampling technique, data was obtained from 369 SME-owners and the analysis of the measurement and structural model performed by PLS-SEM approach. The findings demonstrated that social capital has significant effect on SMEs performance and proactiveness as well while autonomy, competitiveness, innovativeness and risk-taking though had positive effect were insignificant. The findings reveal that proactiveness had positive and significant mediating effect on social capital and SMEs performance relationship but the remaining four EO dimensions though demonstrates positive mediating effect but were not statistically significant. This study contributes to theoretical building on the role of social capital on EO and SMEs performance relationship especially in this global pandemic of Covid-19. The study focused on the need for SMEs to consider EO and social capital as pivotal to their performance based on the RBV and social capital theories with more emphasis on SMEs effective use of their internal and external resources to outperform their counterparts. The last section of the study further provides suggestions for SME-owners and future researchers. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

7.
4th IEEE Nigeria International Conference on Disruptive Technologies for Sustainable Development, NIGERCON 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948839

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has changed the landscape of education globally, posing restrictions and widespread closure of schools, thereby, introducing the paradigm shift from Physical to Virtual, and then blended (Mix mode) learning environments. Hence, teaching and learning process should evolve to accommodate the new normal. It is important to create efficacious virtual learning, however, the behavioral responses of the end-users (students) towards the implementation and adoption of a virtual learning environment are necessary. This paper, therefore, aim to examine students' perception, preferences, and adoption of technology-enabled virtual learning environments and causal factors in process of implementing virtual classes in Nigeria's tertiary institutions. The study seeks to explore the behavioral characteristics of students in virtual classes. The population of the study consists of eight hundred (800) students selected using the non-probability sampling technique. The results of the study reveal that most students still prefer physical to virtual classes. Students faced a series of difficulties during virtual classes which might lead to student failure. It is significant to know that virtual classes cannot replace physical classes but are complementary. © 2022 IEEE.

8.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):174-175, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1881004

ABSTRACT

Background: Symptoms reduction is a crucial outcome to be considered when testing novel treatments for COVID-19. The goal was to assess the impact of casirivimab+imdevimab (cas+imd) dose/exposure on the trajectory and resolution time of symptoms in outpatients with COVID-19. Methods: Analysis used data from the COV-2067 trial (NCT04425629). Cas+imd was administered intravenously (total dose 1.2 to 8 g). Symptoms data were collected using SE-C19, a patient-reported survey developed de novo to assess the symptomatic course of COVID-19. Based on patients' responses on SE-C19, a Rasch analysis was used to derive a latent score to infer their overall underlying symptom severity. A direct response model was fitted to the latent score-time data to quantify the effects of dose/exposure, demographic and clinical characteristics on latent symptom trajectory. Symptoms resolution time was defined as time from randomization to the 1st day during which the patient scored "no symptom". Several parametric models were tested as structural model, assuming a known distribution, eg, exponential or Weibull, for time to symptoms resolution data. Risk variables (eg, binary treatment or categorical dose levels, exposure metrics, baseline demographic, clinical, and biological characteristics) were tested as covariates using a proportional hazard model. Results: Results from the direct response model suggest that each dose, as compared to placebo, remarkably reduced IT50 (time taken to achieve half of the maximal response of reducing symptom) by ∼40%. By excluding data from placebo arm, none of the tested doses or predicted exposures, were significant covariates on any of the model parameters. Results from the parametric regression analysis further confirmed that cas+imd (HR=1.25) is a major factor shortening the symptoms resolution time in a dose-and exposure-independent manner. Males (HR=1.13) have a shorter symptoms resolution time. Older age (HR=0.991), higher BMI (HR=0.988), and more severe baseline symptoms (HR=0.783 for moderate and 0.589 for severe) significantly contribute to longer symptoms resolution time. Conclusion: Treatment with cas+imd (1.2 g or above), rapidly resolved symptoms in outpatients in a dose-and exposure-independent manner as indicated by a direct response model using derived latent score and further confirmed by a survival analysis using time to symptoms resolution. In addition, symptom severity, age, BMI, sex were major risk factors affecting the symptoms resolution time.

9.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):176, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880117

ABSTRACT

Background: Casirivimab+imdevimab (hereinafter referred to as drug) remains vital in reducing hospitalization/death by 70% when administered early in the course of the infection. Our aim was to illustrate the mechanism of drug action in vivo and determine the magnitude of antiviral efficacy of various dose regimens given to outpatients with COVID-19, evaluating the presence of SARS-CoV-2 sero-antibody and ≥1 high-risk factor for developing severe COVID-19 illness as predictors of viral kinetics. Methods: Analysis data came from 2 clinical studies in SARS-CoV-2 infected outpatients with no or ≥1 risk factor for severe COVID-19 (NCT04425629 and NCT04666441), who received single dose of placebo or drug IV (300mg to 8g) or SC (600mg to 1.2g), had assessed viral load in nasopharyngeal swab and drug concentrations in serum (N=4500). The median number of viral load assessments per patient was 5 (range 1-8) within up to 14 days of follow-up time. Drug concentrations were predicted using the individual pharmacokinetic parameters yielded by a population model. The median patient age was 42 years, with similar proportion of males and females. The median viral load at baseline was 6.79 log10 copies/mL, and the median time of symptom onset was 3 days before study baseline. A standard target cell-limited model was used to estimate the time of infection and reconstruct viral kinetic profiles. Various relationships between exposure and resulting antiviral response were evaluated, where the drug could block de novo infection, increase the elimination rate of infected cells, or reduce viral production from infected cells. Results: The results support that the main mechanism of drug action is blocking de novo infection with an estimated decrease in the infectivity rate of 96.6%, for all dose regimens evaluated herein. High-risk factor for severe COVID-19 and baseline sero-antibody-positive/other status were associated with a 4.71% decrease and a 4.96% increase in the elimination rate of infected cells, respectively. The estimated median and 95th percentile of time to viral clearance (ie, viral count reaches below assay quantification limit) were 1.4 and 3.4 days shorter in drug vs placebo (median 10.6 vs 12.0 days, and 95th percentile 15.2 vs 18.6 days). Conclusion: All IV and SC casirivimab+imdevimab dose regimens evaluated herein showed similar near-maximal antiviral activity by blocking de novo infection;hence, shortening the time to virus clearance.

10.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333621

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread rapidly around the globe with considerable morbidity and mortality. Coexistence of comorbidities with COVID-19 have consistently been reported as risk factors for unfavorable prognosis. We aim at this study to evaluate the impact of comorbidities in COVID-19 patients on the outcome and determine predictors of prolonged hospital stay, requisite for ICU admission or decease. METHODS: Four hundreds and thirty nine adult patients who are admitted through (June and July 2020) in Assiut and Aswan University Hospitals were included in the study. All participants were diagnosed with COVID-19 according to Egyptian Ministry of Health guidance as definite case or Probable case. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was done by (TaqMana" 2019-nCoV Control Kit v1 (Cat. No. A47532) supplied by QIAGEN, Germany on the Applied Biosystem 7500 Fast RT PCR System, USA. RESULTS: Patients with comorbidities represented 61.7% of all cases. Constitutional symptoms especially myalgia and LRT symptoms such as dyspnea were significantly higher in patients with comorbidities (P < 0.05). Patients with comorbidities had significantly worse laboratory parameters. ICU admission was higher in patients with comorbidities (35.8%). Among different comorbidities 45.4% of CVD cases were admitted in ICU followed by DM cases (40.8%). Also, patients with comorbidities needed invasive mechanical ventilation more than those without comorbidity (31 vs. 10.7%, P<0.001). Significant lower frequency of recovery was found in COVID-19 patients with comorbidities (59% vs. 81%, P<0.001) and death rate was significantly higher in cases with comorbidities (P< 0.001). The survival rates in cases with pre-existing CVD and neurological diseases were lower than those without disease (P<0.002 and 0.001 respectively). CONCLUSION: Association of cardiovascular comorbid conditions including hypertension or neurological diseases together with COVID-19 infections carries higher risks of mortality. However, other comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, chronic pulmonary or kidney diseases may also contribute to increased COVID-19 severity.

11.
Medico-Legal Update ; 22(2):50-57, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1798563

ABSTRACT

Many patients are being released from hospitals without follow up and thorough assessment of their recovery.Iraq is one of the countries that were hit hard by this novel disease, but till now there is little literature on the sequelae of this illness after recovery. The aim of our study is to assess the prevalence of post covid 19 syndrome and the characteristics of post covid 19 symptoms. A cross sectional study using interview based questionnaires of 165 recovered covid 19 subjects (mean age 37±14)and 67% of them were female. The prevalence of post covid 19 in the study sample was (66.7%), out of them (52.7%) reported acute post covid 19 symptoms, (18.2%) reported long post covid symptoms, and (29.1%) reported persistent post covid 19 symptoms. The most frequently reported symptom was fatigue (29%) followed by hair loss (23%) and anosmia/ parosmia (21.2%). All of the patients who were in critical condition during the illness developed post covid 19 syndrome. So a prolonged follow up of the recovered patients seems necessary, regardless of their initial clinical presentation.

12.
21st International Conference on Electronic Business: Corporate Resilience through Electronic Business in the Post-COVID Era, ICEB 2021 ; 21:129-143, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1728413

ABSTRACT

Making the entire world extremely nervous, more than the quarter of a year has gone past since the global breakout of deadly respiratory illness, named Coronavirus Disease-2019 (CoViD-19), over nine million people across the globe have already been infected with more than five percent death rate, and the number is still ascending at a tremendously frightening rate. This study has been driven to identify the adequacy and quality of responses from national health facilities in Bangladesh during this epidemic and discern the stimulates that influence the entire system. With an in-depth exercise of a nonparametric statistical method for proficiency weighting, namely the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique, the objective of this study of evaluating the thorough response and performance of the Bangladeshi National Health Service has been placed in efforts to be achieved. With the outcome, the method and operation of assessing the effective responsiveness, capability, and appropriate organization of the national health services (NHS) in Bangladesh during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic have been revealed. It has also been specifically identified that this country’s health system does not possess material mastery on input variables;neither do they have strong dominance over output variables. With a view to minimizing the expenditure, they should have decreased input variables alongside enhancing input resources thoroughly to deal with this pandemic with stringent governance. Direction and limitation of future research endeavors in this area may be indicated by this study. National responses across the globe can also be benchmarked. © 2021 International Consortium for Electronic Business. All rights reserved.

15.
Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ; 18:67-69, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1695978

ABSTRACT

Introduction: WHO (World Health Organization) has declared the condition of the coronavirus disease (Covid-19) pandemic since February 2020. People do not know about coronavirus disease (Covid-19), and they feel anxious about the transmission of the disease. The research objective was to determine public knowledge about coronavirus disease (Covid-19) and coronavirus vaccines. Methods: This research method used a survey of the people in Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia. Data collection techniques using a questionnaire through the google form application. The number of respondents was 126 people. Results: The results showed 43.7% of the public were waiting for the presence of the coronavirus disease (Covid-19) vaccine, 30.2% expressed doubts about the production of the covid-19 vaccine, 21.4% did not know about the Covid-19 vaccine. About 45.2% of the people stated that the covid-19 vaccine was safe, 42.9% of the people said they were confused about the vaccine and 7.9% of the people said they were unsure. About 40% of the public knows about the prevention of the covid-19 virus by using a mask, 35% of the public expresses doubts about using a mask and 25% of the people do not believe in using masks. It seen that 39.7% of the people stated that they were ready for vaccines and 36.5% of people expressed doubts about vaccines and 15.9% of the people were not ready for vaccines. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that public knowledge about coronavirus prevention and coronavirus vaccines is good in Sukabumi area. © 2022 UPM Press. All rights reserved.

19.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 15(10):3199-3203, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1573202

ABSTRACT

Objective: This survey study was carried out to assess the satisfaction of e-learning among undergraduate dental students. Materials & Methods: The questionnaire-based study was conducted in April 2020. The main target of research was undergraduate dental students of University of Health Sciences (UHS) affiliated dental colleges of Punjab. 1095 students were surveyed through online forms and data was analysed by SPSS 23. Convenient sampling method was used. Results: The results showed that the students were well aware of the current situation and almost all institutions offered online classes. Almost half of the respondents showed acceptance to E-learning. Majority of students faced difficulties in continuing their education through e-learning although a significant portion of them were in favour of home assignments. Majority of students wanted the online system to end and to cover the syllabus later. Conclusion: The dental students were well aware of the current situation and almost all institutions offered online classes. Almost half of the respondents showed acceptance to E-learning.

20.
Journal of Computational Biophysics & Chemistry ; : 1-11, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1523069

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Turmeric rhizome (<italic>Cucurma longa</italic> L.) has showed great potential as a traditional drug in folk medicine of several countries. In light of the prominent use of turmeric rhizome in treating both respiratory and viral diseases, we aimed to dock major compounds from the essential oil of turmeric against three key proteins involved in COVID-19 cell entry and replication. Methods: The essential oil of turmeric rhizome was obtained using a hydrodistillation technique, and the chemical characterization of the oil was investigated using GC-MS/GC-FID. Then, main compounds were docked with the key proteins of COVID-19. Results: A total of 26 components were identified in the essential oil extracted from the rhizomes <italic>via</italic> GC-MS/GC-FID. Seven dominant compounds (turmerone (31.4%), ar-turmerone (16.1%), turmerol (14.6%), terpinolene (11.0%), α-zingiberene (5.2%), β-sesquiphellandrene (4.8%), and β-caryophyllene (3.5%)) were docked against COVID-19 main protease, papain-like protease (PLpro), spike protein and 3C-like protease (3CLpro), and the best inhibitor was picked according to the calculated binding affinity and non-bonding interactions with the protein active site. β-sesquiphellandrene and α-zingiberene showed highest besides the same binding affinity towards COVID-19 virus (−6.38 and −6.39kcal/mol, respectively). α-zingiberene was found to bind at the active site of the COVID-19 protein and interacted with different non-bonding interactions, while turmerol showed the highest affinity (−5.78kcal/mol) against CLpro enzyme by binding with Met165, Leu141, Met49, Ser144, Cys145, and Glu166 residues. Conclusion: The essential oil of turmeric harbors a blend of potentially bioactive compounds that may be considered as a good target against COVID-19 virus and warrants further experimental studies. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Computational Biophysics & Chemistry is the property of World Scientific Publishing Company and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

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