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Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 626633, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325534


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global public health concern. We aimed to study the cytokine profile during the convalescent phase and its association with liver functions. We performed a retrospective study to investigate the longitudinal dynamic serum cytokine, liver function, and metabolomic profiles, as well as their potential correlations, from the viral replication phase to early convalescence. Our results demonstrated that liver injury was common. Liver injury was significantly associated with higher levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 (p < 0.05). However, alanine aminotransferase levels decreased during the first week after hospital discharge (p < 0.01). In parallel, T-cell and B-cell immune response-stimulating cytokine IL-4, but not IL-2, was significantly elevated (p < 0.05). Furthermore, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TFN-α) levels increased, in contrast to the decrease in IL-6 and IL-10 levels; liver function returned to normal. The metabolomic analysis supported active recovery during early convalescence of COVID-19 patients that had distinct metabolic profiles associated with the hepatic tricarboxylic acid cycle, amino acid metabolism, and lipid metabolism. In addition, we identified a metabolomic association of IL-4 with liver repair. Our findings suggest that discharged patients continue to recover from the physiological effects of COVID-19, and the association of IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 levels with metabolic changes and liver function repair may have important implications for clinical manifestations and treatment of COVID-19.

Eur J Pharm Sci ; 157: 105631, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893750


BACKGROUND: Effective antiviral drugs for COVID-19 are still lacking. This study aims to evaluate the clinical outcomes and plasma concentrations of baloxavir acid and favipiravir in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Favipiravir and baloxavir acid were evaluated for their antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro before the trial initiation. We conducted an exploratory trial with 3 arms involving hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19. Patients were randomized assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio into baloxavir marboxil group, favipiravir group, and control group. The primary outcome was the percentage of subjects with viral negative by Day 14 and the time from randomization to clinical improvement. Virus load reduction, blood drug concentration and clinical presentation were also observed. The trial was registered with Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR 2000029544). RESULTS: Baloxavir acid showed antiviral activity in vitro with the half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 5.48 µM comparable to arbidol and lopinavir, but favipiravir didn't demonstrate significant antiviral activity up to 100 µM. Thirty patients were enrolled. The percentage of patients who turned viral negative after 14-day treatment was 70%, 77%, and 100% in the baloxavir marboxil, favipiravir, and control group respectively, with the medians of time from randomization to clinical improvement was 14, 14 and 15 days, respectively. One reason for the lack of virological effect and clinical benefits may be due to insufficient concentrations of these drugs relative to their antiviral activities. One of the limitations of this study is the time from symptom onset to randomization, especially in the baloxavir marboxil and control groups, which is higher than the favipiravir group. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings could not prove a benefit of addition of either baloxavir marboxil or favipiravir under the trial dosages to the existing standard treatment.

Amides , COVID-19 , Dibenzothiepins , Morpholines , Pyrazines , Pyridones , Triazines , Amides/administration & dosage , Amides/blood , Amides/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/blood , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Dibenzothiepins/administration & dosage , Dibenzothiepins/blood , Dibenzothiepins/pharmacokinetics , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Male , Middle Aged , Morpholines/administration & dosage , Morpholines/blood , Morpholines/pharmacokinetics , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/blood , Pyrazines/pharmacokinetics , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Pyridones/blood , Pyridones/pharmacokinetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Symptom Assessment , Treatment Outcome , Triazines/administration & dosage , Triazines/blood , Triazines/pharmacokinetics , Viral Load/drug effects