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EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310601


Since the outbreak of COVID-19 several studies conducted to identify predictive factors which are associated with prognosis of COVID-19. In this study we aimed to determine whether the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) could help the clinicians to predict intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality of COVID-19 patients. This retrospective cohort study involved examining the medical records of 311 Iranian COVID-19 patients from 22 July 2020 to 22 August 2020. All characteristic data and laboratory results were recorded. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify the predictive value of studied parameters for ICU admission and death. Comparison of data revealed that some factors were jointly higher in non-survivors and ICU admitted patients than survivors and non-ICU admitted patients, such as: age, hemoglobin (HB), NLR, derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (dNLR), PLR, systemic inflammatory index (SII), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Respiratory diseases, ischemic heart disease (IHD). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only hypertension (OR 3.18, P=0.02) is an independent risk factor of death in COVID-19 patients, and also PLR (OR 1.02, P=0.05), hypertension (OR 4.00, P=0.002) and IHD (OR 5.15, P=0.008) were independent risk factor of ICU admission in COVID-19 patients. This study revealed that the NLR, PLR, platelet-to-white blood Cell ratio (PWR), dNLR and SII are valuable factors for predicting ICU admission and mortality of COVID-19 patients.

Infect Genet Evol ; 85: 104422, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597100


Extracellular vesicles releasing from various types of cells contribute to intercellular communication via delivering bio-molecules like nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids to recipient cells. Exosomes are 30-120 nm extracellular vesicles that participate in several pathological conditions. Virus-infected cells release exosomes that are implicated in infection through transferring viral components such as viral-derived miRNAs and proteins. As well, exosomes contain receptors for viruses that make recipient cells susceptible to virus entry. Since December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection has become a worldwide urgent public health concern. There is currently no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment existing for COVID-19 virus infection. Hence, it is critical to find a safe and effective therapeutic tool to patients with severe COVID-19 virus infection. Extracellular vesicles may contribute to spread this virus as they transfer such receptors as CD9 and ACE2, which make recipient cells susceptible to virus docking. Upon entry, COVID-19 virus may be directed into the exosomal pathway, and its component is packaged into exosomes for secretion. Exosome-based strategies for the treatment of COVID-19 virus infection may include following items: inhibition of exosome biogenesis and uptake, exosome-therapy, exosome-based drug delivery system, and exosome-based vaccine. Mesenchymal stem cells can suppress nonproductive inflammation and improve/repair lung cells including endothelial and alveolar cells, which damaged by COVID-19 virus infection. Understanding molecular mechanisms behind extracellular vesicles related COVID-19 virus infection may provide us with an avenue to identify its entry, replication, spreading, and infection to overcome its adverse effects.

COVID-19/virology , Extracellular Vesicles/genetics , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Extracellular Vesicles/drug effects , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Shedding/drug effects