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1.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 54(6): 422-430, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562111

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Pregnant women are especially vulnerable to respiratory infections such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but insufficient research has investigated pregnancy and its outcomes in women with COVID-19. This cross-sectional study compared birth outcomes related to COVID-19 between Bangladeshi pregnant women with and without COVID-19. METHODS: The study was conducted at 3 tertiary referral hospitals in Dhaka, Bangladesh, from March to August 2020. Pregnant women admitted for delivery at these hospitals with laboratory results (reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction) were analyzed. Using convenience sampling, we included 70 COVID-19-positive and 140 COVID-19-negative pregnant women. Trained and experienced midwives conducted the interviews. Data were analyzed using the t-test, the chi-square test, and univariate and multivariable linear and logistic regression. RESULTS: Pregnant women with COVID-19 were more likely to give birth to a preterm baby (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 4.37) and undergo a cesarean section (aOR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.51 to 7.07). There were no significant differences in birth weight, premature rupture of membranes, and the Apgar score at 1 minute or 5 minutes post-delivery between women with and without COVID-19. All the newborn babies who were born to COVID-19-positive women were COVID-19-negative. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that pregnant women with COVID-19 were more likely to give birth to a preterm baby and undergo a cesarean section. For this reason, physicians should be particularly cautious to minimize adverse birth outcomes among pregnant women with COVID-19 and their newborn babies.

2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 114: 1-10, 2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527701

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: With COVID-19 vaccination underway, this study aimed to understand belief, attitude and intention of the people in the South Asia region towards the vaccine. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using semi-structured questionnaires among 18201 individuals in four South Asian countries; Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Nepal between January 17 and February 2, 2021. We used the Health Belief Model (HBM) to identify the predictors related to vaccine acceptance. STATA (v16.1) was used for all analyses. RESULTS: The percentage of respondents willing to be vaccinated against COVID-19 was 65%, 66%, 72% and 74% for Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Nepal, respectively. Perceived destructive impact of COVID-19, positive perception of vaccines and concern about possible side effects were significant in modifying respondents' intentions.. In multivariable logistic regression, age, sex, marital status, education, comorbidities, worry about getting infected, perceived COVID-19 impact, belief regarding vaccine efficacy, positive attitude towards mandatory measures, and vaccine availability were found to be associated with vaccine acceptance across countries. CONCLUSION: Nearabout two-third of the respondants were willing to take COVID-19 vaccine in the four South Asia countries.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259281, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: E-learning is a relatively trending system of education that has been placed over conventional campus-based learning worldwide, especially since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to assess e-learning readiness among university students of a developing country like Bangladesh and identify the independent predictors of e-learning readiness. METHODS: From 26 December 2020 to 11 January 2021, a total of 1162 university students who had enrolled for e-learning completed a semi-structured questionnaire. Data were collected online via "Google Form" following the principles of snowball sampling through available social media platforms in Bangladesh. A multivariable linear regression model was fitted to investigate the association of e-learning readiness with perceived e-learning stress and other independent predictor variables. RESULTS: A total of 1162 university students participated in this study. The results indicated that with the increase of students' perceived e-learning stress score, the average e-learning readiness score was significantly decreased (ß = -0.43, 95% CI: -0.66, -0.20). The students did not seem ready, and none of the e-learning readiness scale items reached the highest mean score (5.0). The age, gender, divisional residence, preference of students and their parents, devices used, and having any eye problems were significantly associated with the students' e-learning readiness. CONCLUSION: During the prolonged period of the COVID-19 pandemic, e-learning implication strategies are needed to be assessed systematically with the level of readiness and its' impacts among students for the continuation of sound e-learning systems. The study findings recommend evaluating the e-learning readiness of university students and the mental health outcomes during the COVID-19 catastrophe in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Education, Distance/trends , Students, Medical/psychology , Adult , Bangladesh , Computer-Assisted Instruction , Education, Distance/methods , Female , Forecasting/methods , Humans , Learning , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
4.
Heliyon ; 7(10): e08174, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474595

ABSTRACT

There is some debate whether COVID-19 infection and vaccination will hamper Ramadan among the Muslim population worldwide. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the total proportion of the Bangladeshi population who has adequate knowledge and attitude towards COVID-19 risk of infections and vaccination during Ramadan fasting. A cross-sectional study had conducted among 502 adult participants of Bangladesh. We have used a structured questionnaire which had implemented through a face-to-face interview by trained data collectors. Data were analyzed using statistical package software SPSS version 25.0. Of the 502 participants, 50.2% were male, and most (49.6%) lived in urban areas. About 72.5% and 76.30% reported having adequate knowledge and a positive attitude, respectively, regarding COVID-19 risk of infection and vaccination during Ramadan fasting. Among all variables, no formal education and up to class 8 education had significantly associated with inadequate knowledge (OR = 5.14, 95% CI = 1.63-16.19, and OR = 6.42, 95% CI = 2.55-16.19). Educational status was also associated with attitude (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 1.17-11.55). Current smokers reported a negative attitude in comparison to non-smokers (OR = 2.48, 95% CI = 1.36-4.50). In conclusion, our study found overall moderate knowledge and attitude among the Bangladeshi population towards COVID-19 infection and vaccination. Government should continue its efforts to increase the knowledge and attitude level to a higher level, and anti-smoking campaigns should strengthen to make people stop smoking to reduce the COVID-19 severity.

5.
Clin Exp Vaccine Res ; 10(3): 293-297, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478448

ABSTRACT

A 77-year-old man with a past medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, peripheral neuropathy, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was admitted to the intensive care unit of Bangladesh Medical College Hospital with acute encephalopathy and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). The patient was on antidiabetic medicine along with H2 blocker and multivitamins for his existing diseases. The patient's attendant reported that the patient had received his first dose of the Moderna coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine just 2 days ago. Physical examination revealed that he had a Glasgow Coma Scale of 8/15; a pulse of 106 beats/min; a respiratory rate of 30 breaths/min; oxygen saturation of 80% on room air, which became with 10 L of oxygen and blood pressure of 90/60 mm Hg at the time of admission. During the hospital stay, the patient was treated conservatively with intravenous antibiotics and other necessary medication. Although we have observed the onset of encephalopathy and NSTEMI following COVID vaccination for this patient, we, as healthcare professionals, cannot directly attribute the cause of the complications to the Moderna vaccine without further epidemiological studies with large samples.

6.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257421, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468157

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) quickly surged the whole world and affected people's physical, mental, and social health thereby upsetting their quality of life. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the quality of life (QoL) of COVID-19 positive patients after recovery in Bangladesh. This was a study of adult (aged ≥18 years) COVID-19 individuals from eight divisions of Bangladesh diagnosed and confirmed by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) from June 2020 to November 2020. Given a response rate of 60% in a pilot study, a random list of 6400 COVID-19 patients was generated to recruit approximately 3200 patients from eight divisions of Bangladesh and finally a total of 3244 participants could be recruited for the current study. The validated Bangla version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire was used to assess the QoL. Data were analyzed by STATA (Version 16.1) and R (Version 4.0.0). All the procedures were conducted following ethical approval and in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The mean scores of QoL were highest for the physical domain (68.25±14.45) followed by social (65.10±15.78), psychological (63.28±15.48), and environmental domain (62.77±13.07). Psychological and physical domain scores among females were significantly lower than the males (p<0.001). The overall quality of life was lower in persons having a chronic disease. Participants over 45 years of age were 52% less likely to enjoy good physical health than the participants aged below 26 years (AOR: 0.48, CI: 0.28-0.82). The quality of life of employed participants was found 1.8 times higher than the unemployed (AOR: 1.80, CI: 1.11-2.91). Those who were admitted to hospitals during infection had a low QoL score in physical, psychological, and socials domains. However, QoL improved in all aspect except the psychological domain for each day passed after the diagnosis. These findings call for a focus on the quality of life of the COVID-19 affected population, with special emphasis given to females, older adults, unemployed, and people with comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Quality of Life , Adult , Area Under Curve , Bangladesh , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Smoking , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 4057-4066, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456168

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe COVID-19 infections have already taken more than 4 million lives worldwide. Factors, such as socio-demographics, comorbidities, lifestyles, environment, and so on, have been widely discussed to be associated with increased severity in many countries. The study aimed to determine the risk factors of severe-critical COVID-19 in Bangladesh. Methods: This was a comparative cross-sectional study among various types of COVID-19 patients (both hospitalized and non-hospitalized) confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We have selected 1500 COVID-19 positive patients using a convenient sampling technique and analyzed lifestyle and comorbidity-related data using IBM SPSS-23 statistical package software. Chi-square test and multinomial logistic regression were used to determine risk factors of life-threatening COVID-19 infection. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 43.23 (±15.48) years. The study identified several lifestyle-related factors and common commodities as risk factors for severe-critical COVID-19. The patient's age was one of the most important predictors, as people >59 years were at higher risk (AOR=18.223). Among other lifestyle factors, active smoking (AOR=1.482), exposure to secondary smoking (AOR=1.728), sleep disturbance (AOR=2.208) and attachment with SLT/alcohol/substance abuse (AOR=1.804) were identified as significant predictors for severe-critical COVID-19. Patients those were overweight/obese (AOR=2.105), diabetic (AOR=4.286), hypertensive (AOR=3.363), CKD patients (AOR=8.317), asthma patients (AOR=2.152), CVD patients (AOR=7.747) were also at higher risk of severe-critical COVID-19 infection. Conclusion: This study has identified several vital lifestyles and comorbidity-related risk factors of severe-critical COVID-19. People who have these comorbidities should be under high protection, and risky lifestyles of the general population should modify through the proper educational campaign.

8.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 14: 2429-2436, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403367

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The world is heavily suffering from the COVID-19 pandemic for more than a year, with over 191 million confirmed cases and more than 4.1 million deaths to date. Previous studies have explored several risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but there is still a lack of association with ABO blood type. This study aimed to find out the relationship between the ABO blood group and COVID-19 outcomes in Bangladesh. Subjects and Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary-level COVID-dedicated hospital in Dhaka city, Bangladesh, between April 2020 and November 2020. Records from 771 critically ill patients were extracted who were confirmed for COVID-19 by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, and blood grouping records were available in the health records. Results: The blood groups were 37.35%, 17.38%, 26.46%, and 18.81% for A, B, AB, and O type, respectively. Clinical symptoms were significantly more common in patients with blood type A (p < 0.05). Patients with blood type A had higher WBC counts and peak serum ferritin levels and both were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Patients with blood type A had a greater need for supplemental oxygen, and they were more likely to die in comparison to the patients with other blood types (p < 0.05). In multivariable analysis, our primary outcome death was significantly associated with blood type A (AOR: 3.49, 95% CI: 1.57-7.73) while adjusting for age, male gender, and non-communicable diseases. Conclusion: Based on this study results, it can be concluded that the COVID-19 patients with blood type A have a higher chance of death and other complications. The authors recommend blood grouping before treating the COVID-19 patients, and healthcare workers should prioritize treating the patients based on that result.

10.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 14: 1923-1933, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334844

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Previous studies have explored several risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity, but there is still a lack of association with smoking. Our study aims to find out the association between smoking and COVID-19 severity. Subjects and Methods: This comparative study was conducted among hospitalized severely and critically ill COVID-19 patients, as well as asymptomatic, mild, and moderate patients from the list of the city corporation (Dhaka, Bangladesh), as confirmed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A total of 2022 adults aged ≥18 years were enrolled in this study. Results: The mean age of the patients was 41.17 years; 66.96% of the patients were male, 57.02% were aged above 35 years, and 81.50% of the patients had ever been married; and 33.09% cases were mild and 14.99% were severe. Among the patients, 29.4% were ever-smokers. Smoking status, duration, and frequency, and the presence of comorbidities were significantly associated with COVID-19 severity (p<0.001). Ever-smokers were 1.35 times (95% CI: 0.74-2.45), 1.30 times (95% CI: 0.58-2.87), and 2.45 times (95% CI: 1.07-5.61) more likely to be mild, severe, and critical cases in comparison to non-smokers. Conclusion: This study revealed a strong association between smoking and COVID-19 severity that calls for mass awareness and cessation campaigns from governments and voluntary organizations.

11.
Heliyon ; 7(6): e07376, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286304

ABSTRACT

Aim: Our study aimed to understand the acceptance level of the COVID-19 vaccine and its determinants among the adult Bangladeshi population. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted in all eight divisions of Bangladesh. Data from 7,357 adult respondents were collected between January 17 and February 2, 2021, using a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire. Statistical software STATA (Version 16.1) was used for all analyses. Results: The majority of study participants were from the Dhaka division (34.24%). The most common age group was ≤30 years (46.18%). Almost two-thirds of respondents were male (65.50%) and married (67.76%). A large portion (79.85%) of people who had positive vaccine intentions believed that vaccination should be made mandatory for everyone. The majority of the respondents thought that the vaccine would work against COVID-19 infection (67%). In the binary logistic regression analysis, participants who had the education level of graduation or above (AOR = 1.80), age ≥50 years (AOR = 1.97), students (AOR = 2.98), monthly income ≥41,000 BDT (AOR = 2.22), being resident of rural area (AOR = 2.24), respondents from Khulna division (AOR = 6.43) were more likely to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Those who had family members diagnosed with COVID-19 (AOR = 1.24), presence of chronic disease (AOR = 0.72), and those who were vaccinated in the last few years (AOR = 1.32) were also more likely to accept the COVID-19 vaccine. Conclusion: Most of the respondents were willing to be vaccinated based on the belief that the vaccine will work against COVID-19. As rumors are generating daily, there is a need for policy-level initiative and evidence-based mass media promotion to keep inspired the general Bangladeshi people to accept the COVID-19 vaccine whenever it will be available at the individual level.

12.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 14: 229-238, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136348

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Adequate knowledge, positive attitude, and proper practice of personal protective equipment by healthcare workers are necessary to get protection from COVID-19 infection. But this area is yet to be explored. Hence, we aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding personal protective equipment (PPE) among healthcare workers, along with a survey of the possible determinants. Subjects and Methods: For this cross-sectional study, online and offline surveys were conducted among a sample of 393 healthcare workers from five different districts of Bangladesh. A validated self-administered questionnaire comprising five sections (socio-demography, work-related information, knowledge, attitude, and practice) was used for data collection. Multivariate stepwise forward logistic regression was applied to find significant factors associated with good attitude, and practice using SPSS version 25. Results: The average age of the 393 participants was 28.9±5.2 years with a male-female ratio of one. Of them, 99.5% (n=391) had good knowledge, 88.8% (n=349) had positive attitude and 51.7% (n=203) had good practice regarding PPE. Results revealed that being a physician and living at home were significantly associated with a positive attitude. While being a non-physician, having lower education, working in private hospitals, and using office transport were associated with good practice regarding PPE. Conclusion: The findings demonstrated that the healthcare workers had an overall good knowledge and a positive attitude but a poor practice regarding PPE. This study also highlighted the factors influencing KAP towards PPE that must be addressed in future education, awareness, and counseling programs.

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