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Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792392


Observational studies are needed to demonstrate real-world vaccine effectiveness (VE) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outcomes. Our objective was to conduct a review of published SARS-CoV-2 VE articles, supplemented by preprints, during the first 6 months of COVID-19 vaccine availability. This review compares the effectiveness of completing the primary COVID-19 vaccination series against multiple SARS-CoV-2 disease presentations and disease severity outcomes in three population groups (general population, frontline workers, and older adults). Four hundred and seventy-one published articles and 47 preprints were identified. After title and abstract screening and full article review, 50 studies (28 published articles, 22 preprints) were included. VE results were reported for five COVID-19 vaccines and four combinations of COVID-19 vaccines. VE results for BNT162b2 were reported in 70.6% of all studies. Seventeen studies reported variant specific VE estimates; Alpha was the most common. This comprehensive review demonstrates that COVID-19 vaccination is an important tool for preventing COVID-19 morbidity and mortality among fully vaccinated persons aged 16 years and older and serves as an important baseline from which to follow future trends in COVID-19 evolution and effectiveness of new and updated vaccines.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(34): 1166-1169, 2020 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732630


Although non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons account for 0.7% of the U.S. population,* a recent analysis reported that 1.3% of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases reported to CDC with known race and ethnicity were among AI/AN persons (1). To assess the impact of COVID-19 among the AI/AN population, reports of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases during January 22†-July 3, 2020 were analyzed. The analysis was limited to 23 states§ with >70% complete race/ethnicity information and five or more laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases among both AI/AN persons (alone or in combination with other races and ethnicities) and non-Hispanic white (white) persons. Among 424,899 COVID-19 cases reported by these states, 340,059 (80%) had complete race/ethnicity information; among these 340,059 cases, 9,072 (2.7%) occurred among AI/AN persons, and 138,960 (40.9%) among white persons. Among 340,059 cases with complete patient race/ethnicity data, the cumulative incidence among AI/AN persons in these 23 states was 594 per 100,000 AI/AN population (95% confidence interval [CI] = 203-1,740), compared with 169 per 100,000 white population (95% CI = 137-209) (rate ratio [RR] = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.2-10.1). AI/AN persons with COVID-19 were younger (median age = 40 years; interquartile range [IQR] = 26-56 years) than were white persons (median age = 51 years; IQR = 32-67 years). More complete case report data and timely, culturally responsive, and evidence-based public health efforts that leverage the strengths of AI/AN communities are needed to decrease COVID-19 transmission and improve patient outcomes.

Alaskan Natives/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Health Status Disparities , Indians, North American/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult