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1.
Innovation in Aging ; 5(Supplement_1):809-810, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1584339

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infections are particularly lethal in older adults;thus, social activities of older adults and their families in the community have been restricted. The threat of infection, restrictions on social activities, and limitations on the provision of care services for older adults could increase family caregivers’ burden and impact their mental health. This cross-sectional study examined the association between family caregiving and change in depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. In October 2020, we conducted a mailed questionnaire survey on a random sample of functionally independent community-dwelling older adults in a semi-urban area of Japan. Based on the depression status between March and October 2020, participants were classified into four groups: “consistently non-depressed,” “depression onset,” “recovering from depression,” and “remained depressed.” Participants were assessed for providing care for their family members or not. Caregiver participants were also assessed on their caregiving role (primary or secondary), the severity of their care-recipient’s needs, and an increased caregiver burden. Data from 957 older adults were analyzed. The participants’ mean age (SD) was 80.8 (4.8) years, and 53.5% were female. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that family caregiving was associated with depression onset (OR=3.17 [95%CI=1.57-6.40], p=0.001) and remaining depressed (2.53 [1.36-4.71], p=0.004). Particularly, primary caregivers, those providing care for family members with severer care need-levels, and those with an increased caregiver burden had a higher risk of depression onset and remaining depressed. Family caregivers could have severe mental health conditions during the pandemic. Developing a support system is essential to protect their mental health.

2.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 98: 104555, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525684

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between social frailty and depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older adults during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Additionally, we investigated whether home exercise habits moderated the impact of social frailty on depressive symptoms. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1,103 community-dwelling older adults (54.0% female, mean age [standard deviation] = 81.1 [5.0] years) from a semi-urban area of Japan who completed a mailed questionnaire survey in October 2020. Social frailty status was categorized as non-social frailty, pre-social frailty, and social frailty, which was assessed by financial difficulties, living alone, lack of social activity, and contact with neighbors. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Kessler 6 score ≥5. We performed a multivariable logistic regression analysis to examine the association between social frailty and depressive symptoms, and also conducted stratified analysis of home exercise habits during the pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 309 (28.0%) participants had depressive symptoms. Compared with non-social frailty, social frailty was associated with depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 1.80, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 1.16-2.79, p = 0.009). A similar relationship was observed in those who did not exercise at home (OR = 2.10, 95%CI = 1.14-3.84, p =0.017). However, no such relationship was observed in those who did exercise at home (OR = 1.50, 95%CI = 0.79-2.85, p =0.213). CONCLUSIONS: Social frailty was associated with a risk of depressive symptoms during the pandemic. In addition, our findings suggested that home exercise may buffer the association between social frailty and depressive symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Frail Elderly , Frailty/epidemiology , Habits , Humans , Independent Living , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Psychogeriatrics ; 2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488263

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social distancing measures to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 may cause changes in psychosocial factors. This study aimed to clarify changes in psychosocial factors among older adults before and after Japan's declaration of a state of emergency over coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: This was a longitudinal cohort questionnaire study. A baseline survey was conducted in March 2020, and a follow-up survey was conducted in August 2020. The subjects were 1103 community-dwelling older adults not certified as having long-term care needs who responded to both the baseline and follow-up surveys. Changes in psychosocial factors before and after the state of emergency declaration were analysed by gender using the McNemar-Bowker test. RESULTS: Data for 397 men (mean age ± standard deviation: 80.6 ± 4.7 years) and 486 women (80.3 ± 4.3 years) were analysed in this study. The frequency of meeting friends increased over the study period for men (P = 0.04). An increasing number of women lived alone (P = 0.01). However, many people's financial status improved (P < 0.01), and the number of friends met in the previous month increased (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: None of the examined psychosocial factors worsened, except for the increase in the number of women living alone. However, many of the study subjects refrained from engaging in certain activities. If the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic persists, changes in psychosocial factors may occur. Therefore, a long-term investigation of the secondary psychosocial effects of coronavirus disease 2019 is necessary.

4.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 96: 104468, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283920

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic could increase the mental health burden of family caregivers of older adults, but related reports are limited. We examined the association between family caregiving and changes in the depressive symptom status during the pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 957 (mean age [standard deviation] = 80.8 [4.8] years; 53.5% females) community-dwelling older adults aged ≥ 65 years from a semi-urban area of Japan, who completed a mailed questionnaire. Based on the depressive symptom status assessed with the Two-Question Screen between March and October 2020, participants were classified into four groups: "non-depressive symptoms," "incidence of depressive symptoms," "remission from depressive symptoms," or "persistence of depressive symptoms." Participants were assessed in October 2020 for the family caregiving status, caregiving role, the severity of care recipients' needs, and increased caregiver burden during the pandemic, each with the simple question. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to obtain the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for changes in depressive symptom status. RESULTS: Compared to non-caregivers, family caregivers were associated with the incidence (OR [95% CI] = 3.17 [1.55-6.51], p < 0.01) and persistence of depressive symptoms (OR [95% CI] = 2.39 [1.30-4.38], p < 0.01). Primary caregivers, caregivers for individuals with severe care needs, and caregivers with increased burden during the pandemic had a high risk of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Family caregivers had a high risk of depressive symptoms during the pandemic. Our findings highlight the need for a support system for family caregivers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caregivers , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Family , Female , Humans , Independent Living , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(7): 1352-1356.e2, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240413

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the association between the transition to social isolation and cognitive decline in older adults during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The study included participants from a community in a semiurban area of Japan. We conducted a mailed questionnaire survey of 2000 noninstitutionalized older adults who were randomly sampled. Of those who completed both the baseline and follow-up surveys in March and October 2020, respectively, participants aged ≥70 years without cognitive impairment at baseline were included in the analysis. METHODS: Participants were classified into 4 groups based on their baseline and follow-up social isolation status, which were as follows: "remained nonisolated," "isolated from nonisolation," "nonisolated from isolation," and "consistent isolation." Self-reported cognitive function was assessed using the Cognitive Performance Scale, and level 2 (mild impairment) or higher (moderate to severe impairment) was defined as cognitive impairment. RESULTS: Ultimately, 955 older adults were analyzed. The mean age of the participants was 79.6 years (standard deviation = 4.7) and 54.7% were women. During the follow-up period, 54 (5.7%) participants developed cognitive impairment. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that compared with the group that remained nonisolated, the isolated from nonisolation and consistent isolation groups were significantly associated with the onset of cognitive impairment [isolated from nonisolation: odds ratio (OR) = 2.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-6.61, P = .026; consistent isolation: OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.07-5.05, P = .033]. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a decline in cognitive function among older adults. Attention to the social isolation process during the pandemic may be necessary to protect older adults' cognitive health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Social Isolation
6.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(6): 100311, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230816

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a major global public health concern. Although rapid point-of-care testing for detecting viral antigen is important for management of the outbreak, the current antigen tests are less sensitive than nucleic acid testing. In our current study, we produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that exclusively react with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and exhibit no cross-reactivity with other human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV. Molecular modeling suggests that the mAbs bind to epitopes present on the exterior surface of the nucleocapsid, making them suitable for detecting SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples. We further select the optimal pair of anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (NP) mAbs using ELISA and then use this mAb pair to develop immunochromatographic assay augmented with silver amplification technology. Our mAbs recognize the variants of concern (501Y.V1-V3) that are currently in circulation. Because of their high performance, the mAbs of this study can serve as good candidates for developing antigen detection kits for COVID-19.

7.
Pathol Int ; 70(10): 820-824, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721161

ABSTRACT

A 93-year-old woman was admitted with a 10-day history of cough and prostration. Thoracic computed tomography revealed extensive ground-glass opacities in both the lungs. The polymerase chain reaction test of sputum for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was positive. She was treated with antiviral agents and steroid pulse therapy. However, her oxygen saturation gradually declined, and she died 10 days after hospitalization. The most important autopsy finding was fuzzily segmented diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) that expanded from the subpleural to the medial area. No remarkable changes were observed in organs other than the lungs. Therefore, pneumocytes were suggested as the primary target for SARS-CoV-2, which might explain why coronavirus infectious disease-19 is a serious condition. Thus, early treatment is essential to prevent viral replication from reaching a level that triggers DAD.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Japan , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
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