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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(7): ofac227, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931886

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants that have greater transmissibility and resistance to neutralizing antibodies has increased the incidence of breakthrough infections. We show that breakthrough infection increases neutralizing antibody titers to varying degrees depending on the nature of the breakthrough variant and the number of vaccine doses previously administered. Omicron breakthrough infection resulted in neutralizing antibody titers that were the highest across all groups, particularly against Omicron.

2.
J Exp Med ; 219(8)2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1922149

ABSTRACT

The single-dose Ad.26.COV.2 (Janssen) vaccine elicits lower levels of neutralizing antibodies and shows more limited efficacy in protection against infection than either of the two available mRNA vaccines. In addition, Ad.26.COV.2 has been less effective in protection against severe disease during the Omicron surge. Here, we examined the memory B cell response to single-dose Ad.26.COV.2 vaccination. Compared with mRNA vaccines, Ad.26.COV.2 recipients had significantly lower numbers of RBD-specific memory B cells 1.5 or 6 mo after vaccination. Despite the lower numbers, the overall quality of the memory B cell responses appears to be similar, such that memory antibodies elicited by both vaccine types show comparable neutralizing potency against SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan-Hu-1, Delta, and Omicron BA.1 variants. The data help explain why boosting Ad.26.COV.2 vaccine recipients with mRNA vaccines is effective and why the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine can maintain some protective efficacy against severe disease during the Omicron surge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , mRNA Vaccines
3.
J Exp Med ; 219(9)2022 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1922148

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to be a global problem in part because of the emergence of variants of concern that evade neutralization by antibodies elicited by prior infection or vaccination. Here we report on human neutralizing antibody and memory responses to the Gamma variant in a cohort of hospitalized individuals. Plasma from infected individuals potently neutralized viruses pseudotyped with Gamma SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, but neutralizing activity against Wuhan-Hu-1-1, Beta, Delta, or Omicron was significantly lower. Monoclonal antibodies from memory B cells also neutralized Gamma and Beta pseudoviruses more effectively than Wuhan-Hu-1. 69% and 34% of Gamma-neutralizing antibodies failed to neutralize Delta or Wuhan-Hu-1. Although Class 1 and 2 antibodies dominate the response to Wuhan-Hu-1 or Beta, 54% of antibodies elicited by Gamma infection recognized Class 3 epitopes. The results have implications for variant-specific vaccines and infections, suggesting that exposure to variants generally provides more limited protection to other variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Envelope Proteins
4.
mBio ; : e0084022, 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901929

ABSTRACT

Global population immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is accumulating through heterogeneous combinations of infection and vaccination. Vaccine distribution in low- and middle-income countries has been variable and reliant on diverse vaccine platforms. We studied B-cell immunity in Mexico, a middle-income country where five different vaccines have been deployed to populations with high SARS-CoV-2 incidences. Levels of antibodies that bound a stabilized prefusion spike trimer, neutralizing antibody titers, and memory B-cell expansion correlated with each other across vaccine platforms. Nevertheless, the vaccines elicited variable levels of B-cell immunity, and the majority of recipients had undetectable neutralizing activity against the recently emergent omicron variant. SARS-CoV-2 infection, experienced before or after vaccination, potentiated B-cell immune responses and enabled the generation of neutralizing activity against omicron and SARS-CoV for all vaccines in nearly all individuals. These findings suggest that broad population immunity to SARS-CoV-2 will eventually be achieved but by heterogeneous paths. IMPORTANCE The majority of studies on SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-elicited immunity and immune evasion have focused on single vaccines corresponding to those distributed in high-income countries. However, in low- and middle-income countries, vaccine deployment has been far less uniform. It is therefore important to determine the levels of immunity elicited by vaccines that have been deployed globally. Such data should help inform policy. Thus, this paper is very much a "real-world" study that focuses on a middle-income country, Mexico, in which five different vaccines based on mRNA, adenovirus, and inactivated-virus platforms have been extensively deployed, while (as documented in our study) SARS-CoV-2 variants with increasing degrees of immune evasiveness have propagated in the Mexican population, culminating in the recent emergence of B.1.1.529 (omicron).

5.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(7): e493-e502, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867962

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Serological assays are being used to monitor antibody responses in individuals who had SARS-CoV-2 infection and those who received a COVID-19 vaccine. We aimed to determine whether such assays can predict neutralising antibody titres as antibody levels wane and viral variants emerge. METHODS: We measured antibody levels in serum samples from a cohort of 112 participants with SARS-CoV-2 infection using ten high-throughput serological tests and functional neutralisation assays. Serum samples were taken at baseline and at up to four subsequent visits. We assessed the effects of time and spike protein sequence variation on the performance and predictive value of the various assays. We did correlation analyses for individual timepoints using non-parametric Spearman correlation, and differences between timepoints were determined by use of a two-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test. FINDINGS: Neutralising antibody titres decreased over the first few months post-infection but stabilised thereafter, at about 30% of the level observed shortly after infection. Serological assays commonly used to measure antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 displayed a range of sensitivities that declined to varying extents over time. Quantitative measurements generated by serological assays based on the spike protein were better at predicting neutralising antibody titres than those based on nucleocapsid, but performance was variable, and manufacturer positivity thresholds were not able to predict the presence or absence of detectable neutralising activity. Although we observed some deterioration in correlation between serological measurements and functional neutralisation activity, some assays maintained an ability to predict neutralising titres, even against variants of concern. INTERPRETATION: The ability of high-throughput serological assays to predict neutralising antibody titres is likely to be crucial for evaluation of immunity at the population scale. These data can facilitate the selection of the most suitable assays as surrogates of functional neutralising activity and suggest that such measurements might be useful in clinical practice. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health and National Health Service Research Scotland BioResource.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , State Medicine
6.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1863910

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants that have greater transmissibility and resistance to neutralizing antibodies has increased the incidence of breakthrough infections. We show that breakthrough infection increases neutralizing antibody titers to varying degrees depending on the nature of the breakthrough variant and the number of vaccine doses previously administered. Omicron breakthrough infection resulted in neutralizing antibody titers that were the highest across, particularly against omicron.

7.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-336206

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic prompted a global vaccination effort and the development of numerous COVID-19 vaccines at an unprecedented scale and pace. As a result, current COVID- 19 vaccination regimens comprise diverse vaccine modalities, immunogen combinations and dosing intervals. Here, we compare vaccine-specific antibody and memory B cell responses following two-dose mRNA, single-dose Ad26.COV2.S and two-dose ChAdOx1 or combination ChAdOx1/mRNA vaccination. Plasma neutralizing activity as well as the magnitude, clonal composition and antibody maturation of the RBD-specific memory B cell compartment showed substantial differences between the vaccination regimens. While individual monoclonal antibodies derived from memory B cells exhibited similar binding affinities and neutralizing potency against Wuhan-Hu-1 SARS-CoV-2, there were significant differences in epitope specificity and neutralizing breadth against viral variants of concern. Although the ChAdOx1 vaccine was inferior to mRNA and Ad26.COV2.S in several respects, biochemical and structural analyses revealed enrichment in a subgroup of memory B cell neutralizing antibodies with distinct RBD-binding properties resulting in remarkable potency and breadth.

8.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0266086, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833644

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests have been marketed to diagnose previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and as a test of immune status. There is a lack of evidence on the performance and clinical utility of these tests. We aimed to carry out an evaluation of 14 point of care (POC) SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests. Serum from participants with previous RT-PCR (real-time polymerase chain reaction) confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and pre-pandemic serum controls were used to determine specificity and sensitivity of each POC device. Changes in sensitivity with increasing time from infection were determined on a cohort of study participants. Corresponding neutralising antibody status was measured to establish whether the detection of antibodies by the POC device correlated with immune status. Paired capillary and serum samples were collected to ascertain whether POC devices performed comparably on capillary samples. Sensitivity and specificity varied between the POC devices and in general did not meet the manufacturers' reported performance characteristics, which signifies the importance of independent evaluation of these tests. The sensitivity peaked at ≥20 days following onset of symptoms, however sensitivity of 3 of the POC devices evaluated at extended time points showed that sensitivity declined with time. This was particularly marked at >140 days post infection. This is relevant if the tests are to be used for sero-prevalence studies. Neutralising antibody data showed that positive antibody results on POC devices did not necessarily confer high neutralising antibody titres, and that these POC devices cannot be used to determine immune status to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Comparison of paired serum and capillary results showed that there was a decline in sensitivity using capillary blood. This has implications in the utility of the tests as they are designed to be used on capillary blood by the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Nature ; 607(7917): 128-134, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805634

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 infected many vaccinated and convalescent individuals1-3. Despite the reduced protection from infection, individuals who received three doses of an mRNA vaccine were highly protected from more serious consequences of infection4. Here we examine the memory B cell repertoire in a longitudinal cohort of individuals receiving three mRNA vaccine doses5,6. We find that the third dose is accompanied by an increase in, and evolution of, receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific memory B cells. The increase is due to expansion of memory B cell clones that were present after the second dose as well as the emergence of new clones. The antibodies encoded by these cells showed significantly increased potency and breadth when compared with antibodies obtained after the second dose. Notably, the increase in potency was especially evident among newly developing clones of memory cells, which differed from persisting clones in targeting more conserved regions of the RBD. Overall, more than 50% of the analysed neutralizing antibodies in the memory compartment after the third mRNA vaccine dose neutralized the Omicron variant. Thus, individuals receiving three doses of an mRNA vaccine have a diverse memory B cell repertoire that can respond rapidly and produce antibodies capable of clearing even diversified variants such as Omicron. These data help to explain why a third dose of a vaccine that was not specifically designed to protect against variants is effective against variant-induced serious disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , Memory B Cells , SARS-CoV-2 , mRNA Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Memory B Cells/immunology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/administration & dosage , mRNA Vaccines/immunology
10.
Immunity ; 55(6): 998-1012.e8, 2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778212

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination produces neutralizing antibody responses that contribute to better clinical outcomes. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) and the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the spike trimer (S) constitute the two major neutralizing targets for antibodies. Here, we use NTD-specific probes to capture anti-NTD memory B cells in a longitudinal cohort of infected individuals, some of whom were vaccinated. We found 6 complementation groups of neutralizing antibodies. 58% targeted epitopes outside the NTD supersite, 58% neutralized either Gamma or Omicron, and 14% were broad neutralizers that also neutralized Omicron. Structural characterization revealed that broadly active antibodies targeted three epitopes outside the NTD supersite including a class that recognized both the NTD and SD2 domain. Rapid recruitment of memory B cells producing these antibodies into the plasma cell compartment upon re-infection likely contributes to the relatively benign course of subsequent infections with SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Humans , Memory B Cells , SARS-CoV-2
11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312509

ABSTRACT

Convalescent plasma (CP) is widely used to treat Covid-19, but without formal evidence of efficacy. Here, we report the beneficial effects of CP in a severely ill Covid-19 patient with prolonged pneumonia and advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), who was unable to generate an antiviral antibody response of her own. On day-33 after becoming symptomatic, the patient received CP containing high-titer (ID 50 >5,000) neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), defervesced and improved clinically within 48 hours, and was discharged on day-37. Hence, when present in sufficient quantities, NAbs to SARS-CoV-2 have curative potential even if administered relatively late in the disease course.

12.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327676

ABSTRACT

The omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 infected very large numbers of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated and convalescent individuals. The penetrance of this variant in the antigen experienced human population can be explained in part by the relatively low levels of plasma neutralizing activity against Omicron in people who were infected or vaccinated with the original Wuhan-Hu-1 strain. The 3 rd mRNA vaccine dose produces an initial increase in circulating anti-Omicron neutralizing antibodies, but titers remain 10-20-fold lower than against Wuhan-Hu-1 and are, in many cases, insufficient to prevent infection. Despite the reduced protection from infection, individuals that received 3 doses of an mRNA vaccine were highly protected from the more serious consequences of infection. Here we examine the memory B cell repertoire in a longitudinal cohort of individuals receiving 3 mRNA vaccine doses. We find that the 3 rd dose is accompanied by an increase in, and evolution of, anti-receptor binding domain specific memory B cells. The increase is due to expansion of memory B cell clones that were present after the 2 nd vaccine dose as well as the emergence of new clones. The antibodies encoded by these cells showed significantly increased potency and breadth when compared to antibodies obtained after the 2 nd vaccine dose. Notably, the increase in potency was especially evident among newly developing clones of memory cells that differed from the persisting clones in targeting more conserved regions of the RBD. Overall, more than 50% of the analyzed neutralizing antibodies in the memory compartment obtained from individuals receiving a 3 rd mRNA vaccine dose neutralized Omicron. Thus, individuals receiving 3 doses of an mRNA vaccine encoding Wuhan-Hu-1, have a diverse memory B cell repertoire that can respond rapidly and produce antibodies capable of clearing even diversified variants such as Omicron. These data help explain why a 3 rd dose of an mRNA vaccine that was not specifically designed to protect against variants is effective against variant-induced serious disease.

13.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327582

ABSTRACT

Vaccination and infection by viral variants are shaping population immunity to SARS-CoV-21 and breakthrough infections of vaccinated or previously infected individuals have become common as variants evade preexisting immunity. Omicron (B.1.1.529) is highly resistant to plasma neutralizing antibodies elicited by infection with prior variants and the 2-dose mRNA vaccination regimens. However, vaccination after infection or a third mRNA vaccine dose elicit high levels of neutralizing antibodies that can also neutralize omicron to a degree2-4. We compared neutralizing antibody titers in 54 individuals that had received 2 or 3 doses of mRNA vaccines and had experienced breakthrough infection with SARS-CoV-2 variants.

14.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327524

ABSTRACT

Global population immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is accumulating through heterogenous combinations of infection and vaccination. Vaccine distribution in low- and middle-income countries has been variable and reliant on diverse vaccine platforms. We studied B-cell immunity in Mexico, a middle-income country where five different vaccines have been deployed to populations with high SARS-CoV-2 incidence. Levels of antibodies that bound a stabilized prefusion spike trimer, neutralizing antibody titers and memory B-cell expansion correlated with each other across vaccine platforms. Nevertheless, the vaccines elicited variable levels of B-cell immunity, and the majority of recipients had undetectable neutralizing activity against the recently emergent omicron variant. SARS-CoV-2 infection, experienced prior to or after vaccination potentiated B-cell immune responses and enabled the generation of neutralizing activity against omicron and SARS-CoV for all vaccines in nearly all individuals. These findings suggest that broad population immunity to SARS-CoV-2 will eventually be achieved, but by heterogenous paths

15.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327330

ABSTRACT

Summary SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination produces neutralizing antibody responses that contribute to better clinical outcomes. The receptor binding domain (RBD) and the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the spike trimer (S) constitute the two major neutralizing targets for the antibody system. Neutralizing antibodies targeting the RBD bind to several different sites on this domain. In contrast, most neutralizing antibodies to NTD characterized to date bind to a single supersite, however these antibodies were obtained by methods that were not NTD specific. Here we use NTD specific probes to focus on anti-NTD memory B cells in a cohort of pre-omicron infected individuals some of which were also vaccinated. Of 275 NTD binding antibodies tested 103 neutralized at least one of three tested strains: Wuhan-Hu-1, Gamma, or PMS20, a synthetic variant which is extensively mutated in the NTD supersite. Among the 43 neutralizing antibodies that were further characterized, we found 6 complementation groups based on competition binding experiments. 58% targeted epitopes outside the NTD supersite, and 58% neutralized either Gamma or Omicron, but only 14% were broad neutralizers. Three of the broad neutralizers were characterized structurally. C1520 and C1791 recognize epitopes on opposite faces of the NTD with a distinct binding pose relative to previously described antibodies allowing for greater potency and cross-reactivity with 7 different variants including Beta, Delta, Gamma and Omicron. Antibody C1717 represents a previously uncharacterized class of NTD-directed antibodies that recognizes the viral membrane proximal side of the NTD and SD2 domain, leading to cross-neutralization of Beta, Gamma and Omicron. We conclude SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or Wuhan-Hu-1 mRNA vaccination produces a diverse collection of memory B cells that produce anti-NTD antibodies some of which can neutralize variants of concern. Rapid recruitment of these cells into the antibody secreting plasma cell compartment upon re-infection likely contributes to the relatively benign course of subsequent infections with SARS-CoV-2 variants including omicron.

18.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296969

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant has spread internationally and is responsible for rapidly increasing case numbers. The emergence of divergent variants in the context of a heterogeneous and evolving neutralizing antibody response in host populations might compromise protection afforded by vaccines or prior infection. METHODS We measured neutralizing antibody titers in 169 longitudinally collected plasma samples using pseudotypes bearing the Wuhan-hu-1 or the Omicron variant or a laboratory-designed neutralization-resistant SARS-CoV-2 spike (PMS20). Plasmas were obtained from convalescents who did or did not subsequently receive an mRNA vaccine, or naive individuals who received 3-doses of mRNA or 1-dose Ad26 vaccines. Samples were collected approximately 1, 5-6 and 12 months after initial vaccination or infection. RESULTS Like PMS20, the Omicron spike protein was substantially resistant to neutralization compared to Wuhan-hu-1. In convalescent plasma the median deficit in neutralizing activity against PMS20 or Omicron was 30- to 60-fold. Plasmas from recipients of 2 mRNA vaccine doses were 30- to 180- fold less potent against PMS20 and Omicron than Wuhan-hu-1. Notably, previously infected or two-mRNA dose vaccinated individuals who received additional mRNA vaccine dose(s) had 38 to 154-fold and 35 to 214-fold increases in neutralizing activity against Omicron and PMS20 respectively. CONCLUSIONS Omicron exhibits similar distribution of sequence changes and neutralization resistance as does a laboratory-designed neutralization-resistant spike protein, suggesting natural evolutionary pressure to evade the human antibody response. Currently available mRNA vaccine boosters, that may promote antibody affinity maturation, significantly ameliorate SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody titers.

19.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296836

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Antibody tests have been marketed to diagnose previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and as a test of immune status. There is a lack of evidence on the performance and clinical utility of these tests. We aimed to carry out an evaluation of 14 point of care (POC) SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests. Serum from participants with previous RT-PCR (Real-Time Polymerase chain reaction) confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and pre-pandemic controls were used to determine specificity and sensitivity of each POC device. Changes in sensitivity with increasing time from infection were determined on a cohort of participants. Corresponding neutralising antibody status was measured to establish whether the detection of antibodies by the POC device correlated with immune status. Paired capillary and serum samples were collected to ascertain whether POC devices performed comparably on capillary samples. Sensitivity and specificity varied between the POC devices and in general did not meet the manufacturers reported performance characteristics signifying the importance of independent evaluation of these tests. The sensitivity peaked at >20 days following symptoms onset however sensitivity of 3 POC devices evaluated at extended time points showed that sensitivity declined with time and this was particularly marked at >140 days post infection onset. This is relevant if the tests are to be used for sero-prevelence studies. Neutralising antibody data showed positive antibody results on POC devices did not necessarily confer high neutralising antibody titres and these POC devices cannot be used to determine immune status to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Comparison of paired serum and capillary results showed that there was a decline in sensitivity using capillary blood. This has implications in the utility of the test as they are designed to be used on capillary blood by the general population.

20.
Elife ; 102021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555771

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants threatens current vaccines and therapeutic antibodies and urgently demands powerful new therapeutics that can resist viral escape. We therefore generated a large nanobody repertoire to saturate the distinct and highly conserved available epitope space of SARS-CoV-2 spike, including the S1 receptor binding domain, N-terminal domain, and the S2 subunit, to identify new nanobody binding sites that may reflect novel mechanisms of viral neutralization. Structural mapping and functional assays show that indeed these highly stable monovalent nanobodies potently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection, display numerous neutralization mechanisms, are effective against emerging variants of concern, and are resistant to mutational escape. Rational combinations of these nanobodies that bind to distinct sites within and between spike subunits exhibit extraordinary synergy and suggest multiple tailored therapeutic and prophylactic strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites , Camelids, New World/immunology , Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
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