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1.
J Pers Med ; 12(2)2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715471

ABSTRACT

Frequent viral load testing is necessary during analytical treatment interruptions (ATIs) in HIV cure-directed clinical trials, though such may be burdensome and inconvenient to trial participants. We implemented a national, cross-sectional survey in the United States to examine the acceptability of a novel home-based peripheral blood collection device for HIV viral load testing. Between June and August 2021, we distributed an online survey to people with HIV (PWH) and community members, biomedical HIV cure researchers and HIV care providers. We performed descriptive analyses to summarize the results. We received 73 survey responses, with 51 from community members, 12 from biomedical HIV cure researchers and 10 from HIV care providers. Of those, 51 (70%) were cisgender men and 50 (68%) reported living with HIV. Most (>80% overall) indicated that the device would be helpful during ATI trials and they would feel comfortable using it themselves or recommending it to their patients/participants. Of the 50 PWH, 42 (84%) indicated they would use the device if they were participating in an ATI trial and 27 (54%) also expressed a willingness to use the device outside of HIV cure studies. Increasing sensitivity of viral load tests and pluri-potency of the device (CD4 count, chemistries) would augment acceptability. Survey findings provide evidence that viral load home testing would be an important adjunct to ongoing HIV cure-directed trials involving ATIs. Survey findings may help inform successful implementation and uptake of the device in the context of personalized HIV care.

2.
Cell Rep ; 38(8): 110399, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664737

ABSTRACT

Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells promote, whereas follicular regulatory T (Tfr) cells restrain, germinal center (GC) reactions. However, the precise roles of these cells in the complex GC reaction remain poorly understood. Here, we perturb Tfh or Tfr cells after SARS-CoV-2 spike protein vaccination in mice. We find that Tfh cells promote the frequency and somatic hypermutation (SHM) of Spike-specific GC B cells and regulate clonal diversity. Tfr cells similarly control SHM and clonal diversity in the GC but do so by limiting clonal competition. In addition, deletion of Tfh or Tfr cells during primary vaccination results in changes in SHM after vaccine boosting. Aged mice, which have altered Tfh and Tfr cells, have lower GC responses, presenting a bimodal distribution of SHM. Together, these data demonstrate that GC responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein vaccines require a fine balance of positive and negative follicular T cell help to optimize humoral immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Germinal Center/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/administration & dosage , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Aging , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Germinal Center/cytology , Germinal Center/metabolism , Immunity, Humoral , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/cytology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/cytology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism , Vaccination , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology
3.
J Infect Dis ; 224(Supplement_1): S1-S21, 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263668

ABSTRACT

The NIH Virtual SARS-CoV-2 Antiviral Summit, held on 6 November 2020, was organized to provide an overview on the status and challenges in developing antiviral therapeutics for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including combinations of antivirals. Scientific experts from the public and private sectors convened virtually during a live videocast to discuss severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) targets for drug discovery as well as the preclinical tools needed to develop and evaluate effective small-molecule antivirals. The goals of the Summit were to review the current state of the science, identify unmet research needs, share insights and lessons learned from treating other infectious diseases, identify opportunities for public-private partnerships, and assist the research community in designing and developing antiviral therapeutics. This report includes an overview of therapeutic approaches, individual panel summaries, and a summary of the discussions and perspectives on the challenges ahead for antiviral development.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Drug Development , Humans , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , United States , Virus Replication/drug effects
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(15)2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152940

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) research and antiviral discovery are hampered by the lack of a cell-based virus replication system that can be readily adopted without biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) restrictions. Here, the construction of a noninfectious SARS-CoV-2 reporter replicon and its application in deciphering viral replication mechanisms and evaluating SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors are presented. The replicon genome is replication competent but does not produce progeny virions. Its replication can be inhibited by RdRp mutations or by known SARS-CoV-2 antiviral compounds. Using this system, a high-throughput antiviral assay has also been developed. Significant differences in potencies of several SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors in different cell lines were observed, which highlight the challenges of discovering antivirals capable of inhibiting viral replication in vivo and the importance of testing compounds in multiple cell culture models. The generation of a SARS-CoV-2 replicon provides a powerful platform to expand the global research effort to combat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Replicon/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Replicon/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
5.
RSC Chem Biol ; 2(1): 30-46, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1149754

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that has led to a global economic disruption and collapse. With several ongoing efforts to develop vaccines and treatments for COVID-19, understanding the molecular interaction between the coronavirus, host cells, and the immune system is critical for effective therapeutic interventions. Greater insight into these mechanisms will require the contribution and combination of multiple scientific disciplines including the techniques and strategies that have been successfully deployed by chemical biology to tease apart complex biological pathways. We highlight in this review well-established strategies and methods to study coronavirus-host biophysical interactions and discuss the impact chemical biology will have on understanding these interactions at the molecular level.

6.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(2): e1009225, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088773

ABSTRACT

Since the initial report of the novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) emanating from Wuhan, China, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread globally. While the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection are not completely understood, there appears to be a wide spectrum of disease ranging from mild symptoms to severe respiratory distress, hospitalization, and mortality. There are no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatments for COVID-19 aside from remdesivir; early efforts to identify efficacious therapeutics for COVID-19 have mainly focused on drug repurposing screens to identify compounds with antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in cellular infection systems. These screens have yielded intriguing hits, but the use of nonhuman immortalized cell lines derived from non-pulmonary or gastrointestinal origins poses any number of questions in predicting the physiological and pathological relevance of these potential interventions. While our knowledge of this novel virus continues to evolve, our current understanding of the key molecular and cellular interactions involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection is discussed in order to provide a framework for developing the most appropriate in vitro toolbox to support current and future drug discovery efforts.


Subject(s)
Drug Discovery , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Tropism , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cathepsins , Cell Line , Drug Development , Endocytosis , Furin , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Serine Endopeptidases
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