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2.
Lancet ; 400(10354):729-730, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068473
3.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-364, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967299

ABSTRACT

Background: Diarrhea is present in up to 36.6% of patients with COVID-19. The mechanism of SARS-CoV-2-induced diarrhea remains unclear. We hypothesized that enterocyte-enteric neuron interactions were important in SARS-CoV-2-induced diarrhea. SARS-CoV-2 induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in enterocytes causing the release of Damage Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs). The DAMPs then stimulate the release of enteric neurotransmitters that disrupt gut electrolyte homeostasis. The influence of ER stress and enteric neuronderived vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on the expression of Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3), an important transporter that mediates intestinal Na+/fluid absorption, was further examined. Methods: SARS-CoV-2 propagated in Vero-E6 cells was used to infect Caco-2, a human colon epithelial cell line that expresses SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2. The expression of ER stress markers, phospho-PERK, Xbp1s, and DAMP proteins, was examined by Western blotting. Primary mouse enteric neurons were treated with a conditioned medium of Caco- 2 cells that were infected with SARS-CoV-2 or treated with tunicamycin. VIP expression by cultured enteric neurons was assessed by RT-qPCR, Western blotting, and ELISA. Membrane expression of NHE3 was determined by surface biotinylation. Results: SARS-CoV-2 infection of Caco-2 cells led to increased expression of phospho-PERK and Xbp1s indicating increased ER stress. Infected Caco-2 cells secreted DAMP proteins, including HSP70 and calreticulin, as revealed by proteomic and Western analyses. The expression of VIP mRNA in enteric neurons was up-regulated after treatment with a conditioned medium of SARS-CoV-2- infected Caco-2 cells (Mock, 1 ± 0.0885;and SARS-CoV-2, 1.351 ± 0.020, P=.005). CD91, a receptor for HSP70 and calreticulin, is abundantly expressed in cultured mouse and human enteric neurons and was up-regulated by a conditioned medium of SARS-CoV-2-infected Caco-2 cells. Tunicamycin, an inducer of ER stress, also induced the secretion of HSP70 and calreticulin, mimicking SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, co-culture of enteric neurons with tunicamycin-treated Caco-2 cells stimulated VIP production as determined by ELISA. Co-treatment of Caco-2 cells with tunicamycin (apical) and VIP (basolateral) induced a synergistic decrease in the membrane expression of NHE3. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 infection of enterocytes leads to ER stress and the release of DAMPs that up-regulate the expression and release of VIP by enteric neurons. The presence of ER stress together with the secreted VIP, in turn, inhibits fluid absorption through the downregulation of brush-border membrane expression of NHE3 in the enterocytes. These data highlight epithelial-neuronal crosstalk in COVID-19 related diarrhea. (Figure Presented)

4.
13th International Conference on Swarm Intelligence, ICSI 2022 ; 13344 LNCS:190-200, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958899

ABSTRACT

As with the rapid development of air transportation and potential uncertainties caused by abnormal weather and other emergencies, such as Covid-19, irregular flights may occur. Under this situation, how to reduce the negative impact on airlines, especially how to rearrange the crew for each aircraft, becomes an important problem. To solve this problem, firstly, we established the model by minimizing the cost of crew recovery with time-space constraints. Secondly, in view of the fact that crew recovery belongs to an NP-hard problem, we proposed an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) with mutation and crossover mechanisms to avoid prematurity and local optima. Thirdly, we designed an encoding scheme based on the characteristics of the problem. Finally, to verify the effectiveness of the improved PSO, the variant and the original PSO are used for comparison. And the experimental results show that the performance of the improved PSO algorithm is significantly better than the comparison algorithms in the irregular flight recovery problem covered in this paper. © 2022, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

5.
6th International Conference on Transportation Information and Safety, ICTIS 2021 ; : 1176-1182, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948783

ABSTRACT

Fatigue leads to the decrease of the flight crew's alertness, which will seriously affect the flight safety. In order to avoid the risk of infection caused by the overnight stay abroad of the air crew during the Covid-19 epidemic, CAAC proposed an exemption method to release the flight time restriction of regulation by increasing the number of flight crew and setting up an independent rest area on international flights. Based on the alertness energy theory, this paper simulates the crew alertness of three international scheduled flights of China Southern Airlines, including Guangzhou - Amsterdam, Guangzhou - Los Angeles, and Guangzhou - Sydney, to compare the difference of crew alertness between '3 sets of flight crew, without overnight rest' in accordance with exemption condition, and '2 sets of flight crew, with overnight rest' in accordance with regulation condition. The simulation results show that for the Guangzhou - Amsterdam and Guangzhou - Los Angeles flights, the cockpit alertness under the exemption condition is similar to that under the regulation condition, and the fatigue risk is acceptable;for the 'Guangzhou-Sydney' flight, because the return flight under the exemption condition is always in the negative range of human rhythm, the alertness is lower than that under the regulation condition. © 2021 IEEE.

6.
New England Journal of Medicine ; 386(22):2097-2111, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1890335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The ZF2001 vaccine, which contains a dimeric form of the receptor-binding domain ofsevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant, was shown to be safe, with an acceptable side-effect profile, and immuno-genie in adults in phase 1 and 2 clinical trials. METHODS We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial to in. vestigate the efficacy and confirm the safety of ZF2001. The trial was performed at 31 clinical centers across Uzbekistan, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Ecuador;an addi-tional center in China was included in the safety analysis only. Adult participants (218 years of age) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive a total of three 25-/Lg doses (30 days aparO of ZF2001 or placebo. The primary end point was the occurrence of symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), as confirmed on polymerase-chain-reaction assay, at least 7 days after receipt of the third dose. A key secondary efficacy end point was the occurrence of severe-to-critical Covid-19 (including Covid-19-related death) at least 7 days after receipt of the third dose. RESULTS Between December 12, 2020, and December 15, 2021, a total of28,873 participants received at least one dose of ZF2OO1 or placebo and were ineluded in the safety analysis;25,193 participants who had completed the three-dose regimen, for whom there were approximately 6 months of follow-up data, were included in the updated primary efficacy analysis that was conducted at the second data cutoff date of December 15, 2021. In the updated analysis, primary end-point cases were reported in 158 of 12,625 participants in the ZF2001 group and in 580 of 12,568 participants in the placebo group, for a vaccine efficacy of 75.7°/0 (95°6 confidence interval [CI], 71.0 to 79.8). Severe-to-critical Covid-19 occurred in 6 participants in the ZF2001 group and in 43 in the placebo group, for a vaccine efficacy of 87.6% (95% CI, 70.6 to 95.7);Covid-19-related death occurred in 2 and 12 participants, respectively, for a vaccine efficacy of 86.5% (95% CI, 38.9 to 98.5). The incidence of adverse events and serious adverse events was balanced in the two groups, and there were no vaccine-related deaths. Most adverse reactions (98.590) were of grade 1 or 2. CONCLUSIONS In a large cohort of adults, the ZF2001 vaccine was shown to be safe and effective against symptomatic and severe-to-critical Covid-19 for at least 6 months after full vaccination. (Funded by the National Science and Technology Major Project and others;ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04646590.). [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of New England Journal of Medicine is the property of New England Journal of Medicine and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

7.
Frontiers in Energy Research ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1875406

ABSTRACT

Amid rising COVID-19 stringency measures, sedentary behavior has been intensified globally, leading to intense chronic diseases. Due to the potential health benefits associated with digital wearables, there is a dire need to explore the crucial determinants for consumers, which could enhance the usage of sports wearables in addressing health challenges. For this purpose, a novel conceptual framework was developed, and Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) was employed on the primary data of 463 consumers from China. The results revealed a positive association of consumer innovativeness, perceived credibility, perceived ease in using sports wearables, perceived usefulness in using sports wearables, social influence for sports wearables, health benefits, and hedonic motivation for sports wearables during COVID-19 with the adoption intention of sports wearables. The study findings offer valuable policy recommendations to minimize COVID-19 health risks by efficiently monitoring consumers’ health status. Copyright © 2022 He, Shang, Ajaz, Nureen and Sukstan.

8.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333571

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Computer simulations of complete viral particles can provide theoretical insights into large-scale viral processes including assembly, budding, egress, entry, and fusion. Detailed atomistic simulations, however, are constrained to shorter timescales and require billion-atom simulations for these processes. Here, we report the current status and on-going development of a largely "bottom-up" coarse-grained (CG) model of the SARS-CoV-2 virion. Structural data from a combination of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), x-ray crystallography, and computational predictions were used to build molecular models of structural SARS-CoV-2 proteins, which were then assembled into a complete virion model. We describe how CG molecular interactions can be derived from all-atom simulations, how viral behavior difficult to capture in atomistic simulations can be incorporated into the CG models, and how the CG models can be iteratively improved as new data becomes publicly available. Our initial CG model and the detailed methods presented are intended to serve as a resource for researchers working on COVID-19 who are interested in performing multiscale simulations of the SARS-CoV-2 virion. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This study reports the construction of a molecular model for the SARS-CoV-2 virion and details our multiscale approach towards model refinement. The resulting model and methods can be applied to and enable the simulation of SARS-CoV-2 virions.

9.
Medical Journal of Chinese People's Liberation Army ; 47(2):197-202, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1791805

ABSTRACT

The purpose of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination is to prevent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, but studies have shown that BCG activates innate immunity, causes epigenetic reprogramming and metabolic changes of myeloid cells, and forms innate immune memory or trained immunity. When bone marrow-like cells are stimulated by pathogens again, they show enhanced immune response and promote the host's nonspecific defense ability. Innate immune memory is also called training immunity. In recent years, BCG-induced innate immune memory has attracted much attention, and it will guide the design of novel vaccine. This article reviews the application of BCG in prevention and treatment of corone virus disease 2019, the non-specific protection and mechanism of BCG-mediated trained immunity.

10.
IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCVW) ; : 1531-1540, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1699347

ABSTRACT

Face recognition achieved excellent performance in recent years. However, its potential for unfairness is raising alarm. For example, the recognition rate for the special group of East Asian is quite low. Many efforts have spent to improve the fairness of face recognition. During the COVID-19 pandemic, masked face recognition is becoming a hot topic but brings new challenging for fair face recognition. For example, the mouth and nose are important to recognizing faces of Asian groups. Masks would further reduce the recognition rate of Asian faces. To this end, this paper proposes a fair masked face recognition system. First, an appropriate masking method is used to generate masked faces. Men, a data re-sampling approach is employed to balance the data distribution and reduce the bias based on the analysis of training data. Moreover, we propose an asymmetric-arc-loss which is a combination of arc-face loss and circle-loss, it is useful for increasing recognition rate and reducing bias. Integrating these techniques, this paper obtained fairer and better face recognition results on masked faces.

11.
Gastroenterology ; 160(6):S-233-S-234, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1594011

ABSTRACT

Background: Up to 36.6% of COVID-19 patients have diarrheal symptoms and 48.1% test positive for SARS-CoV-2 via stool test. The mechanism of SARS-CoV-2-associated diarrhea remains poorly understood. We hypothesize that crosstalk between enterocytes and the enteric nervous system (ENS) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19-associated diarrhea. We studied the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and release of Damage Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs), which act on enteric neurons and stimulate the production of neurotransmitters. The influence of ER stress and enteric neuron-derived vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on the expression of electrolyte transporter Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) was also examined. Methods: SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV/USA-WA1/2020) was propagated in Vero-E6 cells. Caco-2, a human colon epithelial cell line, expresses the essential SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2 and was thus used for infection (MOI, ~0.01). We used Western blotting to assess the expression of ER stress (phospho-PERK and Xbp1s) and DAMP (HMGB1) markers at 48 hours post-infection. Primary mouse enteric neurons were co-cultured with Caco-2 cells, pre-treated for 24 hours with 2 μM tunicamycin to induce ER stress. Supernatants from enteric neurons were used to assess the expression of VIP by ELISA. Primary enteric neurons were treated with HMGB1 or ATP (another form of DAMPs), and the expression of c-FOS, a marker of neuronal activity, was determined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. Results: We found that SARS-CoV-2 infection of Caco-2 cells led to increased expression of phospho-PERK and Xbp1s. Compared to uninfected control, infected Caco-2 cells secreted HMGB1 into culture media, indicating epithelial production of DAMPs in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Tunicamycin was used to induce ER-stress and secretion of HMGB1 by Caco-2, mimicking SARS-CoV-2 infection. Importantly, enteric neurons co-cultured with tunicamycin-treated Caco-2 cells secreted significantly higher levels of VIP. Treating Caco-2 cells with tunicamycin or VIP on the basolateral side led to decreased surface NHE3 expression, suggesting a potential impairment of intestinal electrolyte/fluid absorption. More-over, HMGB1 and ATP both increased the expression of phospho-c-FOS in cultured enteric neurons, indicating DAMP-induced neuronal activation. Conclusions: Our findings demon-strate that enterocytes infected by SARS-CoV-2 release DAMPs with the capacity to induce VIP secretion by the enteric neurons, which in turn acts on enterocytes and inhibits apical localization of NHE3. These findings establish basic mechanisms relevant to diarrheal disease in COVID-19 patients and identify potential targets for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection of the gastrointestinal tract.

12.
6th International Conference on Data Mining and Big Data, DMBD 2021 ; 1453 CCIS:240-249, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1530267

ABSTRACT

With the growing demands on civil aviation transportation in post-pandemic of COVID-19, irregular flight has become a headache problem for both airlines and passengers. This paper considers the large-scale irregular flight timetable recovery problem for the airline with temporarily closed airport. First, a mathematical model with the objective of minimizing total delay time of passengers under several realistic constraints is constructed. Second, both improved genetic algorithm for the irregular flight timetable recovery problem and encoding scheme are proposed based on problem characteristics. Finally, a large-scale data set from contest is chosen and both optimal solution and recovery scheme are obtained to illustrate the feasibility of our recovery algorithm for irregular flight timetable recovery problem. © 2021, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

13.
ASHRAE Journal ; 63(10):28-30,32,34-36,38, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1473134

ABSTRACT

What can the hospitality industry do to reduce the risk of transmission of COVID-19? Part is recognizing that HVAC systems play a role in mitigating the risk of airborne transmission of COVID-19.1 At the beginning of the pandemic, hospitality facilities, including hotels and restaurants, quickly aligned with guidance from the CDC,2,3 WHO4 and other credible organizations such as ASHRAE5,6 by adjusting operating guidelines to increase outdoor air dilution and improve filtration, where possible, while maintaining guest and associate comfort. This article discusses a comprehensive study recently conducted by the authors to investigate the efficacy of portable air purifiers to improve air quality in public spaces.

15.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 80(SUPPL 1):888-889, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1358772

ABSTRACT

Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by abnormal activity of the immune system, producing the autoantibodies directed against nuclear and cytoplasmic antigens1. Infection is known as one of the common trigger factors for SLE. Coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19), a severe acute respiratory syndrome, is now spreading rapidly throughout the world2.Though previous studies have addressed the susceptibility of lupus patients to the virus but how patients with SLE deal with COVID-19 is unclear up until now Objectives: To clarify the common pathogenesis of SLE and COVID-19, and find the appropriate treatment for Lupus and prevent COVID-19. Methods: The transcription profile of SLE (GSE38351) and COVID-19 (GSE161778) were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database (GEO). R package was used to find differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between lupus patients and HCs. After background adjustment and other pre-procession, DEGs were extracted from the peripheral blood of patients with COVID-19 at three different disease progression(moderate, severe and remission status). The Short Time-series Expression Miner (STEM) was used to cluster and compare average DEGs with coherent changes. The different expression patterns of time-series genes (TSGs) were also compared among these patients. GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of TSGs and DEGs were performed by Metascape. Results: Compared with HC, patients with SLE expressed 977 DEGs, which were mainly associated with defense response to virus, Epstein-Barr virus infection and response to interferon-γ(INF-γ) (Figure 1a). As for COVID-19 patients, there were 1584 DEGs obtained when compared with those of HCs (P < 0.05) (Figure 1b). Gene landscapes suggested the signatures of COVID-19 patients gradually changed during the disease progression, and gradually converge to HCs signatures. Time-series genes in the three stage of disease had different expression patterns and functions. A total of 959 TSGs in profile 3 showed a stable-stable-decreasing expression trend and significantly associated with INF signaling pathway (Figure 1c,1d). Interestingly, patients with SLE and COVID-19 shared common pathways such as INF-γ related functional pathway. Conclusion: INF-γ is an important common node of SLE and COVID-19. Controlling the production of INF-γ not only has therapeutic effect on SLE patients, but also may prevent COVID-19.

16.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology (China) ; 41(4):249-253, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1273533

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of novel coronavirus positive cases including confirmed cases with clinical symptoms and asymptomatic infected cases in Guangzhou. Methods: Epidemiological data were collected on the nucleic acid positive cases of COVID-19 in Guangzhou from January to September 2020. The epidemiological characteristics, the distribution of time intervals between the confirmed/isolation date and the date of the first positive detection were analyzed, at last the influencing factors for the confirmed cases and asymptomatic infected persons were discussed. Results: From January 7 to September 4 in 2020, a total of 1 097 nucleic acid positive cases were identified, including 658 confirmed cases (59.98%) and 439 asymptomatic infected cases (40.02%). Among the 658 confirmed cases, the median age was 42 years old, the cases indicated two significant peaks. one of the peaks was related to the imported and associated cases from Hubei province, and the other peak was connected with individuals from overseas. In terms of 439 asymptomatic infected cases, the median age was 32 years old. There were two stages in these cases. The first stage followed the second peak of confirmed cases, and the second stage overlapped with the confirmed cases in Guangzhou when the epidemic was in a period of normal prevention and control, mainly related to imported cases from abroad. The asymptomatic infected persons accounted for 57.32% in all the imported infected cases. In both of asymptomatic and symptomatic cases, the positive rate of pharyngeal swabs was higher than that of nasopharyngeal swabs and anal swabs. There were statistically significant differences in age, source of infection and gender composition between confirmed cases and asymptomatic infected persons (P<0.05). Older age groups were more likely to have clinical symptoms, with ≥40 years being the risk factor for confirmed cases (OR=2.334, P=0.001), and 20-39 years less likely to have clinical symptoms (OR=0.620, P=0.047), compared with the 0-19 years old group. Compared with those infected in China, those infected abroad were less likely to develop clinical symptoms and became confirmed cases (OR=0.723, P=0.013). Women were more likely to have clinical symptoms than men (OR=1.574, P=0.001). Conclusions: At present, asymptomatic infected persons and confirmed patients with clinical symptoms co-existed, and the number of asymptomatic infected patients was higher than that of confirmed cases in Guangzhou. High age, domestic infection and female may be risk factors for confirmed cases. It was of great value to further explore these underlying mechanisms for the prevention and treatment of the COVID-19.

17.
Library Hi Tech ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1270784

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This paper takes the current COVID-19 pandemic raging around the world as a realistic background and uses the informal scientific communication mode in social media as the theoretical basis. It aims to explore the characteristics and rules of scientific communication in social media under emergency events, grasp the potential and risks of scientific communication in social media in special times and provide a perspective of academic communication for the scientific response. Design/methodology/approach: The authors select the enumeration data of the early COVID-19 theme papers spread on social media networks as the research object, apply descriptive statistical analysis to the basic statistical distribution of variables and use factor analysis and visualization methods to explore the law and characteristics of the spread of scientific papers on social media platforms. Findings: It was found that users of the COVID-19 paper are mainly in North America, Europe and South America, followed by those in East Asia, Southeast Asia and Oceania. The users are mainly public figures, doctors and other practitioners, science communicators and scientists. The process of social media communication reflects three ways of knowledge construction, social interaction and academic communication, and there are three ways of communication law and changing trend of cross transition and integration. Originality/value: This study observes the function and role of science communication in social media in a special period from a unique perspective of academic communication, so as to promote academic means to fight against the epidemic. © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited.

20.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 43(0): E016, 2020 Feb 17.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1008

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of medical staff with novel coronavirus pneumonia(NCP). Methods: 30 patients infected with novel coronavirus referred to jianghan university hospital between January 11, 2020 and January 3, 2020 were studied. The data reviewed included those of clinical manifestations, laboratory investigation and Radiographic features. Results: The patients consisted of 10 men and 20 women, including 22 doctors and 8 nurses,aged 21~59 years(mean 35±8 years).They were divided to 26 common type and 4 severe cases, all of whom had close(within 1m) contact with patients infected of novel coronavirus pneumonia. The average contact times were 12 (7,16) and the average cumulative contact time was 2 (1.5,2.7) h.Clinical symptoms of these patients were fever in 23 patients (76.67%) , headache in 16 petients (53.33%) , fatigue or myalgia in 21patients (70%) , nausea, vomiting or diarrhea in 9 petients (30%) , cough in 25 petients (83.33%) , and dyspnea in 14 petients (46.67%) .Routine blood test revealed WBC <4.0×10(9)/L in 8 petients (26.67%) , (4-10) ×10(9)/L in 22 petients (73.33%) , and WBC>4.0×10(9)/L in 4 petients (13.33%) during the disease.Lymphocyte count <1.0×10(9)/L occurred in 12 petients (40%),abnormal liver function in 7 petients (23.33%) ,myocardial damage in 5 petients(16.67%), elevated D-dimer (>0.5mg/l) in 5 patients (16.67%). Compared with normal patients, the average exposure times, cumulative exposure time, BMI, Fever time, white blood cell count, liver enzyme, LDH, myoenzyme and D-dimer were significantly increased in severe patients, while the lymphocyte count and albumin levels in peripheral blood were significantly decreased.Chest CT mainly showed patchy shadows and interstitial changes.According to imaging examination, 11 patients (36.67%) showed Unilateral pneumonia and 19 patients (63.33%) showed bilateral pneumonia,4 patients (13.33%) showed bilateral multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity.Compared with the patients infected in the protected period, the proportion of severe infection and bilateral pneumonia were both increased in the patients infected in unprotected period. Conclusion: Medical staffs are at higher risk of infection.Infection rates are associated with contact time, the amount of suction virus. Severe patients had BMI increased, heating time prolonged , white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, D-dimer and albumin level significantly changed and were prone to be complicated with liver damage and myocardial damage.Strict protection measures is important to prevent infection for medical workers.

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