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1.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 88(5): 2180-2189, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895952

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To explore and describe the adverse reaction signals in the safety reporting for alpelisib. METHODS: We performed a disproportionality analysis of the World Health Organization's VigiBase pharmacovigilance database from 1 January 2019 to 30 June 2021. Disproportionality analysis by information components (ICs) were used to evaluate the potential association between adverse events (AEs) and alpelisib. RESULTS: A total of 33 327 reports were extracted, 5695 of them were chosen with alpelisib as the suspected drug. After combining the same ID, 687 cases remained. The 45-64-years group had the most cases (n = 203, 29.55%). There were 129 Preferred Terms with significant signals. Hyperglycaemia (IC025 = 6.74), breast cancer metastatic (IC025 = 5.85) and metastases to liver (IC025 = 4.70) were the AEs with the strongest signal. AEs with the most cases were hyperglycaemia (n = 595), rash (n = 535) and diarrhoea (n = 475). CONCLUSION: We established a comprehensive list of AEs potentially associated with alpelisib. AEs with the most significant signals were hyperglycaemia, breast cancer metastatic, metastases to liver. The AEs with the most cases were hyperglycaemia, rash, diarrhoea, blood glucose increase and nausea.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Exanthema , Hyperglycemia , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Databases, Factual , Diarrhea , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Pharmacovigilance , Thiazoles , World Health Organization
2.
Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol ; 15: 947-954, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866436

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has developed into a worldwide pandemic, which presents several challenges for frontline health-care workers (HCWs). HCWs are highly prone to various skin diseases due to prolonged use of personal protective equipment (PPE). The most frequently used type of PPE is facemasks. To effectively control adverse skin reactions, there is an urgent need for a range of preventive practices. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at 12 hospitals in Zhejiang province, China. HCWs were invited to participate in the web survey. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers using a predesigned data collection form and analyzed with SPSS 20.0. Results: A total of 1147 questionnaires were collected, and of these, 1090 (95.03%) were valid and returned. The incidence of chest tightness and shortness of breath and face eczema was significantly higher in HCWs wearing N95 facemasks (41.91%; 31.62%) than in the HCWs wearing medical facemasks (38.05%, P = 0.010; 21.91%, P = 0.012). The incidence of ear pain and indentation was significantly higher in HCWs wearing hang-facemasks (83.81%) than in HCWs wearing strains-facemasks (61.19%, P < 0.001). The incidence of ear pain and indentation was significantly higher in HCWs wearing undiscriminating size code facemasks (79.88%) than in the HCWs wearing discriminating size code facemasks (67.86%, P = 0.031). There was a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in the incidence of HCWs without adverse reactions (ADRs) with increasing time wearing facemasks. Conclusion: Incidence of ADRs does not significantly increase with the durations of mask wear where wearing mask time exceeded 4 hours per day. The medical staff generally wore masks for more than 4 hours per day; therefore, we recommend taking 15 min of rest after 2 hours of mask-wearing. Results in this study support the conclusion that the type of strain-facemasks and discriminating size code facemasks has a lower incidence of ADRs than other type of medical facemasks.

3.
Anal Chem ; 94(22): 8041-8049, 2022 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864719

ABSTRACT

It is intriguing to modulate the fluorescence emission of DNA-scaffolded silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) via confined strand displacement and transient concatenate ligation for amplifiable biosensing of a DNA segment related to SARS-CoV-2 (s2DNA). Herein, three stem-loop structural hairpins for signaling, recognizing, and assisting are designed to assemble a variant three-way DNA device (3WDD) with the aid of two linkers, in which orange-emitting AgNC (oAgNC) is stably clustered and populated in the closed loop of a hairpin reporter. The presence of s2DNA initiates the toehold-mediated strand displacement that is confined in this 3WDD for repeatable recycling amplification, outputting numerous hybrid DNA-duplex conformers that are implemented for a transient "head-tail-head" tandem ligation one by one. As a result, the oAgNC-hosted hairpin loops are quickly opened in loose coil motifs, bringing a significant fluorescence decay of multiple clusters dependent on s2DNA. Demonstrations and understanding of the tunable spectral performance of a hairpin loop-wrapped AgNC via switching 3WDD conformation would be highly beneficial to open a new avenue for applicable biosensing, bioanalysis, or clinical diagnostics.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , DNA/chemistry , DNA/genetics , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Silver/chemistry , Spectrometry, Fluorescence
4.
Clin Rheumatol ; 41(6): 1899-1910, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical outcomes of patients with rheumatic diseases infected with COVID-19 were inconsistent characteristics across regions and time periods. We need to revisit and sort out the clinical characteristics of these patients at the beginning of the global COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: We collected data from confirmed COVID-19 patients from two military-run field hospitals and classified them into the rheumatic disease group and no rheumatic disease groups, and the latter was further distinguished by ARD and non-ARD. We compared the primary outcome, which we defined as mortality, and the secondary outcome, which we defined as the ICU occupancy rate, the duration of hospitalization and the duration of viral clearance, between the patients with and without rheumatic diseases after PSM. A study-level meta-analysis of four studies was conducted on the mortality of the COVID-19 patients with and without rheumatic diseases. RESULTS: A total of 4353 COVID-19 patients were included in our cohort study; 91 had rheumatic diseases. The mean age of the entire cohort was 59.37, and 2281 (52.40%) patients were female. The mortalities after PSM were 1.11% and 3.46% in the rheumatic diseases and no rheumatic disease groups, respectively. The ICU occupancy rates after PSM were 2.22% and 4.61% in the rheumatic diseases and no rheumatic disease groups. The duration of hospitalization and viral clearance in the rheumatic disease group were 15.97 and 43.69, respectively; moreover, the same parameters in the no rheumatic diseases after PSM were 15.48 and 45.48. No significant differences were found in either the primary or secondary outcomes. After excluding the gout cases, the results were still similar. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups upon meta-analysis (RR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.35-2.13). CONCLUSIONS: Rheumatic diseases seemed to aggravate the course of COVID-19 infection. However, the poor outcomes of COVID-19 seemed to be unassociated with rheumatic diseases undergoing an adequate medical intervention. KEY POINTS: • We compared the outcomes and prognosis of COVID-19 patients in China at the beginning of the outbreak regarding the presence or absence of rheumatic disease patients and made some meaningful conclusions for future outbreaks of similar infectious diseases. • We compared similar recent studies from other countries and explored the changes and differences in patient outcomes associated with COVID-19 as it continued to spread worldwide during the year, providing clinical evidence to further explore the role rheumatic diseases play in COVID-19 patient outcomes. • We provided evidence for the treatment of relevant patients and made rationalized recommendations for treatment strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Anal Chem ; 94(18): 6703-6710, 2022 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815468

ABSTRACT

Ratiometric assays of label-free dual-signaling reporters with enzyme-free amplification are intriguing yet challenging. Herein, yellow- and red-silver nanocluster (yH-AgNC and rH-AgNC) acting as bicolor ratiometric emitters are guided to site-specifically cluster in two template signaling hairpins (yH and rH), respectively, and originally, both of them are almost non-fluorescent. The predesigned complement tethered in yH is recognizable to a DNA trigger (TOC) related to SARS-CoV-2. With the help of an enhancer strand (G15E) tethering G-rich bases (G15) and a linker strand (LS), a switchable DNA construct is assembled via their complementary hybridizing with yH and rH, in which the harbored yH-AgNC close to G15 is lighted-up. Upon introducing TOC, its affinity ligating with yH is further implemented to unfold rH and induce the DNA construct switching into closed conformation, causing TOC-repeatable recycling amplification through competitive strand displacement. Consequently, the harbored rH-AgNC is also placed adjacent to G15 for turning on its red fluorescence, while the yH-AgNC is retainable. As demonstrated, the intensity ratio dependent on varying TOC is reliable with high sensitivity down to 0.27 pM. By lighting-up dual-cluster emitters using one G15 enhancer, it would be promising to exploit a simpler ratiometric biosensing format for bioassays or clinical theranostics.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , COVID-19/diagnosis , DNA , Fluorescence , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Silver , Spectrometry, Fluorescence
6.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(13): 1602-1609, 2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is considered an important risk factor for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The commonly anti-hypertensive drugs are the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and beta-blockers. The association between commonly used anti-hypertensive medications and the clinical outcome of COVID-19 patients with hypertension has not been well studied. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study that included all patients admitted with COVID-19 to Huo Shen Shan Hospital and Guanggu District of the Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province, Wuhan, China. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were extracted from electronic medical records. Hypertension and anti-hypertensive treatment were confirmed by medical history and clinical records. The primary clinical endpoint was all-cause mortality. Secondary endpoints included the rates of patients in common wards transferred to the intensive care unit and hospital stay duration. Logistic regression was used to explore the risk factors associated with mortality and prognosis. Propensity score matching was used to balance the confounders between different anti-hypertensive treatments. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare the cumulative recovery rate. Log-rank tests were performed to test for differences in Kaplan-Meier curves between different groups. RESULTS: Among 4569 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 31.7% (1449/4569) had a history of hypertension. There were significant differences in mortality rates between hypertensive patients with CCBs (7/359) and those without (21/359) (1.95% vs. 5.85%, risk ratio [RR]: 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13-0.76, χ2 = 7.61, P = 0.0058). After matching for confounders, the mortality rates were similar between the RAAS inhibitor (4/236) and non-RAAS inhibitor (9/236) cohorts (1.69% vs. 3.81%, RR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.13-1.43, χ2 = 1.98, P = 0.1596). Hypertensive patients with beta-blockers (13/340) showed no statistical difference in mortality compared with those without (11/340) (3.82% vs. 3.24%, RR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.53-2.69, χ2 = 0.17, P = 0.6777). CONCLUSIONS: In our study, we did not find any positive or negative effects of RAAS inhibitors or beta-blockers in COVID-19 patients with hypertension, while CCBs could improve prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Child , China , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 796165, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731794

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term health consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain largely unclear. This study aimed to apply the Mendelian randomization (MR) design to estimate the causal associations between COVID-19 and ten cardiovascular conditions. METHODS: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with COVID-19 were used as instrumental variables to estimate the causal effect of COVID-19 on ten cardiovascular conditions. The random-effects inverse-variance weighted (IVW) method was conducted for the main analyses with a complementary analysis of the weighted median and MR-Egger approaches. RESULTS: In the IVW analysis, genetically predicted COVID-19 was suggestively associated with major coronary heart disease events (OR 1.081; 95% CI 1.007-1.16; P = 0.045) and heart failure (OR 1.049; 95% CI 1.001-1.1; P = 0.045) with similar estimates in weighted median regressions. No directional pleiotropic effects were observed in both funnel plots and MR-Egger intercepts. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide direct evidence that patients infected with COVID-19 are causally associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, especially for major coronary heart disease events and heart failure.

8.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05005, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on pneumonia have been well reported. However, the relationship between the use of PPIs and the adverse outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently inconclusive. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between the use of PPIs and the in-hospital mortality among patients who were laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Data was derived from 2 hospitals which both were the first batch of SARS-CoV-2 specialist hospitals with four types of sensitivity analyses. This cohort included 4634 patients older than 18 years who were laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2. Endpoints were death in hospital (primary) and the recovery of COVID-19 (secondary: the time of COVID-19 nucleic acid testing turning negative). RESULTS: In the entire cohort, there were 3588 non-users, 399 ≤ 0.5 defined daily dose (DDD) PPIs users, 483 1 DDD users, and 164 ≥ 1.5 DDD users. The multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio (OR) = 3.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.83-7.23, P = 0.0002) and four types of sensitivity analyses showed higher mortality in patients using PPIs during hospitalization, while the relationship between different PPIs dosages and the hospital mortality remained insignificant. Usage of the PPIs significantly prolongs the time of COVID-19 nucleic acid testing turning negative. CONCLUSIONS: The use of PPIs may increase the risk of in-hospital death of patients who were laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2, which means that physicians may need to re-evaluate the benefit-risk assessment of the use of PPIs during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Pandemics , Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580781

ABSTRACT

Medical wastewater originating from hospitals specializing in infectious diseases pose a major risk to human and environmental health during pandemics. However, there have been few systematic studies on the management of this type of wastewater management. The function of the Huoshenshan Hospital as a designated emergency field hospital for the treatment of COVID-19 has provided lessons for the management measures of medical wastewater, mainly including: (1) Modern information technology, management schemes, and related standard systems provided the legislative foundation for emergency management of medical wastewater. (2) The three-tier prevention and control medical wastewater management system ensured the discharged wastewater met water quality standards, especially for the leak-proof sealed collection system of the first tier, and the biological and chemical treatment technology of the second tier. (3) The establishment of an effective three-tier medical wastewater quality monitoring accountability system. This system was particularly relevant for ensuring continuous data monitoring and dynamic analysis of characteristic indicators. (4) Information disclosure by government and public supervision promoted successful implementation of medical wastewater management and control measures. Public questionnaires (n = 212) further confirmed the effectiveness of information disclosure. The results of this study can act as methodological reference for the emergency management of wastewater in designated infectious disease hospitals under similar situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , China , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Water
10.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(9): 743-749, 2021 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417232

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and G (IgG) antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic people in Wuhan. This was a cross-sectional study, which enrolled 18,712 asymptomatic participants from 154 work units in Wuhan. Pearson Chi-square test, t-test, and Mann-Whitney test were used to compare the standardized seroprevalence of IgG and IgM for age and gender between different groups. The results indicated the standardized seroprevalence of IgG and IgM showed a downward trend and was significantly higher among females than males. Besides, different geographic areas and workplaces had different seroprevalence of IgG among asymptomatic people, and the number of abnormalities in CT imaging were higher in IgG antibody-positive cases than IgG-negative cases. We hope these findings can provide references for herd immunity investigation and provide basis for vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Carrier State/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupations/classification , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
11.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 78(5): e648-e655, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331600

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly evolved into a global pandemic. The substantial morbidity and mortality associated with the infection has prompted us to understand potential risk factors that can predict patient outcomes. Hypertension has been identified as the most prevalent cardiovascular comorbidity in patients infected with COVID-19 that demonstrably increases the risk of hospitalization and death. Initial studies implied that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors might increase the risk of viral infection and aggravate disease severity, thereby causing panic given the high global prevalence of hypertension. Nonetheless, subsequent evidence supported the administration of antihypertensive drugs and noted that they do not increase the severity of COVID-19 infection in patients with hypertension, rather may have a beneficial effect. To date, the precise mechanism by which hypertension predisposes to unfavorable outcomes in patients infected with COVID-19 remains unknown. In this mini review, we elaborate on the pathology of SARS-CoV-2 infection coexisting with hypertension and summarize potential mechanisms, focusing on the dual roles of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and the disorders of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in COVID-19 and hypertension. The effects of proinflammatory factors released because of immune response and gastrointestinal dysfunction in COVID-19 are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Hypertension/enzymology , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Animals , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure/drug effects , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/physiopathology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Prognosis , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 655604, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282393

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Diabetes is a risk factor for poor COVID-19 prognosis. The analysis of related prognostic factors in diabetic patients with COVID-19 would be helpful for further treatment of such patients. Methods: This retrospective study involved 3623 patients with COVID-19 (325 with diabetes). Clinical characteristics and laboratory tests were collected and compared between the diabetic group and the non-diabetic group. Binary logistic regression analysis was applied to explore risk factors associated in diabetic patients with COVID-19. A prediction model was built based on these risk factors. Results: The risk factors for higher mortality in diabetic patients with COVID-19 were dyspnea, lung disease, cardiovascular diseases, neutrophil, PLT count, and CKMB. Similarly, dyspnea, cardiovascular diseases, neutrophil, PLT count, and CKMB were risk factors related to the severity of diabetes with COVID-19. Based on these factors, a risk score was built to predict the severity of disease in diabetic patients with COVID-19. Patients with a score of 7 or higher had an odds ratio of 7.616. Conclusions: Dyspnea is a critical clinical manifestation that is closely related to the severity of disease in diabetic patients with COVID-19. Attention should also be paid to the neutrophil, PLT count and CKMB levels after admission.

13.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 1923-1925, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1001944

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein has been proposed as a good vaccine target. N-specific T cells were observed in SARS-CoV-2 N immunized mice and COVID-19 convalescents. It is of importance to identify the T cell responses triggered by SARS-CoV-2 N protein. Intradermal immunization with SARS-CoV N protein was demonstrated to elicit non-protective T cell responses which may be avoided by intranasal vaccination. Therefore, we conducted intranasal vaccination of BALB/c mice with recombinant adenovirus type-5 expressing SARS-CoV-2 N protein. Such procedure induced CD8 T cell responses in the lung. Meanwhile CD4 T cell responses were observed in the spleen, which was associated with robust antibody production. Our study further supports the notion that SARS-CoV-2 N protein can work as a target for vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/administration & dosage , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Phosphoproteins/administration & dosage , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination
14.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(D1): D1388-D1395, 2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910391

ABSTRACT

PubChem (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a popular chemical information resource that serves the scientific community as well as the general public, with millions of unique users per month. In the past two years, PubChem made substantial improvements. Data from more than 100 new data sources were added to PubChem, including chemical-literature links from Thieme Chemistry, chemical and physical property links from SpringerMaterials, and patent links from the World Intellectual Properties Organization (WIPO). PubChem's homepage and individual record pages were updated to help users find desired information faster. This update involved a data model change for the data objects used by these pages as well as by programmatic users. Several new services were introduced, including the PubChem Periodic Table and Element pages, Pathway pages, and Knowledge panels. Additionally, in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, PubChem created a special data collection that contains PubChem data related to COVID-19 and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Databases, Chemical , Information Storage and Retrieval/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , User-Computer Interface , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Drug Discovery/statistics & numerical data , Epidemics , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , Internet , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Software
15.
International Real Estate Review ; 23(2):777-813, 2020.
Article | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-777017

ABSTRACT

The global economy is in the midst of a recession triggered by the ongoing pandemic of a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The shutdown of the economy and a surge in the unemployment rate also cause stress to the US housing and mortgage system and create significant impacts on the default behaviour of mortgage borrowers. The potential rise in mortgage defaults may renew the long-standing debate over the empirical observation of why some mortgage borrowers do not default as "ruthlessly" as the finance theory predicts. In this paper, we propose an alternative theory to explain for the different default behaviours among mortgage borrowers. We hypothesize that the difference among time preferences across mortgage choices is one of the underlying factors that causes the heterogeneity in default patterns. Borrowers can either have a present-biased preference (overvaluing immediate outcomes), or a time-consistent preference (with standard exponential discounting). Borrowers with a present-biased preference are more likely to accept back-loaded mortgages that minimize up-front costs, even though this increases their risk of going "underwater" and entering default when an adverse shock, such as the one from the ongoing pandemic, occurs.

16.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 1198, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742738

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has developed into a worldwide pandemic. This study aimed to retrospectively describe the use of corticosteroids in treating COVID-19. METHODS: For this multicenter retrospective study, medical records from 488 symptomatic COVID-19 patients were reviewed. Patients were divided into severe and nonsevere groups. Baseline characteristics, signs and symptoms, laboratory findings, treatments, and disease outcomes were compared. Specific data for corticosteroid treatment were further analyzed. RESULTS: Four hundred fifty COVID-19 patients were included in this study, including 82 severe patients and 368 nonsevere cases. Out of the 450 patients, 126 (28.0%) received corticosteroid treatment. In the 126 patients treated with corticosteroids, the median daily dose of corticosteroid therapy was 56.6 [interquartile range (IQR): 40.0-78.4] mg and median corticosteroid therapy duration was 5.0 (IQR: 3.0-7.0) days. Among nonsevere cases, patients treated with corticosteroids were significantly older in comparison with patients who did not receive corticosteroid treatment (p<0.01); the proportion of patients receiving antibiotic therapy in the corticosteroid group was significantly higher than that in the noncorticosteroid group (p<0.001); hospitalization length and duration of viral shedding were significantly longer in patients in the corticosteroid group than in the noncorticosteroid group after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities (p<0.05). In severe cases, patients treated with corticosteroids were significantly older and comorbidities at admission were significantly more common in patients receiving corticosteroid treatment (p<0.05); the proportion of patients receiving antibiotic therapy in the corticosteroid group was significantly higher than that in the noncorticosteroid group (p<0.001); no significant difference in hospitalization length or viral shedding duration was found between two groups after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that corticosteroids are regarded as one of treatments in the general clinical practice of COVID-19. However, corticosteroid use may be accompanied by increased use of antibiotics, longer hospitalization, and prolonged viral shedding.

17.
Can J Cardiol ; 36(6): 966.e1-966.e4, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-100580

ABSTRACT

Cardiac involvement has been reported in patients with COVID-19, which may be reflected by electrocardiographic (ECG) changes. Two COVID-19 cases in our report exhibited different ECG manifestations as the disease caused deterioration. The first case presented temporary SIQIIITIII morphology followed by reversible nearly complete atrioventricular block, and the second demonstrated ST-segment elevation accompanied by multifocal ventricular tachycardia. The underlying mechanisms of these ECG abnormalities in the severe stage of COVID-19 may be attributed to hypoxia and inflammatory damage incurred by the virus.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Coronavirus Infections , Electrocardiography/methods , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Hypoxia , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Hypoxia/therapy , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/etiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Treatment Outcome
18.
Microb Pathog ; 145: 104209, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72283

ABSTRACT

As the outbreaks of COVID-19 in worldwide, coronavirus has once again caught the attention of people. Canine coronavirus is widespread among dog population, and sometimes causes even fatal cases. Here, to characterize the prevalence and evolution of current circulating canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains in China, we collected 213 fecal samples from diarrheic pet dogs between 2018 and 2019. Of the 213 samples, we found 51 (23.94%) were positive for CCoV. Co-infection with canine parvovirus (CPV), canine astrovirus (CaAstV), canine kobuvirus (CaKV), Torque teno canis virus (TTCaV) were ubiquitous existed. Mixed infection of different CCoV subtypes exists extensively. Considering the limited sequences data in recent years, we sequenced 7 nearly complete genomes and 10 complete spike gene. Phylogenetic analysis of spike gene revealed a new subtype CCoV-II Variant and CCoV-IIa was the most prevalent subtype currently circulating. Moreover, we identified strain B906_ZJ_2019 shared 93.24% nucleotide identifies with previous strain A76, and both of them clustered with CCoV-II Variant, which were not well clustered with the known subtypes. Recombination analysis of B906_ZJ_2019 indicated that strain B906_ZJ_2019 may a recombinant variant between CCoV-I and CCoV-II, which is consistent with strain A76. Furthermore, amino acid variations widely existed among current CCoV-IIa strains circulating in China and the classic CCoV-IIa strains, in spite of the unknown functions. In a word, we report a useful information as to the etiology and evolution of canine coronavirus in China based on the available sequences, which is urgent for the devise of future effective disease prevention and control strategies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Canine/classification , Coronavirus, Canine/genetics , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Animals , Base Sequence , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , DNA, Viral/genetics , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Feces/virology , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
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