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1.
Frontiers in public health ; 9, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1652412

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread throughout China in January 2020. To contain the virus outbreak, the Chinese government took extraordinary measures in terms of public policy, wherein accurate and timely dissemination of information plays a crucial role. Despite all of the efforts toward studying this health emergency, little is known about the effectiveness of public policies that support health communication during such a crisis to disseminate knowledge for self-protection. Particularly, we focus on the accuracy and timeliness of knowledge dissemination on COVID-19 among people in remote regions—a topic largely omitted in existing research. In February 2020, at the early-stages of the COVID-19 outbreak, a questionnaire survey was carried out. In total, 8,520 participants from seven less economically developed provinces situated in the borderlands of China with large ethnic minority groups responded. We analyzed the data through poisson regression and logistic regression analyses. We found that (1) people in remote regions of China obtained accurate information on COVID-19. Further, they were able to take appropriate measures to protect themselves. (2) Result from both descriptive analysis and multivariable regression analysis revealed that there is no large difference in the accuracy of information among groups. (3) Older, less educated, and rural respondents received information with a significant delay, whereas highly educated, younger, urban residents and those who obtained information through online media were more likely to have received the news of the outbreak sooner and to be up to date on the information. This research provides evidence that disadvantage people in remote regions obtained accurate and essential information required to act in an appropriate manner in responses to the COVID-19 outbreak. However, they obtained knowledge on COVID-19 at a slower pace than other people;thus, further improvement in the timely dissemination of information among disadvantage people in remote regions is warranted.

3.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 5(1): e00301, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441962

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a strong risk factor for complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The effect of T2DM medications on COVID-19 outcomes remains unclear. In a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 131 patients with T2DM hospitalized for COVID-19 in Wuhan, we have previously found that metformin use prior to hospitalization is associated with reduced mortality. The current study aims to investigate the effects of inpatient use of T2DM medications, including metformin, acarbose, insulin and sulfonylureas, on the mortality of COVID-19 patients with T2DM during hospitalization. METHODS: We continue to carry out a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 131 patients with T2DM hospitalized for COVID-19 and treated with different combinations of diabetes medications. RESULTS: We found that patients using metformin (p = .02) and acarbose (p = .04), alone or both together (p = .03), after admission were significantly more likely to survive than those who did not use either metformin or acarbose. 37 patients continued to take metformin after admission and 35 (94.6%) survived. Among the 57 patients who used acarbose after admission, 52 survived (91.2%). A total of 20 patients used both metformin and acarbose, while 57 used neither. Of the 20 dual-use patients, 19 (95.0%) survived. CONCLUSION: Our analyses suggest that inpatient use of metformin and acarbose together or alone during hospitalization should be studied in randomized trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Metformin , Acarbose/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Inpatients , Metformin/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt B): 112077, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433209

ABSTRACT

The negative consequences, such as healthy and environmental issues, brought by rapid urbanization and interactive human activities result in increasing social uncertainties, unreliable predictions, and poor management decisions. For instance, the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) occurred in 2019 has been plaguing many countries. Aiming at controlling the spread of COVID-19, countries around the world have adopted various mitigation and suppression strategies. However, how to comprehensively eva luate different mitigation strategies remains unexplored. To this end, based on the Artificial societies, Computational experiments, Parallel execution (ACP) approach, we proposed a system model, which clarifies the process to collect the necessary data and conduct large-scale computational experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of different mitigation strategies. Specifically, we established an artificial society of Wuhan city through geo-environment modeling, population modeling, contact behavior modeling, disease spread modeling and mitigation strategy modeling. Moreover, we established an evaluation model in terms of the control effects and economic costs of the mitigation strategy. With respect to the control effects, it is directly reflected by indicators such as the cumulative number of diseases and deaths, while the relationship between mitigation strategies and economic costs is built based on the CO2 emission. Finally, large-scale simulation experiments are conducted to evaluate the mitigation strategies of six countries. The results reveal that the more strict mitigation strategies achieve better control effects and less economic costs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carbon Dioxide , Computer Simulation , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 17(8), 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1409550

ABSTRACT

This paper is aimed to document the observed social exclusion and discrimination in the outbreak of COVID-19 across the world and inside of China. Discrimination and social exclusion has occurred in various forms, while 25.11% of respondents overseas experienced discrimination in the breakout of COVID-19, and 90% of respondents inside of China exhibited discriminatory attitudes. The discrimination and social exclusion also lead to a range of damaging social outcomes. Thus, this is an urgent call for the inclusiveness in policy and media in the face of this public health emergency.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249579, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172878

ABSTRACT

Along with the plight of the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020 come the xenophobic behaviors and hate crimes against people with Asian descent around the globe. The threat of a public health emergency catalyzed underlying xenophobic sentiments, manifesting them into racial discrimination of various degrees. With most discriminatory acts reported in liberal societies, this article investigates whether an economy more open to trade and migration can be more susceptible to xenophobia. Using our first-hand survey data of 1767 Chinese respondents residing overseas from 65 different countries during February of 2020, we adopt an instrumental variable strategy to identify the causal effect of openness to trade and migration of their residence country on the likelihood of them receiving discriminatory behaviors during the early stage of the COVID-19 outbreak. Our results show that greater openness to trade increases the likelihood of reported xenophobic behaviors, while openness to migration decreases it. On the other hand, stronger trade or immigration relationships with China are associated with less reported discrimination. And these effects primarily influence discriminatory behavior in interpersonal spaces, rather than through media outlets. Our findings highlight nuances of the effect of trade relations on the culture of a society.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Xenophobia/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , China , Female , Humans , Male
9.
Endocr Pract ; 26(10): 1166-1172, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067866

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been reported as a risk factor for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the effect of pharmacologic agents used to treat T2DM, such as metformin, on COVID-19 outcomes remains unclear. Metformin increases the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2, a known receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Data from people with T2DM hospitalized for COVID-19 were used to test the hypothesis that metformin use is associated with improved survival in this population. METHODS: Retrospective analyses were performed on de-identified clinical data from a major hospital in Wuhan, China, that included patients with T2DM hospitalized for COVID-19 during the recent epidemic. One hundred and thirty-one patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and T2DM were used in this study. The primary outcome was mortality. Demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory data, diabetes medications, and respiratory therapy data were also included in the analysis. RESULTS: Of these 131 patients, 37 used metformin with or without other antidiabetes medications. Among the 37 metformin-taking patients, 35 (94.6%) survived and 2 (5.4%) did not survive. The mortality rates in the metformin-taking group versus the non-metformin group were 5.4% (2/37) versus 22.3% (21/94). Using multivariate analysis, metformin was found to be an independent predictor of survival in this cohort (P = .02). CONCLUSION: This study reveals a significant association between metformin use and survival in people with T2DM diagnosed with COVID-19. These clinical data are consistent with potential benefits of the use of metformin for COVID-19 patients with T2DM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Metformin , China , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Metformin/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Pediatr Investig ; 4(4): 230-235, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996289

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Within the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic, more attention is warranted for whether this new infectious disease has unique manifestations in children. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 35 children with COVID-19 in Beijing, China. METHODS: We collected data for 35 children diagnosed with COVID-19 who were admitted to Beijing Ditan Hospital from January 2020 to June 2020, and analyzed their epidemiological characteristics, clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations, chest imaging findings, treatments, and outcomes. RESULTS: The children comprised 18 boys (51.4%) and 17 girls (48.6%) aged 6 months to 15 years. All patients had clear epidemiological history, with family clusters accounting for 28 cases (80.0%) and clear tracing of exposure to high epidemic areas in the remaining 7 cases (20.0%). Four (11.4%) patients were classified as asymptomatic, 17 (48.6%) as acute upper respiratory infection, and 14 (40.0%) as mild pneumonia, with no severe or critical cases. Clinical manifestations were mild, including fever in 18 (51.4%), cough in 14 (40.0%), and nausea and diarrhea in 7 (20.0%) patients. White blood cell count was mostly normal (26 cases, 74.3%) or decreased (7 cases, 20.0%); lymphocyte percentage was increased in 24 (68.7%); neutrophil percentage was decreased in 25 (71.4%); alanine aminotransferase was increased in 3 (8.6%); and serum potassium was decreased in 4 (11.4%). Time to negative viral nucleic acid testing was 2-42 days (mean: 14.0 ± 9.4 days). Chest imaging examination revealed that 20 patients (57.1%) had different forms of lung inflammation. Treatment was mainly isolation and nutritional support. Eleven patients were treated with interferon atomization inhalation. No patients required oxygen therapy. All 35 children were cured and discharged. Length of hospital stay was 9-54 days (mean: 25.4 ± 13.8 days). During regular follow-up after discharge, 5 children showed positivity again in the viral nucleic acid test and were re-hospitalized for observation and treatment. The mean length of re-hospitalization stay was 10.8 days. INTERPRETATION: Children with COVID-19 mainly become infected within their family, and children of all ages are generally susceptible. The disease in children is mostly mild and the prognosis is good. Nucleic acid tests in some patients become positive again after discharge, suggesting that it is of great significance to carry out centralized isolation medical observations and active nucleic acid tests in close contacts for early detection of patients and routine epidemic prevention and control.

12.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 125, 2020 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-654479

ABSTRACT

Stress proteins (SPs) including heat-shock proteins (HSPs), RNA chaperones, and ER associated stress proteins are molecular chaperones essential for cellular homeostasis. The major functions of HSPs include chaperoning misfolded or unfolded polypeptides, protecting cells from toxic stress, and presenting immune and inflammatory cytokines. Regarded as a double-edged sword, HSPs also cooperate with numerous viruses and cancer cells to promote their survival. RNA chaperones are a group of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), which are essential factors for manipulating both the functions and metabolisms of pre-mRNAs/hnRNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase II. hnRNPs involve in a large number of cellular processes, including chromatin remodelling, transcription regulation, RNP assembly and stabilization, RNA export, virus replication, histone-like nucleoid structuring, and even intracellular immunity. Dysregulation of stress proteins is associated with many human diseases including human cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Parkinson's diseases, Alzheimer disease), stroke and infectious diseases. In this review, we summarized the biologic function of stress proteins, and current progress on their mechanisms related to virus reproduction and diseases caused by virus infections. As SPs also attract a great interest as potential antiviral targets (e.g., COVID-19), we also discuss the present progress and challenges in this area of HSP-based drug development, as well as with compounds already under clinical evaluation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Heat-Shock Proteins/agonists , Heat-Shock Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/agonists , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA Polymerase II/genetics , RNA Polymerase II/metabolism , RNA Precursors/genetics , RNA Precursors/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
14.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-6, 2020 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-650790

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The outbreak of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) provided an opportunity to undertake an online survey to study the relationships between body weight changes with changes in physical activity and lifestyle during an unusual event of forced isolation, or quarantine. METHODS: We distributed an electronic questionnaire using the popular social application WeChat to adults from any province of China except Hubei Province, the epicenter of the outbreak. The questionnaire asked for demographic information, body weight, physical activity, and lifestyle factors before and during the quarantine. RESULTS: Of 376 questionnaires returned, 339 were valid (90.2%). During the period of semi-lockdown, both females and males with BMI <24 gained weight, males with BMI ≥24 lost weight, and females with BMI ≥24 gained weight. The average steps per day and the average moderate or vigorous-intensity exercise declined significantly for both males and females during the semi-lockdown. Changes in body weight inversely correlated with changes in steps per day and moderate or vigorous-intensity exercise during the quarantine. CONCLUSIONS: Normal weight individuals, who are not normally troubled by overweight or obesity, had less awareness of weight gain than people with a BMI ≥ 24. Under the conditions of the semi-lockdown, they tended to gain weight.

15.
Genes Dis ; 7(4): 502-519, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635583

ABSTRACT

The pandemic COVID-19, caused by a new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infection, has infected over 12 million individuals and caused more than 55,200 death worldwide. Currently, there is no specific drug to treating this disease. Here we summarized the mechanisms of antiviral therapies and the clinic findings from different countries. Antiviral chemotherapies have been conducted by in multiple cohorts in different counties. Although FDA has fast approved remdesivir for treating COVID-19, it only speeds up recovery from COVID-19 with mildly reduced mortality. The chloroquine was suggested a potential drug against SARS-CoV-2 infection due to its in vitro antiviral effects, it is imperative high-quality data from worldwide clinical trials are necessitated for an approved therapy. In terms of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) therapy, although WHO has stopped all the clinic trials due to its strong side-effects in COVID patients, large scale clinical trials with a long-term outcome follow-up may warrant HCQ and azithromycin combination in combating the virus. Convalescent plasma (CP) therapy suggested its safety use in SARS-CoV-2 infection; but both CP immunotherapy and NK cellular therapy must be manufactured and utilized according to scrupulous ethical and controlled conditions to guarantee a possible role of these products of human origin. Further research should be conducted to define the exact mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, suitable animal models or ex vivo human lung tissues aid in studying replication, transmission and spread of the novel viruses, thereby facilitating highly effective therapies.

16.
J Dig Dis ; 21(4): 199-204, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-42091

ABSTRACT

An epidemic of an acute respiratory syndrome caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China, now known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), beginning in December 2019, has attracted an intense amount of attention worldwide. As the natural history and variety of clinical presentations of this disease unfolds, extrapulmonary symptoms of COVID-19 have emerged, especially in the digestive system. While the respiratory mode of transmission is well known and is probably the principal mode of transmission of this disease, a possibility of the fecal-oral route of transmission has also emerged in various case series and clinical scenarios. In this review article, we summarize four different aspects in published studies to date: (a) gastrointestinal manifestations of COVID-19; (b) microbiological and virological investigations; (c) the role of fecal-oral transmission; and (d) prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the digestive endoscopy room. A timely understanding of the relationship between the disease and the digestive system and implementing effective preventive measures are of great importance for a favorable outcome of the disease and can help climnicians to mitigate further transmission by taking appropriate measures.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Digestive System Diseases , Endoscopy, Digestive System/standards , Gastroenterology/standards , Infection Control/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Infection/etiology , Cross Infection/virology , Digestive System Diseases/diagnosis , Digestive System Diseases/etiology , Digestive System Diseases/microbiology , Digestive System Diseases/virology , Hospital Units/standards , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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