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1.
ATS Sch ; 3(2): 188-196, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929100

ABSTRACT

Each surge of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic presented new challenges to pulmonary and critical care practitioners. Although some of the initial challenges were somewhat less acute, clinicians now are left to face the physical, emotional, and mental toll of the past 2 years. The pandemic revealed a need for a more varied skillset, including space for reflection, tolerance of uncertainty, and humanism. These skills can assist clinicians who are left to heal from the difficulty of caring for patients in the absence of families who were excluded from the intensive care unit, public distrust of vaccines, and morgues overtaken by our patients. As pulmonary and critical care medicine practitioners and educators, we believe that cultivating practices, pedagogies, and institutional structures that foster narrative competence, "the ability to acknowledge, absorb, interpret, and act on the stories and plights of others," in our ourselves, our trainees, and our colleagues, may provide a productive way forward. In addition to fostering needed skills, this practice can promote necessary healing as well. This perspective introduces the practice of narrative competence, provides evidence of support for its implementation, and suggests opportunities for curricular integration.

2.
Crit Care Explor ; 4(4): e0673, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769407

ABSTRACT

To determine the prevalence and extent of impairments impacting health-related quality of life among survivors of COVID-19 who required mechanical ventilation, 6 months after hospital discharge. DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective cohort study, enrolling adults 18 years old or older with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection who received mechanical ventilation for 48 hours or more and survived to hospital discharge. Eligible patients were contacted 6 months after discharge for telephone-based interviews from March 2020 to December 2020. Assessments included: Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Blind, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Impact of Event Scale-6, EuroQOL 5 domain quality-of-life questionnaire, and components of the Multidimensional Dyspnea Profile. SETTING: Two tertiary academic health systems. PATIENTS: Of 173 eligible survivors, a random sample of 63 were contacted and 60 consented and completed interviews. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Mean age was 57 + 13 years and mean duration of invasive mechanical ventilation was 14 + 8.2 days. Six months post-discharge, 48 patients (80%; 95% CI, 68-88%) met criteria for post-intensive care syndrome (PICS), with one or more domains impaired. Among patients with PICS, 28 (47%; 95% CI, 35-59%) were impaired in at least 2 domains, and 12 (20%; 95% CI, 12-32%) impaired in all three domains. Significant symptoms of post-traumatic stress were present in 20 patients (33%; 95% CI, 23-46%), anxiety in 23 (38%; 95% CI, 27-51%), and depression in 25 (42%; 95% CI, 30-54%). Thirty-three patients (55%; 95% CI, 42-67%) had impairments in physical activity; 25 patients (42%; 95% CI, 30-54%) demonstrated cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: Eighty percent of COVID-19 survivors who required mechanical ventilation demonstrated PICS 6 months after hospital discharge. Patients were commonly impaired in multiple PICS domains as well as coexisting mental health domains.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e221744, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739100

ABSTRACT

Importance: Crisis standards of care (CSOC) scores designed to allocate scarce resources during the COVID-19 pandemic could exacerbate racial disparities in health care. Objective: To analyze the association of a CSOC scoring system with resource prioritization and estimated excess mortality by race, ethnicity, and residence in a socially vulnerable area. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort analysis included adult patients in the intensive care unit during a regional COVID-19 surge from April 13 to May 22, 2020, at 6 hospitals in a health care network in greater Boston, Massachusetts. Participants were scored by acute severity of illness using the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and chronic severity of illness using comorbidity and life expectancy scores, and only participants with complete scores were included. The score was ordinal, with cutoff points suggested by the Massachusetts guidelines. Exposures: Race, ethnicity, Social Vulnerability Index. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was proportion of patients in the lowest priority score category stratified by self-reported race. Secondary outcomes were discrimination and calibration of the score overall and by race, ethnicity, and neighborhood Social Vulnerability Index. Projected excess deaths were modeled by race, using the priority scoring system and a random lottery. Results: Of 608 patients in the intensive care unit during the study period, 498 had complete data and were included in the analysis; this population had a median (IQR) age of 67 (56-75) years, 191 (38.4%) female participants, 79 (15.9%) Black participants, and 225 patients (45.7%) with COVID-19. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the priority score was 0.79 and was similar across racial groups. Black patients were more likely than others to be in the lowest priority group (12 [15.2%] vs 34 [8.1%]; P = .046). In an exploratory simulation model using the score for ventilator allocation, with only those in the highest priority group receiving ventilators, there were 43.9% excess deaths among Black patients (18 of 41 patients) and 28.6% (58 of 203 patients among all others (P = .05); when the highest and intermediate priority groups received ventilators, there were 4.9% (2 of 41 patients) excess deaths among Black patients and 3.0% (6 of 203) among all others (P = .53). A random lottery resulted in more excess deaths than the score. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, a CSOC priority score resulted in lower prioritization of Black patients to receive scarce resources. A model using a random lottery resulted in more estimated excess deaths overall without improving equity by race. CSOC policies must be evaluated for their potential association with racial disparities in health care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Health Care Rationing/statistics & numerical data , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Standard of Care , Aged , Boston , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Female , Health Priorities , Healthcare Disparities , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data
4.
ATS Sch ; 2(3): 452-467, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478979

ABSTRACT

The following is a concise review of the Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine Core reviewing pediatric pulmonary infections, diagnostic assays, and imaging techniques presented at the 2021 American Thoracic Society Core Curriculum. Molecular methods have revolutionized microbiology. We highlight the need to collect appropriate samples for detection of specific pathogens or for panels and understand the limitations of the assays. Considerable progress has been made in imaging modalities for detecting pediatric pulmonary infections. Specifically, lung ultrasound and lung magnetic resonance imaging are promising radiation-free diagnostic tools, with results comparable with their radiation-exposing counterparts, for the evaluation and management of pulmonary infections. Clinicians caring for children with pulmonary disease should ensure that patients at risk for nontuberculous mycobacteria disease are identified and receive appropriate nontuberculous mycobacteria screening, monitoring, and treatment. Children with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) typically present with mild symptoms, but some may develop severe disease. Treatment is mainly supportive care, and most patients make a full recovery. Anticipatory guidance and appropriate counseling from pediatricians on social distancing and diagnostic testing remain vital to curbing the pandemic. The pediatric immunocompromised patient is at risk for invasive and opportunistic pulmonary infections. Prompt recognition of predisposing risk factors, combined with knowledge of clinical characteristics of microbial pathogens, can assist in the diagnosis and treatment of specific bacterial, viral, or fungal diseases.

5.
J Crit Care ; 67: 186-188, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458632

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic taxed critical care and its leaders in unprecedented ways. Medical directors, nursing directors, division chiefs and department chairs were forced to lead their staff through a pandemic wrought with personal and professional safety concerns, uncertainty, and more death than most critical care practitioners had ever seen. No leader was fully prepared for the COVID-19 pandemic. Herein, we describe what we believe are the three most important qualities of a leader in times of crisis: presence, transparency, and empathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Critical Care , Humans , Leadership , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Dimens Crit Care Nurs ; 40(6): 321-327, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prone positioning has been used as an intervention to improve oxygenation in critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. During the COVID-19 pandemic, resources were even more limited given a surge in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients, which outstripped intensive care unit (ICU) capacity at many institutions. LOCAL PROBLEM: The purpose of this article is to describe the development and implementation of a proning team during the surge in ICU patients with COVID-19 and to measure the impact of the program through surveys of staff involved. METHODS/INTERVENTIONS: A proning protocol and educational plan was developed. A proning team of redeployed staff was created. A survey of ICU registered nurses and proning team members was used to evaluate the benefits and challenges of the proning team. RESULTS: The proning team was successful in safely performing more than 300 proning and supinating maneuvers for critically ill patients. There is overwhelming support within the institution for a proning team for future COVID-19 surges. DISCUSSION: The development and implementation of the proning team happened quickly to assist with the surge of patients and off-load work from ICU registered nurses. Despite the success of the proning team, more clearly defined roles and expectations, as well as additional education, are needed to further enhance teamwork and workflow. CONCLUSIONS: Creation of the proning team was a creative use of resources that helped manage the large and medically complex patient population. This work may serve as a guide to other health care institutions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Prone Position , SARS-CoV-2
8.
ATS Sch ; 1(4): 416-435, 2020 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191227

ABSTRACT

The American Thoracic Society Core Curriculum updates clinicians annually in adult and pediatric pulmonary disease, medical critical care, and sleep medicine in a 3- to 4-year recurring cycle of topics. The topics of the 2020 Pulmonary Core Curriculum include pulmonary vascular disease (submassive pulmonary embolism, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and pulmonary hypertension) and pulmonary infections (community-acquired pneumonia, pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria, opportunistic infections in immunocompromised hosts, and coronavirus disease [COVID-19]).

9.
J Crit Care ; 63: 106-112, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101349

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) secondary to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has demonstrated variable oxygenation and respiratory-system mechanics without investigation of transpulmonary and chest-wall mechanics. This study describes lung, chest wall and respiratory-system mechanics in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and ARDS. METHODS: Data was collected from forty patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 and ARDS at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts. Esophageal balloons were placed to estimate pleural and transpulmonary pressures. Clinical characteristics, respiratory-system, transpulmonary, and chest-wall mechanics were measured over the first week. RESULTS: Patients had moderate-severe ARDS (PaO2/FiO2 123[98-149]) and were critically ill (APACHE IV 108 [94-128] and SOFA 12 [11-13]). PaO2/FiO2 improved over the first week (150 mmHg [122.9-182] to 185 mmHg [138-228] (p = 0.035)). Respiratory system (30-35 ml/cm H2O), lung (40-50 ml/cm H2O) and chest wall (120-150 ml/cm H2O) compliance remained similar over the first week. Elevated basal pleural pressures correlated with BMI. Patients required prolonged mechanical ventilation (14.5 days [9.5-19.0]), with a mortality of 32.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Patients displayed normal chest-wall mechanics, with increased basal pleural pressure. Respiratory system and lung mechanics were similar to known existing ARDS cohorts. The wide range of respiratory system mechanics illustrates the inherent heterogeneity that is consistent with typical ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Mechanics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , APACHE , Aged , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology
10.
Eur Respir Rev ; 29(157)2020 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835811

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2. Consensus suggestions can standardise care, thereby improving outcomes and facilitating future research. METHODS: An International Task Force was composed and agreement regarding courses of action was measured using the Convergence of Opinion on Recommendations and Evidence (CORE) process. 70% agreement was necessary to make a consensus suggestion. RESULTS: The Task Force made consensus suggestions to treat patients with acute COVID-19 pneumonia with remdesivir and dexamethasone but suggested against hydroxychloroquine except in the context of a clinical trial; these are revisions of prior suggestions resulting from the interim publication of several randomised trials. It also suggested that COVID-19 patients with a venous thromboembolic event be treated with therapeutic anticoagulant therapy for 3 months. The Task Force was unable to reach sufficient agreement to yield consensus suggestions for the post-hospital care of COVID-19 survivors. The Task Force fell one vote shy of suggesting routine screening for depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The Task Force addressed questions related to pharmacotherapy in patients with COVID-19 and the post-hospital care of survivors, yielding several consensus suggestions. Management options for which there is insufficient agreement to formulate a suggestion represent research priorities.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees/organization & administration , Betacoronavirus , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , International Cooperation , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pulmonary Medicine/standards , Societies, Medical , COVID-19 , Europe , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
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