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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5663, 2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062205

ABSTRACT

With increasing numbers infected by SARS-CoV-2, understanding long-COVID is essential to inform health and social care support. A Scottish population cohort of 33,281 laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections and 62,957 never-infected individuals were followed-up via 6, 12 and 18-month questionnaires and linkage to hospitalization and death records. Of the 31,486 symptomatic infections,1,856 (6%) had not recovered and 13,350 (42%) only partially. No recovery was associated with hospitalized infection, age, female sex, deprivation, respiratory disease, depression and multimorbidity. Previous symptomatic infection was associated with poorer quality of life, impairment across all daily activities and 24 persistent symptoms including breathlessness (OR 3.43, 95% CI 3.29-3.58), palpitations (OR 2.51, OR 2.36-2.66), chest pain (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.96-2.23), and confusion (OR 2.92, 95% CI 2.78-3.07). Asymptomatic infection was not associated with adverse outcomes. Vaccination was associated with reduced risk of seven symptoms. Here we describe the nature of long-COVID and the factors associated with it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDWith increasing numbers of people infected with SARS-CoV-2, a better understanding of long-COVID is required to inform health and social care support.METHODSA nationwide, ambidirectional, population cohort was constructed of adults in Scotland with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test from April 2020 to May 2021 and a matched, never infected comparison group. Recovery status, symptoms, quality of life, impaired daily activities, hospitalization and death were ascertained via repeated self-completed questionnaires, at 6, 12 and 18-months follow-up, and linkage to hospitalization and death records.RESULTSThe cohort comprised 31,486 symptomatic and 1,795 asymptomatic infected individuals, and 62,957 never infected individuals. Of the former, 1,856 (6%) had not recovered and 13,350 (42%) only partially. Lack of recovery was associated with severe (hospitalized) infection, older age, female sex, deprivation, respiratory disease, depression and multimorbidity. Twenty-four persistent symptoms were independently associated with previous infection including breathlessness (OR 3.44, 95% CI 3.29–3.59), palpitations (OR 2.51, OR 2.37–2.67), chest pain (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.97–2.24), and confusion (OR 2.93, 95% CI 2.78–3.08). Pre-infection vaccination was associated with reduced risk of seven symptoms. Previous symptomatic infection was also associated with poorer quality of life (EQ-5D median 75 vs 80, p < 0.001) and impairment across all daily activities. Asymptomatic infection was not associated with adverse outcomes.CONCLUSIONSThe sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection are wide-ranging and not explained by confounding. The risk of long-COVID is greater following severe infections requiring hospitalization and absent following asymptomatic infection, whilst pre-infection vaccination may be protective.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337681

ABSTRACT

Background Stigma can be experienced as perceived or actual disqualification from social and institutional acceptance on the basis of one or more physical, behavioural or other attributes deemed to be undesirable. Long Covid is a predominantly multisystem condition that occurs in people with a history of SARSCoV2 infection, often resulting in functional disability. Aim To develop and validate a Long Covid Stigma Scale (LCSS);and to quantify the burden of Long Covid stigma. Design and Setting Follow-up of a co-produced community-based Long Covid online survey using convenience non-probability sampling. Method Thirteen questions on stigma were designed to develop the LCSS capturing three domains – enacted (overt experiences of discrimination), internalised (internalising negative associations with Long Covid and accepting them as self-applicable) and anticipated (expectation of bias/poor treatment by others) stigma. Confirmatory factor analysis tested whether LCSS consisted of the three hypothesised domains. Model fit was assessed and prevalence was calculated. Results 966 UK-based participants responded (888 for stigma questions), with mean age 48 years (SD: 10.7) and 85% female. Factor loadings for enacted stigma were 0.70-0.86, internalised 0.75-0.84, anticipated 0.58-0.87, and model fit was good. The prevalence of experiencing stigma at least ‘sometimes’ and ‘often/always’ was 95% and 76% respectively. Anticipated and internalised stigma were more frequently experienced than enacted stigma. Those who reported having a clinical diagnosis of Long Covid had higher stigma prevalence than those without. Conclusion This study establishes a scale to measure Long Covid stigma and highlights common experiences of stigma in people living with Long Covid.

5.
Pain ; 2022 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806690

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The risk of COVID-19 in those with chronic pain is unknown. We investigated whether self-reported chronic pain was associated with COVID-19 hospitalisation or mortality. UK Biobank recruited 502,624 participants aged 37 to 73 years between 2006 and 2010. Baseline exposure data, including chronic pain (>3 months, in at least 1 of 7 prespecified body sites) and chronic widespread pain (>3 months, all over body), were linked to COVID-19 hospitalisations or mortality. Univariable or multivariable Poisson regression analyses were performed on the association between chronic pain and COVID-19 hospitalisation and Cox regression analyses of the associations with COVID-19 mortality. Multivariable analyses adjusted incrementally for sociodemographic confounders, then lifestyle risk factors, and finally long-term condition count. Of 441,403 UK Biobank participants with complete data, 3180 (0.7%) were hospitalised for COVID-19 and 1040 (0.2%) died from COVID-19. Chronic pain was associated with hospital admission for COVID-19 even after adjustment for all covariates (incidence rate ratio 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.24; P < 0.001), as was chronic widespread pain (incidence rate ratio 1.33; 95% CI 1.06-1.66; P = 0.012). There was clear evidence of a dose-response relationship with number of pain sites (fully adjusted global P-value < 0.001). After adjustment for all covariates, there was no association between chronic pain (HR 1.01; 95% CI 0.89-1.15; P = 0.834) but attenuated association with chronic widespread pain (HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.04-2.16, P-value = 0.032) and COVID-19 mortality. Chronic pain is associated with higher risk of hospitalisation for COVID-19, but the association with mortality is unclear. Future research is required to investigate these findings further and determine whether pain is associated with long COVID.

6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 273, 2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770488

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19) impacts disadvantaged groups most. Lifestyle factors are also associated with adverse COVID-19 outcomes. To inform COVID-19 policy and interventions, we explored effect modification of socioeconomic-status (SES) on associations between lifestyle and COVID-19 outcomes. METHODS: Using data from UK-Biobank, a large prospective cohort of 502,536 participants aged 37-73 years recruited between 2006 and 2010, we assigned participants a lifestyle score comprising nine factors. Poisson regression models with penalised splines were used to analyse associations between lifestyle score, deprivation (Townsend), and COVID-19 mortality and severe COVID-19. Associations between each exposure and outcome were examined independently before participants were dichotomised by deprivation to examine exposures jointly. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic/health factors. RESULTS: Of 343,850 participants (mean age > 60 years) with complete data, 707 (0.21%) died from COVID-19 and 2506 (0.76%) had severe COVID-19. There was evidence of a nonlinear association between lifestyle score and COVID-19 mortality but limited evidence for nonlinearity between lifestyle score and severe COVID-19 and between deprivation and COVID-19 outcomes. Compared with low deprivation, participants in the high deprivation group had higher risk of COVID-19 outcomes across the lifestyle score. There was evidence for an additive interaction between lifestyle score and deprivation. Compared with participants with the healthiest lifestyle score in the low deprivation group, COVID-19 mortality risk ratios (95% CIs) for those with less healthy scores in low versus high deprivation groups were 5.09 (1.39-25.20) and 9.60 (4.70-21.44), respectively. Equivalent figures for severe COVID-19 were 5.17 (2.46-12.01) and 6.02 (4.72-7.71). Alternative SES measures produced similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Unhealthy lifestyles are associated with higher risk of adverse COVID-19, but risks are highest in the most disadvantaged, suggesting an additive influence between SES and lifestyle. COVID-19 policy and interventions should consider both lifestyle and SES. The greatest public health benefit from lifestyle focussed COVID-19 policy and interventions is likely to be seen when greatest support for healthy living is provided to the most disadvantaged groups.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Life Style , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Class , United Kingdom/epidemiology
7.
Thorax ; 77(7): 717-720, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769953

ABSTRACT

Given the large numbers of people infected and high rates of ongoing morbidity, research is clearly required to address the needs of adult survivors of COVID-19 living with ongoing symptoms (long COVID). To help direct resource and research efforts, we completed a research prioritisation process incorporating views from adults with ongoing symptoms of COVID-19, carers, clinicians and clinical researchers. The final top 10 research questions were agreed at an independently mediated workshop and included: identifying underlying mechanisms of long COVID, establishing diagnostic tools, understanding trajectory of recovery and evaluating the role of interventions both during the acute and persistent phases of the illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Caregivers , Disease Progression , Health Priorities , Humans , Research Personnel
8.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264331, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731597

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long Covid is a public health concern that needs defining, quantifying, and describing. We aimed to explore the initial and ongoing symptoms of Long Covid following SARS-CoV-2 infection and describe its impact on daily life. METHODS: We collected self-reported data through an online survey using convenience non-probability sampling. The survey enrolled adults who reported lab-confirmed (PCR or antibody) or suspected COVID-19 who were not hospitalised in the first two weeks of illness. This analysis was restricted to those with self-reported Long Covid. Univariate comparisons between those with and without confirmed COVID-19 infection were carried out and agglomerative hierarchical clustering was used to identify specific symptom clusters, and their demographic and functional correlates. RESULTS: We analysed data from 2550 participants with a median duration of illness of 7.6 months (interquartile range (IQR) 7.1-7.9). 26.5% reported lab-confirmation of infection. The mean age was 46.5 years (standard deviation 11 years) with 82.8% females and 79.9% of participants based in the UK. 89.5% described their health as good, very good or excellent before COVID-19. The most common initial symptoms that persisted were exhaustion, chest pressure/tightness, shortness of breath and headache. Cognitive dysfunction and palpitations became more prevalent later in the illness. Most participants described fluctuating (57.7%) or relapsing symptoms (17.6%). Physical activity, stress, and sleep disturbance commonly triggered symptoms. A third (32%) reported they were unable to live alone without any assistance at six weeks from start of illness. 16.9% reported being unable to work solely due to COVID-19 illness. 37.0% reported loss of income due to illness, and 64.4% said they were unable to perform usual activities/duties. Acute systems clustered broadly into two groups: a majority cluster (n = 2235, 88%) with cardiopulmonary predominant symptoms, and a minority cluster (n = 305, 12%) with multisystem symptoms. Similarly, ongoing symptoms broadly clustered in two groups; a majority cluster (n = 2243, 88.8%) exhibiting mainly cardiopulmonary, cognitive symptoms and exhaustion, and a minority cluster (n = 283, 11.2%) exhibiting more multisystem symptoms. Belonging to the more severe multisystem cluster was associated with more severe functional impact, lower income, younger age, being female, worse baseline health, and inadequate rest in the first two weeks of the illness, with no major differences in the cluster patterns when restricting analysis to the lab-confirmed subgroup. CONCLUSION: This is an exploratory survey of Long Covid characteristics. Whilst this is a non-representative population sample, it highlights the heterogeneity of persistent symptoms, and the significant functional impact of prolonged illness following confirmed or suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection. To study prevalence, predictors and prognosis, research is needed in a representative population sample using standardised case definitions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cluster Analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Self Report , Stress, Physiological , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
ProQuest Central;
Preprint in English | ProQuest Central | ID: ppcovidwho-328232

ABSTRACT

Although the majority of people with Covid-19 will experience mild to moderate symptoms and will recover fully, there is now increasing evidence that a significant proportion will experience persistent symptoms for months after the acute phase of the illness. These symptoms include, among others, fatigue, problems breathing, lack of smell and taste, headaches, and depression and anxiety. It is also clear the virus has lasting fluctuating multiorgan sequelae, including affecting not only the respiratory system but also the heart, liver, and nervous system. We present a protocol for a living systematic review that aims to synthesize the evidence on the prevalence and characteristics of post-acute COVID-19. The living systematic review will be updated regularly, approximately every 6 months, as new evidence emerges. We will include studies that follow up at least 100 people with Covid-19 at 12 or more weeks post Covid-19 onset, with no restrictions regarding country, setting, or language. We will use descriptive statistics and, for outcomes reported in two or more studies, we will use meta-analyses to estimate prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using the exact method. Heterogeneity between estimates will be assessed using the I2 statistic. Our findings will also be presented as infographics to facilitate transcription to lay audiences. Ultimately, we aim to support the work of policy makers, practitioners, and patients when planning rehabilitation for those recovering from Covid-19. The protocol has been registered with PROSPERO (  CRD42020211131, 25/09/2020).

10.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296454

ABSTRACT

Many people are not recovering for months after being infected with SARS-CoV-2. Long Covid has emerged as a major public health concern that needs defining, quantifying, and describing. We aimed to explore the initial and ongoing symptoms of Long Covid following SARS-CoV-2 infection and describe its impact on daily life in people who were not admitted to hospital during the first two weeks of the illness. We co-produced a survey with people living with Long Covid. We collected the data through an online survey using convenience non-probability sampling, with the survey posted both specifically on Long Covid support groups and generally on social media. The criteria for inclusion were adults with lab-confirmed (PCR or antibody) or suspected COVID-19 managed in the community (non-hospitalised) in the first two weeks of illness. We used agglomerative hierarchical clustering to identify specific symptom clusters, and their demographic and functional correlates. We analysed data from 2550 participants with a median duration of illness of 7.7 months (interquartile range (IQR) 7.4-8.0). The mean age was 46.5 years (standard deviation 11 years) with 82.8% females and 79.9% of participants based in the UK. 89.5% described their health as good, very good or excellent before COVID-19. The most common initial symptoms that persisted were exhaustion, chest pressure/tightness, shortness of breath and headache. Cough, fever, and chills were common initial symptoms that became less prevalent later in the illness, whereas cognitive dysfunction and palpitations became more prevalent later in the illness. 26.5% reported lab-confirmation of infection. The biggest difference in ongoing symptoms between those who reported testing positive and those who did not was loss of smell/taste. Ongoing symptoms affected at least 3 organ systems in 83.5% of participants. Most participants described fluctuating (57.7%) or relapsing symptoms (17.6%). Physical activity, stress and sleep disturbance commonly triggered symptoms. A third (32%) reported they were unable to live alone without any assistance at six weeks from start of illness. 16.9% reported being unable to work solely due to COVID-19 illness. 66.4% reported taking time off sick (median of 60 days, IQR 20, 129). 37.0% reported loss of income due to illness, and 64.4% said they were unable to perform usual activities/duties. Acute systems clustered broadly into two groups: a majority cluster (n=2235, 88%) with cardiopulmonary predominant symptoms, and a minority cluster (n=305, 12%) with multisystem symptoms. Similarly, ongoing symptoms broadly clustered in two groups;a majority cluster (n=2243, 88.8%) exhibiting mainly cardiopulmonary, cognitive symptoms and exhaustion, and a minority cluster (n=283, 11.2%) exhibited more multisystem symptoms. Belonging to the more severe multisystem cluster was associated with more severe functional impact, lower income, younger age, being female, worse baseline health, and inadequate rest in the first two weeks of the illness, with no major differences in the cluster patterns when restricting analysis to the lab-confirmed subgroup. This is an exploratory survey of Long Covid characteristics. Whilst it is important to acknowledge that it is a non-representative population sample, it highlights the heterogeneity of persistent symptoms, and the significant functional impact of prolonged illness following confirmed or suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection. To study prevalence, predictors and prognosis, research is needed in a representative population sample using standardised case definitions (to include those not lab-confirmed in the first pandemic wave).

11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(9)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While it is now apparent clinical sequelae (long COVID) may persist after acute COVID-19, their nature, frequency and aetiology are poorly characterised. This study aims to regularly synthesise evidence on long COVID characteristics, to help inform clinical management, rehabilitation strategies and interventional studies to improve long-term outcomes. METHODS: A living systematic review. Medline, CINAHL (EBSCO), Global Health (Ovid), WHO Global Research on COVID-19 database, LitCovid and Google Scholar were searched till 17 March 2021. Studies including at least 100 people with confirmed or clinically suspected COVID-19 at 12 weeks or more post onset were included. Risk of bias was assessed using the tool produced by Hoy et al. Results were analysed using descriptive statistics and meta-analyses to estimate prevalence. RESULTS: A total of 39 studies were included: 32 cohort, 6 cross-sectional and 1 case-control. Most showed high or moderate risk of bias. None were set in low-income countries and few included children. Studies reported on 10 951 people (48% female) in 12 countries. Most included previously hospitalised people (78%, 8520/10 951). The longest mean follow-up time was 221.7 (SD: 10.9) days post COVID-19 onset. Over 60 physical and psychological signs and symptoms with wide prevalence were reported, most commonly weakness (41%; 95% CI 25% to 59%), general malaise (33%; 95% CI 15% to 57%), fatigue (31%; 95% CI 24% to 39%), concentration impairment (26%; 95% CI 21% to 32%) and breathlessness (25%; 95% CI 18% to 34%). 37% (95% CI 18% to 60%) of patients reported reduced quality of life; 26% (10/39) of studies presented evidence of reduced pulmonary function. CONCLUSION: Long COVID is a complex condition with prolonged heterogeneous symptoms. The nature of studies precludes a precise case definition or risk evaluation. There is an urgent need for prospective, robust, standardised, controlled studies into aetiology, risk factors and biomarkers to characterise long COVID in different at-risk populations and settings. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020211131.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , COVID-19/complications , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 8: 100186, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study sought to establish the long-term effects of Covid-19 following hospitalisation. METHODS: 327 hospitalised participants, with SARS-CoV-2 infection were recruited into a prospective multicentre cohort study at least 3 months post-discharge. The primary outcome was self-reported recovery at least ninety days after initial Covid-19 symptom onset. Secondary outcomes included new symptoms, disability (Washington group short scale), breathlessness (MRC Dyspnoea scale) and quality of life (EQ5D-5L). FINDINGS: 55% of participants reported not feeling fully recovered. 93% reported persistent symptoms, with fatigue the most common (83%), followed by breathlessness (54%). 47% reported an increase in MRC dyspnoea scale of at least one grade. New or worse disability was reported by 24% of participants. The EQ5D-5L summary index was significantly worse following acute illness (median difference 0.1 points on a scale of 0 to 1, IQR: -0.2 to 0.0). Females under the age of 50 years were five times less likely to report feeling recovered (adjusted OR 5.09, 95% CI 1.64 to 15.74), were more likely to have greater disability (adjusted OR 4.22, 95% CI 1.12 to 15.94), twice as likely to report worse fatigue (adjusted OR 2.06, 95% CI 0.81 to 3.31) and seven times more likely to become more breathless (adjusted OR 7.15, 95% CI 2.24 to 22.83) than men of the same age. INTERPRETATION: Survivors of Covid-19 experienced long-term symptoms, new disability, increased breathlessness, and reduced quality of life. These findings were present in young, previously healthy working age adults, and were most common in younger females. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research, UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, Department for International Development and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

13.
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health ; 75(Suppl 1):A90, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1394186

ABSTRACT

BackgroundMany people are not recovering for months after being infected with COVID-19. Long Covid (LC) is a major public health problem that needs defining, quantifying and describing. We aimed to explore and develop understanding of LC symptoms following mild/moderate COVID-19 infection and describe its impact on daily life.MethodsThe survey was co-produced with people living with LC. Data was collected through an online social media survey mostly from online support groups using convenience non-probability sampling. The criteria for inclusion were adults with lab-confirmed or suspected COVID-19 infection managed in the community (non-hospitalised) in the first two weeks of illness. We used agglomerative hierarchical clustering to identify specific symptom clusters, and their demographic, and functional correlates.ResultsData from 2550 participants with a median duration of illness of 7.7 months (interquartile range (IQR) 7.4–8.0) was analysed. The mean age was 46.5 years (standard deviation 11 years) with 82.8% females and 79.9% UK-based. 90% reported good, very good or excellent health prior to infection. Most participants described fluctuating (57.7%) or relapsing LC symptoms (17.6%). The most common initial symptoms that continued were exhaustion, headache, chest pressure/tightness and breathlessness. Cough, fever and chills were prevalent initial symptoms that became less so as the illness progressed. Cognitive dysfunction and palpitations became more common beyond the acute phase. 26.5% reported lab-confirmation of infection (NAAT or antibody). The biggest difference in symptoms between those who reported testing positive and those who did not was loss of smell/taste. Physical activity, stress and sleep disturbance were the most common symptom triggers. A third (32%) reported they were unable to live alone without any assistance at six weeks from start of illness. 66.4% reported taking time off sick, (median 60 days, IQR 20, 129). 37% reported loss of income due to illness. Eighty four percent of participants reported ongoing symptoms affecting at least three organ systems. There were two main ongoing symptoms clusters;the majority cluster (88.7%) exhibited mainly chest, cognitive symptoms and exhaustion, and the minority cluster (11.3%) exhibited multi-system symptoms which had persisted from the start. The multi-system cluster reported more severe functional impact.ConclusionThis is an exploratory survey of LC characteristics. Whilst it is a non-representative sample, it highlights the heterogeneity of persistent symptoms, and the significant functional impact. To better characterise ongoing illness and prognosis, research is needed in a representative population-sample using standardised case definitions (to include those not lab-confirmed in the first pandemic wave).

15.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 4(4): e00283, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306643

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine risk of being SARS-CoV-2 positive and severe infection (associated with hospitalization/mortality) in those with family history of diabetes. METHODS: We used UK Biobank, an observational cohort recruited between 2006 and 2010. We compared the risk of being SARS-CoV-2 positive and severe infection for those with family history of diabetes (mother/father/sibling) against those without. RESULTS: Of 401,268 participants in total, 13,331 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 2282 had severe infection by end of January 2021. In unadjusted models, participants with ≥2 family members with diabetes were more likely to be SARS-CoV-2 positive (risk ratio-RR 1.35; 95% confidence interval-CI 1.24-1.47) and severe infection (RR 1.30; 95% CI 1.04-1.59), compared to those without. The excess risk of being tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 was attenuated but significant after adjusting for demographics, lifestyle factors, multimorbidity and presence of cardiometabolic conditions. The excess risk for severe infection was no longer significant after adjusting for demographics, lifestyle factors, multimorbidity and presence of cardiometabolic conditions, and was absent when excluding incident diabetes. CONCLUSION: The totality of the results suggests that good lifestyle and not developing incident diabetes may lessen risks of severe infections in people with a strong family of diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Life Style , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biological Specimen Banks , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
16.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(10): 2533-2538, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common, life-threatening complication of COVID-19 infection. COVID-19 risk-prediction models include a history of VTE. However, it is unclear whether remote history (>9 years previously) of VTE also confers increased risk of COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: To investigate possible association between VTE and COVID-19 severity, independent of other risk factors. METHODS: Cohort study of UK Biobank participants recruited between 2006 and 2010. Baseline data, including history of VTE, were linked to COVID-19 test results, COVID-19-related hospital admissions, and COVID-19 deaths. The risk of COVID-19 hospitalization or death was compared for participants with a remote history VTE versus without. Poisson regression models were run univariately then adjusted stepwise for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and comorbid covariates. RESULTS: After adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle confounders and comorbid conditions, remote history of VTE was associated with nonfatal community (RR 1.61, 95% CI 1.02-2.54, p = .039), nonfatal hospitalized (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.06-2.17, p = .024) and severe (hospitalized or fatal) (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04-1.89, p = .025) COVID-19. Associations with remote history of VTE were stronger among men (severe COVID-19: RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.14-2.42, p = .009) than for women (severe COVID-19: RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.66-1.74, p = .786). CONCLUSION: Our findings support inclusion of remote history of VTE in COVID-19 risk-prediction scores, and consideration of sex-specific risk scores.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Aged , Biological Specimen Banks , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
19.
Occup Environ Med ; 2020 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066928

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate severe COVID-19 risk by occupational group. METHODS: Baseline UK Biobank data (2006-10) for England were linked to SARS-CoV-2 test results from Public Health England (16 March to 26 July 2020). Included participants were employed or self-employed at baseline, alive and aged <65 years in 2020. Poisson regression models were adjusted sequentially for baseline demographic, socioeconomic, work-related, health, and lifestyle-related risk factors to assess risk ratios (RRs) for testing positive in hospital or death due to COVID-19 by three occupational classification schemes (including Standard Occupation Classification (SOC) 2000). RESULTS: Of 120 075 participants, 271 had severe COVID-19. Relative to non-essential workers, healthcare workers (RR 7.43, 95% CI 5.52 to 10.00), social and education workers (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.21 to 2.82) and other essential workers (RR 1.60, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.45) had a higher risk of severe COVID-19. Using more detailed groupings, medical support staff (RR 8.70, 95% CI 4.87 to 15.55), social care (RR 2.46, 95% CI 1.47 to 4.14) and transport workers (RR 2.20, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.00) had the highest risk within the broader groups. Compared with white non-essential workers, non-white non-essential workers had a higher risk (RR 3.27, 95% CI 1.90 to 5.62) and non-white essential workers had the highest risk (RR 8.34, 95% CI 5.17 to 13.47). Using SOC 2000 major groups, associate professional and technical occupations, personal service occupations and plant and machine operatives had a higher risk, compared with managers and senior officials. CONCLUSIONS: Essential workers have a higher risk of severe COVID-19. These findings underscore the need for national and organisational policies and practices that protect and support workers with an elevated risk of severe COVID-19.

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