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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312170

ABSTRACT

Background: The clinical progress of patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 is often associated with severe pneumonia which may require intensive care, invasive ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The length of intensive care and the duration of these supportive therapies are clinically relevant outcomes. From the statistical perspective, these quantities are challenging to estimate due to episodes being time-dependent and potentially multiple, as well as being determined by the competing, terminal events of discharge alive and death. Methods: We used multistate models to study COVID-19 patients’ time-dependent progress and provide a statistical framework to estimate hazard rates and transition probabilities. These estimates can then be used to quantify average sojourn times of clinically important states such as intensive care and invasive ventilation. We have made two real data sets of COVID-19 patients (n = 24* and n = 53**) and the corresponding statistical code publically available. Results: The expected lengths of intensive care unit (ICU) stay at day 28 for the two cohorts were 15.05* and 19.62** days, while expected durations of mechanical ventilation were 7.97* and 9.85** days. Predicted mortality stood at 51%* and 15%**. Patients mechanically ventilated at the start of the example studies had a longer expected duration of ventilation (12.25*, 14.57** days) compared to patients non-ventilated (4.34*, 1.41** days) after 28 days. Furthermore, initially ventilated patients had a higher risk of death (54%* and 20%** vs. 48%* and 6 %**) after 4 weeks. These results are further illustrated in stacked probability plots for the two groups from time zero, as well as for the entire cohort which depicts the predicted proportions of the patients in each state over follow-up. Conclusions: The multistate approach gives important insights into the progress of COVID-19 patients in terms of ventilation duration, length of ICU stay, and mortality. In addition to avoiding frequent pitfalls in survival analysis, the methodology enables active cases to be analyzed by allowing for censoring. The stacked probability plots provide extensive information in a concise manner that can be easily conveyed to decision makers regarding healthcare capacities. Furthermore, clear comparisons can be among different baseline characteristics.

4.
Crit Care Med ; 49(1): e11-e19, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910342

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Many trials investigate potential effects of treatments for coronavirus disease 2019. To provide sufficient information for all involveddecision-makers (clinicians, public health authorities, and drug regulatory agencies), a multiplicity of endpoints must be considered. The objectives are to provide hands-on statistical guidelines for harmonizing heterogeneous endpoints in coronavirus disease 2019 clinical trials. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trials for patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019. SETTING: General methods that apply to any randomized controlled trial for patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019. PATIENTS: Coronavirus disease 2019 positive individuals. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We develop a multistate model that is based on hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, death, and discharge. These events are both categories of the ordinal endpoint recommended by the World Health Organization and also within the core outcome set of the Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials initiative for coronavirus disease 2019 trials. To support our choice of states in the multistate model, we also perform a brief review of registered coronavirus disease 2019 clinical trials. Based on the multistate model, we give recommendation for compact, informative illustration of time-dynamic treatment effects and explorative statistical analysis. A majority of coronavirus disease 2019 clinical trials collect information on mechanical ventilation, hospitalization, and death. Using reconstructed and real data of coronavirus disease 2019 trials, we show how a stacked probability plot provides a detailed understanding of treatment effects on the patients' course of hospital stay. It contributes to harmonizing multiple endpoints and differing lengths of follow-up both within and between trials. CONCLUSIONS: All ongoing clinical trials should include a stacked probability plot in their statistical analysis plan as descriptive analysis. While primary analysis should be on an early endpoint with appropriate capability to be a surrogate (parameter), our multistate model provides additional detailed descriptive information and links results within and between coronavirus disease 2019 trials.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Endpoint Determination , Humans , Research Design
5.
Clin Epidemiol ; 12: 925-928, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781765

ABSTRACT

By definition, in-hospital patient data are restricted to the time between hospital admission and discharge (alive or dead). For hospitalised cases of COVID-19, a number of events during hospitalization are of interest regarding the influence of risk factors on the likelihood of experiencing these events. The same is true for predicting times from hospital admission of COVID-19 patients to intensive care or from start of ventilation (invasive or non-invasive) to extubation. This logical restriction of the data to the period of hospitalisation is associated with a substantial risk that inappropriate methods are used for analysis. Here, we briefly discuss the most common types of bias which can occur when analysing in-hospital COVID-19 data.

6.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 206, 2020 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705522

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical progress of patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 is often associated with severe pneumonia which may require intensive care, invasive ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The length of intensive care and the duration of these supportive therapies are clinically relevant outcomes. From the statistical perspective, these quantities are challenging to estimate due to episodes being time-dependent and potentially multiple, as well as being determined by the competing, terminal events of discharge alive and death. METHODS: We used multistate models to study COVID-19 patients' time-dependent progress and provide a statistical framework to estimate hazard rates and transition probabilities. These estimates can then be used to quantify average sojourn times of clinically important states such as intensive care and invasive ventilation. We have made two real data sets of COVID-19 patients (n = 24* and n = 53**) and the corresponding statistical code publically available. RESULTS: The expected lengths of intensive care unit (ICU) stay at day 28 for the two cohorts were 15.05* and 19.62** days, while expected durations of mechanical ventilation were 7.97* and 9.85** days. Predicted mortality stood at 51%* and 15%**. Patients mechanically ventilated at the start of the example studies had a longer expected duration of ventilation (12.25*, 14.57** days) compared to patients non-ventilated (4.34*, 1.41** days) after 28 days. Furthermore, initially ventilated patients had a higher risk of death (54%* and 20%** vs. 48%* and 6%**) after 4 weeks. These results are further illustrated in stacked probability plots for the two groups from time zero, as well as for the entire cohort which depicts the predicted proportions of the patients in each state over follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The multistate approach gives important insights into the progress of COVID-19 patients in terms of ventilation duration, length of ICU stay, and mortality. In addition to avoiding frequent pitfalls in survival analysis, the methodology enables active cases to be analyzed by allowing for censoring. The stacked probability plots provide extensive information in a concise manner that can be easily conveyed to decision makers regarding healthcare capacities. Furthermore, clear comparisons can be made among different baseline characteristics.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Algorithms , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Compassionate Use Trials/methods , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Care/methods , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Models, Theoretical , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , Survival Rate , Time Factors
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