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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313042

ABSTRACT

The exact origin of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and source of introduction into humans has not been established yet, though it might be originated from animals. Therefore, we conducted a literature review to understand the putative reservoirs, transmission dynamics, and susceptibility patterns of SARS-CoV-2 in animals. Rhinolophu s bats are presumed to be natural progenitors of SARS-CoV-2 related viruses. Initially pangolin was thought to be the source of spillover to human, but they might get infected from human or other animal species. So, the virus spillover pathways to humans remain unknown. Human-to-animal transmission has been testified in pet, farmed, zoo and free-ranging wild animals. Infected animals can transmit the virus to other animals in natural settings like, mink-to-mink, and mink-to-cat transmission. Animal-to-human transmission is not a persistent pathway, while mink-to-human transmission continues to be illuminated. Multiple companion and captive wild animals were infected by emerging alpha variant of concern (B.1.1.7 lineage) whereas Asiatic lions were infected by delta variant, (B.1.617.2). To date, multiple animal species- cat, ferrets, non-human primates, hamsters, and bats, showed high susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 in experimental condition, while swine, poultry, cattle showed no susceptibility. The founding of SARS-CoV-2 in wild animal reservoirs can confronts the control of the virus in humans and might carry a risk to the welfare and conservation of wildlife as well. We suggest vaccinating pet, and captive animals to stop spillover and spillback events. We recommend sustainable one health surveillance at animal-human-environmental interface to detect and prevent future epidemics and pandemics by Disease X.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312103

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has severely affected the social and economic conditions across this globe. Little is known about the relationship of COVID-19 with countries’economic and socio-demographic status. Publicly available data on COVID-19 test rate, attack rate, case fatality rate, and recovery rate were analyzed in relation to country’s economic status, population density, median age, and urban population ratio. We also conducted multinomial logistic regression analysis to predict the influence of countries’social and economic factors on COVID-19. The results revealed that the median age had significant positive correlation with attack rate (r=0.2389, p=0.003), case fatality rate (r=0.3207, p=0.000) and recovery rate (r=0.4847, p=0.000). The urbanization has positive significant correlation with recovery rate (r=0.1957, p= 0.016). The multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed low-income countries are less likely to have an increased recovery rate (p=0.000) and attack rate (p=0.016) compare to high-income countries. The lower-middle-income and upper-middle-income countries are less likely to have an increased recovery rate (p=0.000 and p=0.001, respectively) compared to high-income countries. Based on the result of this study, these economic and socio-demographic factors should consider in designing appropriate preventive measures as a next step. The low and lower-middle-income countries should invest more in health care services to lower the case fatality rate and increase test and recovery rates as part of pandemic preparation like COVID-19. As the number of COVID-19 attacks, death and recovery rates are constantly changing;however, the intensive study is required to obtain a clear picture.

3.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 16: 217-233, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674138

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic is thought to have led to increased "inappropriate" or "unjustified" seeking and consumption of antibiotics by individuals in the community. However, little reference has been made to antibiotic seeking and using behaviors from the perspectives of users in Bangladesh during this health crisis. Purpose: This study seeks to document how antibiotic medicines are sought and used during a complex health crisis, and, within different contexts, what are the nuanced reasons why patients may utilize these medicines sub-optimally. Methods: We used an exploratory, qualitative design. Forty semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with people diagnosed with COVID-19 (n=20), who had symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 (n=20), and who had received care at home in two cities between May and June 2021 in Bangladesh. In this study, an inductive thematic analysis was performed. Results: The analysis highlighted the interlinked relationships of antibiotic seeking and consumption behaviors with the diversity of information disseminated during a health crisis. Antibiotic-seeking behaviors are related to previous experience of use, perceived severity of illness, perceived vulnerability, risk of infection, management of an "unknown" illness and anxiety, distrust of expert advice, and intrinsic agency on antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Suboptimal adherence, such as modifying treatment regimes and using medication prescribed for others, were found to be part of care strategies used when proven therapeutics were unavailable to treat COVID-19. Early cessation of therapy was found to be a rational practice to avoid side effects and unknown risks. Conclusion: Based on the results, we highly recommend the take up of a pandemic specific antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) program in the community. To deliver better outcomes of AMS, incorporating users' perspectives could be a critical strategy. Therefore, a co-produced AMS intervention that is appropriate for a specific cultural context is an essential requirement to reduce the overuse of antibiotics during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260635, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581779

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) showed susceptibility to diverse animal species. We conducted this study to understand the spatial epidemiology, genetic diversity, and statistically significant genetic similarity along with per-gene recombination events of SARS-CoV-2 and related viruses (SC2r-CoVs) in animals globally. We collected a number of different animal species infected with SARS-CoV-2 and its related viruses. Then, we retrieved genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 and SC2r-CoVs from GISAID and NCBI GenBank for genomic and mutational analysis. Although the evolutionary origin of SARS-CoV-2 remains elusive, the diverse SC2r-CoV have been detected in multiple Rhinolophus bat species and in Malayan pangolin. To date, human-to-animal spillover events have been reported in cat, dog, tiger, lion, gorilla, leopard, ferret, puma, cougar, otter, and mink in 25 countries. Phylogeny and genetic recombination events of SC2r-CoVs showed higher similarity to the bat coronavirus RaTG13 and BANAL-103 for most of the genes and to some Malayan pangolin coronavirus (CoV) strains for the N protein from bats and pangolin showed close resemblance to SARS-CoV-2. The clustering of animal and human strains from the same geographical area has proved human-to-animal transmission of the virus. The Alpha, Delta and Mu-variant of SARS-CoV-2 was detected in dog, gorilla, lion, tiger, otter, and cat in the USA, India, Czech Republic, Belgium, and France with momentous genetic similarity with human SARS-CoV-2 sequences. The mink variant mutation (spike_Y453F) was detected in both humans and domestic cats. Moreover, the dog was affected mostly by clade O (66.7%), whereas cat and American mink were affected by clade GR (31.6 and 49.7%, respectively). The α-variant was detected as 2.6% in cat, 4.8% in dog, 14.3% in tiger, 66.7% in gorilla, and 77.3% in lion. The highest mutations observed in mink where the substitution of D614G in spike (95.2%) and P323L in NSP12 (95.2%) protein. In dog, cat, gorilla, lion, and tiger, Y505H and Y453F were the common mutations followed by Y145del, Y144del, and V70I in S protein. We recommend vaccine provision for pet and zoo animals to reduce the chance of transmission in animals. Besides, continuous epidemiological and genomic surveillance of coronaviruses in animal host is crucial to find out the immediate ancestor of SARS-CoV-2 and to prevent future CoVs threats to humans.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Genetic Variation , Phylogeny
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261368, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571994

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health crisis that is now impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Little is known how COVID-19 risks influence people to consume antibiotics, particularly in contexts like Bangladesh where these pharmaceuticals can be purchased without a prescription. This paper identifies the social drivers of antibiotics use among home-based patients who have tested positive with SARS-CoV-2 or have COVID-19-like symptoms. Using qualitative telephone interviews, the research was conducted in two Bangladesh cities with 40 participants who reported that they had tested positive for coronavirus (n = 20) or had COVID-19-like symptoms (n = 20). Our analysis identified five themes in antibiotic use narratives: antibiotics as 'big' medicine; managing anxiety; dealing with social repercussions of COVID-19 infection; lack of access to COVID-19 testing and healthcare services; and informal sources of treatment advice. Antibiotics were seen to solve physical and social aspects of COVID-19 infection, with urgent ramifications for AMR in Bangladesh and more general implications for global efforts to mitigate AMR.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Adult , Bangladesh , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Social Factors
6.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3643-3657, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526427

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging and rapidly evolving profound pandemic, which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome and results in significant case fatality around the world including Bangladesh. We conducted this study to assess how COVID-19 cases clustered across districts in Bangladesh and whether the pattern and duration of clusters changed following the country's containment strategy using Geographic information system (GIS) software. We calculated the epidemiological measures including incidence, case fatality rate (CFR) and spatiotemporal pattern of COVID-19. We used inverse distance weighting (IDW), Geographically weighted regression (GWR), Moran's I and Getis-Ord Gi* statistics for prediction, spatial autocorrelation and hotspot identification. We used retrospective space-time scan statistic to analyse clusters of COVID-19 cases. COVID-19 has a CFR of 1.4%. Over 50% of cases were reported among young adults (21-40 years age). The incidence varies from 0.03 - 0.95 at the end of March to 15.59-308.62 per 100,000, at the end of July. Global Moran's Index indicates a robust spatial autocorrelation of COVID-19 cases. Local Moran's I analysis stated a distinct High-High (HH) clustering of COVID-19 cases among Dhaka, Gazipur and Narayanganj districts. Twelve statistically significant high rated clusters were identified by space-time scan statistics using a discrete Poisson model. IDW predicted the cases at the undetermined area, and GWR showed a strong relationship between population density and case frequency, which was further established with Moran's I (0.734; p ≤ 0.01). Dhaka and its surrounding six districts were identified as the significant hotspot whereas Chattogram was an extended infected area, indicating the gradual spread of the virus to peripheral districts. This study provides novel insights into the geostatistical analysis of COVID-19 clusters and hotspots that might assist the policy planner to predict the spatiotemporal transmission dynamics and formulate imperative control strategies of SARS-CoV-2 in Bangladesh. The geospatial modeling tools can be used to prevent and control future epidemics and pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spatial Analysis
7.
Infect Genet Evol ; 97: 105128, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500148

ABSTRACT

The scientific community has been releasing whole genomic sequences of SARS-CoV-2 to facilitate the investigation of molecular features and evolutionary history. We retrieved 36 genomes of 18 prevalent countries of Asia, Europe and America for genomic diversity and mutational analysis. Besides, we studied mutations in the RBD regions of Spike (S) proteins to analyze the drug efficiency against these mutations. In this research, phylogenenetic analysis, evolutionary modeling, substitution pattern analysis, molecular docking, dynamics simulation, etc. were performed. The genomic sequences showed >99% similarity with the reference sequence of China.TN93 + G was predicted as a best nucleotide substitution model. It was revealed that effective transition from the co-existing SARS genome to the SARS-CoV-2 and a noticeable positive selection in the SARS-CoV-2 genomes occurred. Moreover, three mutations in RBD domain, Val/ Phe367, Val/ Leu 382 and Ala/ Val522, were discovered in the genomes from Netherland, Bangladesh and the USA, respectively. Molecular docking and dynamics study showed RBD with mutation Val/Leu382 had the lowest binding affinity with remdesivir. In conclusion, the SARS-CoV-2 genomes are similar, but multiple degrees of transitions and transversions occurred. The mutations cause a significant conformational change, which are needed to be investigated during drug and vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/pharmacology , Amino Acid Substitution , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Evolution, Molecular , Gene Expression , Humans , Likelihood Functions , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Netherlands/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , United States/epidemiology
8.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480225

ABSTRACT

The exact origin of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and source of introduction into humans has not been established yet, though it might be originated from animals. Therefore, we conducted a study to understand the putative reservoirs, transmission dynamics, and susceptibility patterns of SARS-CoV-2 in animals. Rhinolophus bats are presumed to be natural progenitors of SARS-CoV-2-related viruses. Initially, pangolin was thought to be the source of spillover to humans, but they might be infected by human or other animal species. So, the virus spillover pathways to humans remain unknown. Human-to-animal transmission has been testified in pet, farmed, zoo and free-ranging wild animals. Infected animals can transmit the virus to other animals in natural settings like mink-to-mink and mink-to-cat transmission. Animal-to-human transmission is not a persistent pathway, while mink-to-human transmission continues to be illuminated. Multiple companions and captive wild animals were infected by an emerging alpha variant of concern (B.1.1.7 lineage) whereas Asiatic lions were infected by delta variant, (B.1.617.2). To date, multiple animal species - cat, ferrets, non-human primates, hamsters and bats - showed high susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 in the experimental condition, while swine, poultry, cattle showed no susceptibility. The founding of SARS-CoV-2 in wild animal reservoirs can confront the control of the virus in humans and might carry a risk to the welfare and conservation of wildlife as well. We suggest vaccinating pets and captive animals to stop spillovers and spillback events. We recommend sustainable One Health surveillance at the animal-human-environmental interface to detect and prevent future epidemics and pandemics by Disease X.

9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(44): 61951-61968, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437315

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused an exceptional drift of production, utilization, and disposal of personal protective equipment (PPE) and different microplastic objects for safety against the virus. Hence, we reviewed related literature on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA detected from household, biomedical waste, and sewage to identify possible health risks and status of existing laws, regulations, and policies regarding waste disposal in South Asian (SA) countries. The SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in sewage and wastewater samples of Nepal, India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Besides, this review reiterates the enormous amounts of PPE and other single-use plastic wastes generated from healthcare facilities and households in the SA region with inappropriate disposal, landfilling, and/or incineration techniques wind-up polluting the environment. Consequently, the Delta variant (B.1.617.2) of SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in sewer treatment plant in India. Moreover, the overuse of non-biodegradable plastics during the pandemic is deteriorating plastic pollution condition and causes a substantial health risk to the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We recommend making necessary adjustments, adopting measures and strategies, and enforcement of the existing biomedical waste management and sanitation-related policy in SA countries. We propose to adopt the knowledge gaps to improve COVID-19-associated waste management and legislation to prevent further environmental pollution. Besides, the citizens should follow proper disposal procedures of COVID-19 waste to control the environmental pollution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Waste Management , Ecosystem , Humans , Pakistan , Plastics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438741

ABSTRACT

Diverse coronavirus (CoV) strains can infect both humans and animals and produce various diseases. CoVs have caused three epidemics and pandemics in the last two decades, and caused a severe impact on public health and the global economy. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to understand the emergence and evolution of endemic and emerging CoV diversity in humans and animals. For diverse bird species, the Infectious Bronchitis Virus is a significant one, whereas feline enteric and canine coronavirus, recombined to produce feline infectious peritonitis virus, infects wild cats. Bovine and canine CoVs have ancestral relationships, while porcine CoVs, especially SADS-CoV, can cross species barriers. Bats are considered as the natural host of diverse strains of alpha and beta coronaviruses. Though MERS-CoV is significant for both camels and humans, humans are nonetheless affected more severely. MERS-CoV cases have been reported mainly in the Arabic peninsula since 2012. To date, seven CoV strains have infected humans, all descended from animals. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) are presumed to be originated in Rhinolopoid bats that severely infect humans with spillover to multiple domestic and wild animals. Emerging alpha and delta variants of SARS-CoV-2 were detected in pets and wild animals. Still, the intermediate hosts and all susceptible animal species remain unknown. SARS-CoV-2 might not be the last CoV to cross the species barrier. Hence, we recommend developing a universal CoV vaccine for humans so that any future outbreak can be prevented effectively. Furthermore, a One Health approach coronavirus surveillance should be implemented at human-animal interfaces to detect novel coronaviruses before emerging to humans and to prevent future epidemics and pandemics.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Epidemics/prevention & control , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , Coronaviridae/metabolism , Coronaviridae/pathogenicity , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Phylogeny , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Viral Zoonoses/transmission
11.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256496, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369567

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While vaccines ensure individual protection against COVID-19 infection, delay in receipt or refusal of vaccines will have both individual and community impacts. The behavioral factors of vaccine hesitancy or refusal are a crucial dimension that need to be understood in order to design appropriate interventions. The aim of this study was to explore the behavioral determinants of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and to provide recommendations to increase the acceptance and uptake of COVID-19 vaccines in Bangladesh. METHODS: We employed a Barrier Analysis (BA) approach to examine twelve potential behavioral determinants (drawn from the Health Belief Model [HBM] and Theory of Reasoned Action [TRA]) of intended vaccine acceptance. We conducted 45 interviews with those who intended to take the vaccine (Acceptors) and another 45 interviews with those who did not have that intention (Non-acceptors). We performed data analysis to find statistically significant differences and to identify which beliefs were most highly associated with acceptance and non-acceptance with COVID-19 vaccines. RESULTS: The behavioral determinants associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in Dhaka included perceived social norms, perceived safety of COVID-19 vaccines and trust in them, perceived risk/susceptibility, perceived self-efficacy, perceived positive and negative consequences, perceived action efficacy, perceived severity of COVID-19, access, and perceived divine will. In line with the HBM, beliefs about the disease itself were highly predictive of vaccine acceptance, and some of the strongest statistically-significant (p<0.001) predictors of vaccine acceptance in this population are beliefs around both injunctive and descriptive social norms. Specifically, Acceptors were 3.2 times more likely to say they would be very likely to get a COVID-19 vaccine if a doctor or nurse recommended it, twice as likely to say that most people they know will get a vaccine, and 1.3 times more likely to say that most close family and friends will get a vaccine. The perceived safety of vaccines was found to be important since Non-acceptors were 1.8 times more likely to say that COVID-19 vaccines are "not safe at all". Beliefs about one's risk of getting COVID-19 disease and the severity of it were predictive of being a vaccine acceptor: Acceptors were 1.4 times more likely to say that it was very likely that someone in their household would get COVID-19, 1.3 times more likely to say that they were very concerned about getting COVID-19, and 1.3 times more likely to say that it would be very serious if someone in their household contracted COVID-19. Other responses of Acceptors on what makes immunization easier may be helpful in programming to boost acceptance, such as providing vaccination through government health facilities, schools, and kiosks, and having vaccinators maintain proper COVID-19 health and safety protocols. CONCLUSION: An effective behavior change strategy for COVID-19 vaccines uptake will need to address multiple beliefs and behavioral determinants, reducing barriers and leveraging enablers identified in this study. National plans for promoting COVID-19 vaccination should address the barriers, enablers, and behavioral determinants found in this study in order to maximize the impact on COVID-19 vaccination acceptance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/psychology , Adult , Attitude , Bangladesh , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Culture , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Refusal/psychology
12.
Microorganisms ; 9(8)2021 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348673

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has swamped the global environment greatly in the current pandemic. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) effectively forecasts the surge of COVID-19 cases in humans in a particular region. To understand the genomic characteristics/footprints and diversity of SARS-CoV-2 in the environment, we analyzed 807 SARS-CoV-2 sequences from 20 countries deposited in GISAID till 22 May 2021. The highest number of sequences (n = 638) were reported in Austria, followed by the Netherlands, China, and Bangladesh. Wastewater samples were highest (40.0%) to successfully yield the virus genome followed by a 24 h composite wastewater sample (32.6%) and sewage (18.5%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that SARS-CoV-2 environmental strains are a close congener with the strains mostly circulating in the human population from the same region. Clade GRY (32.7%), G (29.2%), GR (25.3%), O (7.2%), GH (3.4%), GV (1.4%), S (0.5%), and L (0.4%) were found in environmental samples. Various lineages were identified in environmental samples; nevertheless, the highest percentages (49.4%) of the alpha variant (B.1.1.7) were detected in Austria, Liechtenstein, Slovenia, Czech Republic, Switzerland, Germany, and Italy. Other prevalent lineages were B.1 (18.2%), B.1.1 (9.2%), and B.1.160 (3.9%). Furthermore, a significant number of amino acid substitutions were found in environmental strains where the D614G was found in 83.8% of the sequences. However, the key mutations-N501Y (44.6%), S982A (44.4%), A570D (43.3%), T716I (40.4%), and P681H (40.1%) were also recorded in spike protein. The identification of the environmental belvedere of SARS-CoV-2 and its genetic signature is crucial to detect outbreaks, forecast pandemic harshness, and prepare with the appropriate tools to control any impending pandemic. We recommend genomic environmental surveillance to trace the emerging variants and diversity of SARS-CoV-2 viruses circulating in the community. Additionally, proper disposal and treatment of wastewater, sewage, and medical wastes are important to prevent environmental contamination.

13.
Energies ; 14(14):4195, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1323177

ABSTRACT

Air pollution caused by vehicle emissions has raised serious public health concerns. Vehicle emissions generally depend on many factors, such as the nature of the vehicle, driving style, traffic conditions, emission control technologies, and operational conditions. Concerns about the certification cycles used by various regulatory authorities are growing due to the difference in emission during certification procedure and Real Driving Emissions (RDE). Under laboratory conditions, certification tests are performed in a ‘chassis dynamometer’ for light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and an ‘engine dynamometer’ for heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs). As a result, the test drive cycles used to measure the automotive emissions do not correctly reflect the vehicle’s real-world driving pattern. Consequently, the RDE regulation is being phased in to reduce the disparity between type approval and vehicle’s real-world emissions. According to this review, different variables such as traffic signals, driving dynamics, congestions, altitude, ambient temperature, and so on have a major influence on actual driving pollution. Aside from that, cold-start and hot-start have been shown to have an effect on on-road pollution. Contrary to common opinion, new technology such as start-stop systems boost automotive emissions rather than decreasing them owing to unfavourable conditions from the point of view of exhaust emissions and exhaust after-treatment systems. In addition, the driving dynamics are not represented in the current laboratory-based test procedures. As a result, it is critical to establish an on-road testing protocol to obtain a true representation of vehicular emissions and reduce emissions to a standard level. The incorporation of RDE clauses into certification procedures would have a positive impact on global air quality.

14.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222020

ABSTRACT

Bats are known reservoirs of Nipah virus (NiV) and some filoviruses and also appear likely to harbor the evolutionary progenitors of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). While bats are considered a reservoir of deadly viruses, little is known about people's knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of bat conservation and ecology. The current study aimed to assess community people's knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of bat ecology, myths, and the role of bats in transmitting NiV in Bangladesh. Since 2001, NiV has been a continuous threat to public health with a mortality rate of approximately 70% in Bangladesh. Over the years, many public health interventions have been implemented to raise awareness about bats and the spreading of NiV among the community peoples of Nipah outbreak areas (NOAs) and Nipah non-outbreak areas (NNOAs). We hypothesized that people from both areas might have similar knowledge of bat ecology and myths about bats but different knowledge regarding their role in the spreading of NiV. Using a four-point Likert scale-based questionnaire, our analysis showed that most people lack adequate knowledge regarding the role of bats in maintaining the ecological balance and instead trust their beliefs in different myths about bats. Factor score analysis showed that respondents' gender (p = 0.01), the outbreak status of the area (p = 0.03), and their occupation (p = 0.04) were significant factors influencing their knowledge of bat ecology and myths. A regression analysis showed that farmers had 0.34 times the odds of having correct or positive knowledge of bat ecology and myths than businesspersons (odds ratio (OR) = 0.34, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.15-0.78, p = 0.01). Regarding the spreading of NiV via bats, people had a lower level of knowledge. In NOAs, age (p = 0.00), occupation (p = 0.00), and level of education (p = 0.00) were found to be factors contributing to the amount of knowledge regarding the transmission of NiV, whereas in NNOAs, the contributing factors were occupation (p = 0.00) and level of education (p = 0.01). Regression analysis revealed that respondents who were engaged in services (OR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.07-8.54, p = 0.04) and who had completed primary education (OR = 3.06, 95% CI = 1.02-9.17, p < 0.05) were likely to have correct knowledge regarding the spreading of NiV. Based on the study results, we recommend educational interventions for targeted groups in the community, highlighting the ecosystem services and conservation of bats so as to improve people's current knowledge and subsequent behavior regarding the role of bats in ecology and the spreading of NiV in Bangladesh.

15.
Infect Genet Evol ; 92: 104884, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208478

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological and molecular characterization of SARS-CoV-2 is essential for identifying the source of the virus and for effective control of the spread of local strains. We estimated case fatality rate, cumulative recovery number, basic reproduction number (R0) and future incidence of COVID-19 in Bangladesh. We illustrated the spatial distribution of cases throughout the country. We performed phylogenetic and mutation analysis of SARS-CoV-2 sequences from Bangladesh. As of July 31, 2020, Bangladesh had a case fatality rate of 1.32%. The cases were initially clustered in Dhaka and its surrounding districts in March but spreads throughout the country over time. The R0 calculated as 1.173 in Exponential Growth method. For the projection, a 20% change in R0 with subsequent infection trend has been calculated. The genomic analysis of 292 Bangladeshi SARS-CoV-2 strains suggests diverse genomic clades L, O, S, G, GH, where predominant circulating clade was GR (83.9%; 245/292). The GR clades' phylogenetic analysis revealed distinct clusters (I to XIII) with intra-clade variations. The mutation analysis revealed 1634 mutations where 94.6% and 5.4% were non-synonymous and unique mutation, respectively. The Spike, Nucleocapsid, NSP2, and RdRP showed substantially high mutation but no mutation was recorded in NSP9 and NSP11 protein. In spike (S) protein, 355 predominant mutations were recorded, highest in D614G. Alternatively, I120F in NSP2 protein, R203K and G204R in nucleocapsid protein, and P323L in RdRp were more recurrent. The Bangladeshi genomes belonged to phylogenetic lineages A, B, B.1, B.1.1, B.1.1.23, B.1.1.25, B.1.113, and B.1.36, among which 50.0% sequences owned by the pangolin lineage B.1.1.25. The study illustrates the spatial distribution of SARS-CoV-2, and molecular epidemiology of Bangladeshi isolates. We recommend continuous monitoring of R0 and genomic surveillance to understand the transmission dynamics and detect new variants of SARS-CoV-2 for proper control of the current pandemic and evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Genetic Variation , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Computer Simulation , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , Young Adult
16.
Trends Food Sci Technol ; 111: 141-150, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131846

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The agricultural food products industry in Bangladesh depends on utilizing antimicrobials indiscriminately as growth promoters and for controlling infectious diseases. Thus, there is always a risk of antimicrobial agent accumulation in food sources that originate from agricultural production. METHODS: In the present study, we collected data from published articles between January, 2013 and December, 2019 on antimicrobial residues in human food sources such as meat, milk, eggs, and fishes. RESULTS: Liver contained the highest percentage of antimicrobial residues (74%; 95% CI: 59.66-85.37) against the in vitro enteric pathogen Escherichia coli in layer chickens. Similar results were demonstrated in liver (68%; 95% CI: 53.30-80.48) and kidney (66%, 95% CI: 51.23-78.79) of layer chickens against Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis. Amongst all antibiotics, the highest concentrations of ciprofloxacin were detected in kidney (48.57%; 95% CI: 31.38-66.01), followed by liver (47.56; 95% CI: 40.88-54.30) of broiler chickens. Ciprofloxacin was also present in liver (46.15%; 95% CI: 33.70-58.96) of layer chickens. The percentage of ciprofloxacin in thigh and breast meat in broiler bird were 41.54% (95% CI: 34.54-48.79) and 37.95% (95% CI: 31.11-45.15) respectively. Enrofloxacin was the second most dominant antimicrobial agent and was present in the liver of both types of poultry (Broiler and Layer chickens: 41.54%; 95% CI: 29.44-54.4 and 437.33%; 95% CI: 30.99-44.01). The prevalence rates of enrofloxacin in thigh and breast meat of broiler chickens were 24.10% (95% CI: 18.28-30.73) and 20.51% (95% CI: 15.08-26.87), respectively. Tetracycline, a commonly used antibiotic in livestock, was present in the liver (49.23%; 95% CI: 36.60-61.93) of layer chickens. In case of aquaculture food products, the highest amount of amoxicillin (683.2 mg/kg) was detected in Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus), followed by 584.4 mg/kg in climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) and 555.6 mg/kg in Rui fish (Labeo rohita). Among the five types of fishes, Rui fish (0.000515 mg/kg) contained the highest concentrations of chloramphenicol antibiotic residues. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of antimicrobial residues in meat, milk, egg, and fish is a serious public health threat due to the potential induction of antimicrobial resistance. It can negatively impact the food supply chain, especially with the current strain that it is already facing with the current COVID-19 pandemic. The findings of the present study highlight the ongoing risk of residual antimicrobial agents in food of animal origin in Bangladesh and countries with similar practices. This can draw the attention of public health officials to propose plans to mitigate or stop this practice.

17.
Animals ; 10(10):1814, 2020.
Article | MDPI | ID: covidwho-813215

ABSTRACT

Bats are known reservoirs of Nipah virus (NiV) and some filoviruses and also appear likely to harbor the evolutionary progenitors of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). While bats are considered a reservoir of deadly viruses, little is known about people’s knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of bat conservation and ecology. The current study aimed to assess community people’s knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of bat ecology, myths, and the role of bats in transmitting NiV in Bangladesh. Since 2001, NiV has been a continuous threat to public health with a mortality rate of approximately 70% in Bangladesh. Over the years, many public health interventions have been implemented to raise awareness about bats and the spreading of NiV among the community peoples of Nipah outbreak areas (NOAs) and Nipah non-outbreak areas (NNOAs). We hypothesized that people from both areas might have similar knowledge of bat ecology and myths about bats but different knowledge regarding their role in the spreading of NiV. Using a four-point Likert scale-based questionnaire, our analysis showed that most people lack adequate knowledge regarding the role of bats in maintaining the ecological balance and instead trust their beliefs in different myths about bats. Factor score analysis showed that respondents’gender (p = 0.01), the outbreak status of the area (p = 0.03), and their occupation (p = 0.04) were significant factors influencing their knowledge of bat ecology and myths. A regression analysis showed that farmers had 0.34 times the odds of having correct or positive knowledge of bat ecology and myths than businesspersons (odds ratio (OR) = 0.34, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.15–0.78, p = 0.01). Regarding the spreading of NiV via bats, people had a lower level of knowledge. In NOAs, age (p = 0.00), occupation (p = 0.00), and level of education (p = 0.00) were found to be factors contributing to the amount of knowledge regarding the transmission of NiV, whereas in NNOAs, the contributing factors were occupation (p = 0.00) and level of education (p = 0.01). Regression analysis revealed that respondents who were engaged in services (OR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.07–8.54, p = 0.04) and who had completed primary education (OR = 3.06, 95% CI = 1.02–9.17, p <0.05) were likely to have correct knowledge regarding the spreading of NiV. Based on the study results, we recommend educational interventions for targeted groups in the community, highlighting the ecosystem services and conservation of bats so as to improve people’s current knowledge and subsequent behavior regarding the role of bats in ecology and the spreading of NiV in Bangladesh.

18.
Biosaf Health ; 3(1): 39-49, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-785248

ABSTRACT

South Asian (SA) countries have been fighting with the pandemic novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since January 2020. Earlier, the country-specific descriptive study has been done. Nevertheless, as transboundary infection, the border sharing, shared cultural and behavioral practice, effects on the temporal and spatial distribution of COVID-19 in SA is still unveiled. Therefore, this study has been revealed the spatial hotspot along with descriptive output on different parameters of COVID-19 infection. We extracted data from the WHO and the worldometer database from the onset of the outbreak up to 15 May, 2020. Europe has the highest case fatality rate (CFR, 9.22%), whereas Oceania has the highest (91.15%) recovery rate from COVID-19. Among SA countries, India has the highest number of cases (85,790), followed by Pakistan (38,799) and Bangladesh (20,065). However, the number of tests conducted was minimum in this region in comparison with other areas. The highest CFR was recorded in India (3.21%) among SA countries, whereas Nepal and Bhutan had no death record due to COVID-19 so far. The recovery rate varies from 4.75% in the Maldives to 51.02% in Sri Lanka. In Bangladesh, community transmission has been recorded, and the highest number of cases were detected in Dhaka, followed by Narayanganj and Chattogram. We detected Dhaka and its surrounding six districts, namely Gazipur, Narsingdi, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Manikganj, and Shariatpur, as the 99% confidence-based hotspot where Faridpur and Madaripur district as the 95% confidence-based spatial hotspots of COVID-19 in Bangladesh. However, we did not find any cold spots in Bangladesh. We identified three hotspots and three cold spots at different confidence levels in India. Findings from this study suggested the "Test, Trace, and Isolation" approach for earlier detection of infection to prevent further community transmission of COVID-19.

19.
Journal of Risk and Financial Management ; 13(9), 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-742819

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has manifested more than a health crisis and has severely impacted on social, economic, and development crises in the world. The relationship of COVID-19 with countries"economic and other demographic statuses is an important criterion with which to assess the impact of this current outbreak. Based on available data from the online platform, we tested the hypotheses of a country"s economic status, population density, the median age of the population, and urbanization pattern influence on the test, attack, case fatality, and recovery rates of COVID-19. We performed correlation and multivariate multinomial regression analysis with relative risk ratio (RRR) to test the hypotheses. The correlation analysis showed that population density and test rate had a significantly negative association (r = −0.2384, p = 0.00). In contrast, the median age had a significant positive correlation with recovery rate (r = 0.4654, p = 0.00) and case fatality rate (r = 0.2847, p = 0.00). The urban population rate had a positive significant correlation with recovery rate (r = 0.1610, p = 0.04). Lower-middle-income countries had a negative significant correlation with case fatality rate (r= −0.3310, p = 0.04). The multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that low-income countries are more likely to have an increased risk of case fatality rate (RRR = 0.986, 95% Confidence Interval;CI = 0.97−1.00, p <0.05) and recovery rate (RRR = 0.967, 95% CI = 0.95-0.98, p = 0.00). The lower-income countries are more likely to have a higher risk in case of attack rate (RRR = 0.981, 95% CI = 0.97-0.99, p = 0.00) and recovery rate (RRR = 0.971, 95% CI = 0.96-0.98, p = 0.00). Similarly, upper middle-income countries are more likely to have higher risk in case of attack rate (RRR = 0.988, 95% CI = 0.98-1.0, p = 0.01) and recovery rate (RRR = 0.978, 95% CI = 0.97-0.99, p = 0.00). The low- and lower-middle-income countries should invest more in health care services and implement adequate COVID-19 preventive measures to reduce the risk burden. We recommend a participatory, whole-of-government and whole-of-society approach for responding to the socio-economic challenges of COVID-19 and ensuring more resilient and robust health systems to safeguard against preventable deaths and poverty by improving public health outcomes.

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