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1.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-337493

ABSTRACT

Background. Monitoring the emergence and spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants is an important public health objective. Travel restrictions, aimed to prevent viral spread, have major economic consequences and unclear effectiveness despite considerable research. We investigated the introduction and establishment of the Gamma variant in New York City (NYC) in 2021. Methods. We performed phylogeographic analysis on 15,967 Gamma sequences available on GISAID and sampled between March 10th through May 1st, 2021, to identify geographic sources of Gamma lineages introduced into NYC. We identified locally circulating Gamma transmission clusters and inferred the timing of their establishment in NYC. Findings. We identified 16 phylogenetically-distinct Gamma clusters established in NYC (cluster sizes ranged 2-108 genomes). Most of the NYC clusters were introduced from Florida and Illinois;only one was introduced from outside the United States (US). By the time the first Gamma case was reported by genomic surveillance in NYC on March 10th, the majority (57%) of circulating Gamma lineages had already been established in the city for at least two weeks. Interpretation. Despite the expansion of SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance in NYC, there was a substantial gap between Gamma variant introduction and establishment in January/February 2021, and its identification by genomic surveillance in March 2021. Although travel from Brazil to the US was restricted from May 2020 through the end of the study period, this restriction did not prevent Gamma from becoming established in NYC as most introductions occurred from domestic locations.

2.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-296567

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed the importance of virus genome sequencing to guide public health interventions to control virus transmission and understand SARS-CoV-2 evolution. As of July 20th, 2021, >2 million SARS-CoV-2 genomes have been submitted to GISAID, 94% from high income and 6% from low and middle income countries. Here, we analyse the spatial and temporal heterogeneity in SARS-CoV-2 global genomic surveillance efforts. We report a comprehensive analysis of virus lineage diversity and genomic surveillance strategies adopted globally, and investigate their impact on the detection of known SARS-CoV-2 virus lineages and variants of concern. Our study provides a perspective on the global disparities surrounding SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance, their causes and consequences, and possible solutions to maximize the impact of pathogen genome sequencing for efforts on public health.

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