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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313423

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 is pandemic across the world since the severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 emerged in December 2019. The most efficient method to defend COVID 19 is vaccine. Here, we used HEK293 cell line to produce the recombinant protein and compared several vaccine candidates’ efficiency. The structures of the candidates were designed based on the S1 protein and RBD region. After three doses, the vaccines induced SARS-CoV-2 specific neutralizing antibodies in mice which presented high titers. The maximum neutralization activity could reach more than 90% without inflammation suggesting the great neutralizing ability against SARS-CoV-2.

4.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(18): 1446, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436465

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) poses a global health emergency, and cases entering China from Russia are quite diverse. This study explored and compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes of severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients from Russia with and without influenza A infection, treated in a northern Chinese hospital (Russia imported patients). METHODS: A total of 32 severe and critically ill Russia-imported COVID-19 patients treated in the Heilongjiang Imported Severe and Critical COVID-19 Treatment Center from April 6 to May 11, 2020 were included, including 8 cases (group A) with and 24 cases (group B) without influenza A infection. The clinical characteristics of each group were compared, including prolonged hospital stay, duration of oxygen therapy, time from onset to a negative SARS-CoV-2 qRT-PCR RNA (Tneg) result, and duration of bacterial infection. RESULTS: The results showed that blood group, PaO2/FiO2, prothrombin time (PT), prothrombin activity (PTA), computed tomography (CT) score, hospital stay, duration of oxygenation therapy, Tneg, and duration of bacterial infection were statistically different between the two groups (P<0.05). Multivariant regression analysis showed that the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, C-reactive protein (CRP), and influenza A infection were factors influencing hospital stay; SOFA score, CRP, and CT score were factors influencing the duration of oxygenation therapy; PaO2/FiO2, platelet count (PLT), and CRP were factors influencing Tneg; and gender, SOFA score, and influenza A infection were factors influencing the duration of bacterial infection. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza A infection is common in Russia-imported COVID-19 patients, which can prolong the hospital stay and duration of bacterial infection. Routinely screening and treating influenza A should be conducted early in such patients.

5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 585851, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268255

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global public health crisis. Reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were observed in COVID-19 patients. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between LDL-C levels and the prognosis of severe and critical COVID-19 patients. A total of 211 severe and critical COVID-19 patients were enrolled and divided into four groups according to the LDL-C levels, including 53 patients in Group A (LDL-C ≥ 2.71 mmol/L), 53 patients in Group B (2.28 ≤ LDL-C < 2.71 mmol/L), 53 patients in Group C (1.83 ≤ LDL-C < 2.28 mmol/L) and 52 patients in Group D (LDL-C < 1.83 mmol/L). LDL-C levels were lower in critically ill patients than in severe patients. The main symptoms before admission, characteristics on admission and comorbidities of enrolled patients did not differ among the four groups. Compared with patients with high LDL-C levels, patients with low LDL-C levels were more likely to have immune and inflammation dysfunction, renal dysfunction, liver dysfunction and cardiac dysfunction on admission. The proportions of patients with shock and acute cardiac injury, of those admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) and of those treated with mechanical ventilation were inversely related to LDL-C level. The mortality of COVID-19 patients increased with LDL-C reduction. Serum LDL-C levels of COVID-19 patients was negatively correlated with CRP level, but positively correlated with lymphocyte count, as shown by Pearson correlation analysis. Proportional hazard models showed that low LDL-C levels were associated with increased risk of hospitalization death, cardiac injury and admission to the ICU. Taken together, these results suggest that decreased LDL-C levels indicate poor prognosis of severe and critical COVID-19 patients.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(3): e018510, 2021 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221677

ABSTRACT

Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic disproportionately affects individuals with hypertension and health disparities. Methods and Results We assessed the experiences and beliefs of low-income and minority patients with hypertension during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants (N=587) from the IMPACTS-BP (Implementation of Multifaceted Patient-Centered Treatment Strategies for Intensive Blood Pressure Control) study completed a telephone survey in May and June of 2020. Participants were 65.1% Black and 59.7% female, and 57.7% reported an income below the federal poverty level. Overall, 2.7% tested positive and 15.3% had lost a family member or friend to COVID-19. These experiences were significantly more common in Black (3.9% and 19.4%, respectively) than in non-Black participants (0.5% and 7.8%, respectively). In addition, 14.5% lost a job and 15.9% reported food shortages during the pandemic. Most participants complied with stay-at-home orders (98.3%), social distancing (97.8%), and always wearing a mask outside their home (74.6%). Participants also reported high access to needed health care (94.7%) and prescription medications (97.6%). Furthermore, 95.7% of respondents reported that they continued to take their regular dosage of antihypertensive medications. Among the 44.5% of participants receiving a healthcare appointment by telehealth, 96.6% got the help they needed, and 80.8% reported that the appointment quality was as good as or better than in-person visits. Finally, 88.9% were willing to return to their primary care clinic. Conclusions These data suggest that low-income patients, especially Black patients, were negatively impacted by COVID-19. However, most patients were able to access needed healthcare services and were willing to return to their primary care clinic for hypertension management. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03483662.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Hypertension/epidemiology , Income , Pandemics , Telemedicine/methods , Comorbidity , Culture , Female , Humans , Louisiana/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mississippi/epidemiology , Poverty , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(8): 1768-1777, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145693

ABSTRACT

Aim: In other respiratory infectious diseases, obesity may be associated with a poor outcome. For coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the association between obesity and severity or prognosis requires further analysis. Methods: This was a retrospective, single-center study. Hospitalized patients were recruited in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 2, 2020 to February 20, 2020. The data of body mass index (BMI) was obtained from follow-up of surviving patients. According to BMI, normal weight was defined as 18.5-23.9 kg/m2, overweight as 24.0-27.9 kg/m2 and obesity as > 28.0 kg/m2. Results: A total of 463 patients were enrolled, of which 242 (52.3%) patients were in the normal weight group; 179 (38.7%) were in the overweight group; and 42 (9.1%) were in the obesity group. Compared to the normal group, obese patients were more likely to have a higher heart rate; lower finger oxygen saturation; higher levels of white blood cells, neutrophil counts, basophil counts, intravenous glucose, triacylglycerol, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase-MB, CD19+ cell counts and percentage; and lower levels of monocyte percentage, high density lipoprotein and CD3+ cell percentage. In addition, the proportions of hypertension (21.5% vs. 42.6%) and severe+critical illness (47.8 vs. 81.0 %) were significantly higher in the obesity group than those in normal group. However, no significant differences were observed between the normal and obesity groups in critical illness, organ damage and defined endpoint (mechanical ventilation or intensive care unit). Multiple logistic regression showed that obesity increased the risk of developing severe+critical illness (Odd ratio 3.586, 95% CI 1.550-8.298, P=0.003) in patients with COVID-19, and did not affect the risk of critical illness, organ damage and endpoints. Overweight did not affect the risk of severity, organ damage or endpoint in patients with COVID-19. Conclusion: Obesity may be a risk factor for developing severity in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Obesity/complications , Aged , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/blood , Obesity/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(3): e018510, 2021 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066981

ABSTRACT

Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic disproportionately affects individuals with hypertension and health disparities. Methods and Results We assessed the experiences and beliefs of low-income and minority patients with hypertension during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants (N=587) from the IMPACTS-BP (Implementation of Multifaceted Patient-Centered Treatment Strategies for Intensive Blood Pressure Control) study completed a telephone survey in May and June of 2020. Participants were 65.1% Black and 59.7% female, and 57.7% reported an income below the federal poverty level. Overall, 2.7% tested positive and 15.3% had lost a family member or friend to COVID-19. These experiences were significantly more common in Black (3.9% and 19.4%, respectively) than in non-Black participants (0.5% and 7.8%, respectively). In addition, 14.5% lost a job and 15.9% reported food shortages during the pandemic. Most participants complied with stay-at-home orders (98.3%), social distancing (97.8%), and always wearing a mask outside their home (74.6%). Participants also reported high access to needed health care (94.7%) and prescription medications (97.6%). Furthermore, 95.7% of respondents reported that they continued to take their regular dosage of antihypertensive medications. Among the 44.5% of participants receiving a healthcare appointment by telehealth, 96.6% got the help they needed, and 80.8% reported that the appointment quality was as good as or better than in-person visits. Finally, 88.9% were willing to return to their primary care clinic. Conclusions These data suggest that low-income patients, especially Black patients, were negatively impacted by COVID-19. However, most patients were able to access needed healthcare services and were willing to return to their primary care clinic for hypertension management. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03483662.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Hypertension/epidemiology , Income , Pandemics , Telemedicine/methods , Comorbidity , Culture , Female , Humans , Louisiana/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mississippi/epidemiology , Poverty , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 334-346, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-703039

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Convalescent plasma (CP) has been used successfully to treat many types of infectious disease, and has shown initial effects in the treatment of the emerging 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). However, its curative effects and feasibility have yet to be confirmed by formal evaluation and well-designed clinical trials. To explore the effectiveness of treatment and predict the potential effects of CP with COVID-19, studies of different types of infectious disease treated with CP were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: Related studies were obtained from databases and screened according to the inclusion criteria. The data quality was assessed, and the data were extracted and pooled for analysis. RESULTS: 40 studies on CP treatment for infectious diseases were included. Our study found that CP treatment could reduce the risk of mortality, with a low incidence of adverse events, promote the production of antibodies, lead to a decline in viral load, and shorten the disease course. A meta-analysis of 15 controlled studies showed that there was a significantly lower mortality rate in the group treated with CP (pooled OR=0.32; 95% CI=0.19-0.52; p<0.001, I2=54%) compared with the control groups. Studies were mostly of low or very low quality, with a moderate or high risk of bias. The sources of clinical and methodological heterogeneity were identified. The exclusion of heterogeneity indicated that the results were stable. CONCLUSIONS: CP therapy has some curative effect and is well tolerated in treating infectious diseases. It is a potentially effective treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Plasma/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
10.
Applied Sciences ; 10(14):4930, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-652667

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global public health crisis due to its high contagious characteristics. In this article, we propose a new epidemic-dynamics model combining the transmission characteristics of COVID-19 and then use the reported epidemic data from 15 February to 30 June to simulate the spread of the Italian epidemic. Numerical simulations showed that (1) there was a remarkable amount of asymptomatic individuals;(2) the lockdown measures implemented by Italy effectively controlled the spread of the outbreak;(3) the Italian epidemic has been effectively controlled, but SARS-CoV-2 will still exist for a long time;and (4) the intervention of the government is an important factor that affects the spread of the epidemic.

11.
Hypertension ; 76(3): 732-741, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641910

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is one of the most common comorbidities in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to clarify the impact of hypertension on COVID-19 and investigate whether the prior use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors affects the prognosis of COVID-19. A total of 996 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled, including 282 patients with hypertension and 714 patients without hypertension. Propensity score-matched analysis (1:1 matching) was used to adjust the imbalanced baseline variables between the 2 groups. Patients with hypertension were further divided into the RAAS inhibitor group (n=41) and non-RAAS inhibitor group (n=241) according to their medication history. The results showed that COVID-19 patients with hypertension had more severe secondary infections, cardiac and renal dysfunction, and depletion of CD8+ cells on admission. Patients with hypertension were more likely to have comorbidities and complications and were more likely to be classified as critically ill than those without hypertension. Cox regression analysis revealed that hypertension (hazard ratio, 95% CI, unmatched cohort [1.80, 1.20-2.70]; matched cohort [2.24, 1.36-3.70]) was independently associated with all-cause mortality in patients with COVID-19. In addition, hypertensive patients with a history of RAAS inhibitor treatment had lower levels of C-reactive protein and higher levels of CD4+ cells. The mortality of patients in the RAAS inhibitor group (9.8% versus 26.1%) was significantly lower than that of patients in the non-RAAS inhibitor group. In conclusion, hypertension may be an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in patients with COVID-19. Patients who previously used RAAS inhibitors may have a better prognosis.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Coronavirus Infections , Essential Hypertension , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Essential Hypertension/diagnosis , Essential Hypertension/drug therapy , Essential Hypertension/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Clin Chim Acta ; 510: 220-227, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634044

ABSTRACT

Cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been breaking out around the world recently. However, the dynamic changes in the clinical symptoms and prognosis of COVID-19 patients remain unknown. According to the onset time of initial clinical symptoms, 843 COVID-19 patients admitted between Jan 22 and Feb 14, 2020 were divided into three groups: group A (Jan 21 to Jan 25, n = 324), group B (Jan 26 to Jan 31, n = 358) and group C (Feb 1 to Feb 10, n = 161). Data on the demographics, symptoms, first laboratory results, treatments and outcomes (within 12 days of hospitalization) were collected. The results showed that the median duration from symptom onset to admission shortened over time (13, 10 and 5 days, respectively, p < 0.05). Fewer patients had fever symptoms and bilateral pneumonia in group C than in the group A and B. Laboratory results showed that white blood cell, neutrophil, and platelet counts, lactic acid and D-dimer levels were lower, while lymphocyte, CD3, and CD8 counts were higher in group C. In addition, group C had more mild-moderate cases and fewer severe cases than the other two groups. More importantly, the incidence of complications (18.5%, 14.2% and 11.2%, respectively, p < 0.05) and all-cause mortality (11.7%, 8.4%, and 5.6%, respectively, p < 0.05) decreased over time. The clinical characteristics and prognosis of COVID-19 patients changed over time. Improved prognosis was found at a later stage.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Hospitalization/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(11): 10070-10086, 2020 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-541306

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Information about the clinical characteristics and mortality of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 at different ages is limited. RESULTS: The older group had more patients with dyspnea and fewer patients with fever and muscle pain. Older patients had more underlying diseases, secondary infection, myocardial injury, renal dysfunction, coagulation dysfunction, and immune dysfunction on admission. More older patients received immunoglobulin therapy and mechanical ventilation. The proportions of patients with multiple organ injuries, critically ill patients and death increased significantly with age. The older groups had higher cumulative death risk than the younger group. Hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, comorbidities, acute cardiac injury, shock and complications are independent predictors of death. CONCLUSIONS: The symptoms of the elderly patients were more atypical, with more comorbidities, secondary infection, organ injuries, immune dysfunction and a higher risk of critical illness. Older age was an important risk factor for mortality. METHODS: 1000 patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 from January 1, 2020 to February 14, 2020 were enrolled. According to age, patients were divided into group 1 (<60 years old), group 2 (60-74 years old) and group 3 (≥75 years old). The clinical symptoms, first laboratory results, CT findings, organ injuries, disease severity and mortality were analyzed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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