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Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048266


OBJECTIVE: This study is aimed to investigate the mental health status of COVID-19 survivors 1 year after discharge from hospital and reveal the related risk factors. METHODS: From April 11 to May 11, 2021, 566 COVID-19 survivors in Huanggang city were recruited through their primary doctors. A total of 535 participants (94.5%) admitted to participate in the survey and completed the questionnaires. Five scales were applied including 7-Items Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Fatigue Scale-14. The chi-square and the Fisher's exact test were used to evaluate the classification data, multivariate logistic regression was used to explore the related factors of sleep quality, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). RESULTS: One year after being discharged, of the 535 COVID-19 survivors, 252 (47.1%) had poor sleep quality; 157 (29.3%) had the symptoms of fatigue; 84 (15.7%),112 (20.9%), and 130 (24.3%) suffered from symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD, respectively. The logistic regression analysis showed that history of chronic disease was risk factor for poor sleep quality (OR 2.501; 95% CI, 1.618-3.866), fatigue (OR 3.284; 95% CI 2.143-5.033), PTSD (OR 2.323; 95% CI 1.431-3.773) and depression (OR 1.950; 95% CI 1.106-3.436) in COVID-19 survivors. Smoking contributed to the poor sleep quality (OR 2.005; 95% CI 1.044-3.850), anxiety (OR 4.491; 95% CI 2.276-8.861) and depression (OR 5.459; 95% CI 2.651-11.239) in survivors. Drinking influenced fatigue (OR 2.783; 95% CI 1.331-5.819) and PTSD (OR 4.419; 95% CI 1.990-9.814) in survivors. Compared with college-educated survivors, survivors with high school education were at higher risk for poor sleep quality (OR 1.828; 95% CI 1.050-3.181) and PTSD (OR 2.521; 95% CI 1.316-4.830), and survivors with junior high school education were at higher risk for PTSD (OR 2.078; 95% CI 1.039-4.155). Compared with overweight survivors (BMI ≥ 23.0), survivors with normal BMI (18.5-22.9) (OR 0.600; 95% CI 0.405-0.889) were at lower risk for fatigue. While being housewife (OR 0.390; 95% CI 0.189-0.803) was protective factor for fatigue and having more family members was protective factor for PTSD (OR 0.404 95% CI 0.250-0.653) in survivors. CONCLUSIONS: One year after infection, poor sleep quality, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and PTSD, still existed in a relatively high proportion of COVID-19 survivors. Chronic disease history was an independent risk factor for poor sleep quality, fatigue, depression, and PTSD. Participants with low education levels were more likely to have mental problems than the others. We should focus on the long-term psychological impact of COVID-19 on survivors, and the government should apply appropriate mental health services to offer psychiatric support.

Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis ; 14(1): e2022033, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865591


Background: COVID-19 is characterized by endothelial dysfunction and is presumed to have long-term cardiovascular sequelae. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to explore the serum levels of endothelial biomarkers in patients who recovered from COVID-19 one year after hospital discharge. Methods: In this clinical follow-up study, 345 COVID-19 survivors from Huanggang, Hubei, and 119 age and gender-matched medical staff as healthy controls were enrolled. A standardized symptom questionnaire was performed, while electrocardiogram and Doppler ultrasound of lower extremities, routine blood tests, biochemical and immunological tests, serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1), P-selectin, and fractalkine were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Results: At one year after discharge, 39% of recovers possessed post-COVID syndromes, while a few had abnormal electrocardiogram manifestations, and no deep vein thrombosis was detected in all screened survivors. There were no significant differences in circulatory inflammatory markers (leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6), alanine aminotransferase, estimated glomerular filtration rate, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and D-dimer observed among healthy controls with previously mild or severe infected. Furthermore, serum levels of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, P-selectin, and fractalkine do not significantly differ between survivors and healthy controls. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infection may not impose a higher risk of developing long-term cardiovascular events, even for those recovering from severe illness.