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1.
Small Methods ; : e2200387, 2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850249

ABSTRACT

The identification of a novel class of shark-derived single domain antibodies, named vnarbodies that show picomolar affinities binding to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of Wuhan and Alpha, Beta, Kappa, Delta, Delta-plus, and Lambda variants, is reported. Vnarbody 20G6 and 17F6 have broad neutralizing activities against all these SARS-CoV-2 viruses as well as other sarbecoviruses, including Pangolin coronavirus and Bat coronavirus. Intranasal administration of 20G6 effectively protects mice from the challenges of SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan and Beta variants. 20G6 and 17F6 contain a unique "WXGY" motif in the complementary determining region 3 that binds to a hidden epitope on RBD, which is highly conserved in sarbecoviruses through a novel ß-sheet interaction. It is found that the S375F mutation on Omicron RBD disrupts the structure of ß-strand, thus impair the binding with 20G6. The study demonstrates that shark-derived vnarbodies offer a prophylactic and therapeutic option against most SARS-CoV-2 variants and provide insights into antibody evasion by the Omicron variant.

2.
Virol Sin ; 37(3): 321-330, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813214

ABSTRACT

Retromer and sorting nexins (SNXs) transport cargoes from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network or plasma membrane. Recent studies have unveiled the emerging roles for retromer and SNXs in the life cycle of viruses, including members of Coronaviridae, Flaviviridae and Retroviridae. Key components of retromer/SNXs, such as Vps35, Vps26, SNX5 and SNX27, can affect multiple steps of the viral life cycle, including facilitating the entry of viruses into cells, participating in viral replication, and promoting the assembly of virions. Here we present a comprehensive updated review on the interplay between retromer/SNXs and virus, which will shed mechanistic insights into controlling virus infection.


Subject(s)
Sorting Nexins , Viruses , Animals , Life Cycle Stages , Protein Transport , Sorting Nexins/genetics , Vesicular Transport Proteins/genetics , Vesicular Transport Proteins/metabolism
3.
J Virol ; 96(4): e0160021, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759291

ABSTRACT

A comprehensive study of the B cell response against SARS-CoV-2 could be significant for understanding the immune response and developing therapeutical antibodies and vaccines. To define the dynamics and characteristics of the antibody repertoire following SARS-CoV-2 infection, we analyzed the mRNA transcripts of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) repertoires of 24 peripheral blood samples collected between 3 and 111 days after symptom onset from 10 COVID-19 patients. Massive clonal expansion of naive B cells with limited somatic hypermutation (SHM) was observed in the second week after symptom onset. The proportion of low-SHM IgG clones strongly correlated with spike-specific IgG antibody titers, highlighting the significant activation of naive B cells in response to a novel virus infection. The antibody isotype switching landscape showed a transient IgA surge in the first week after symptom onset, followed by a sustained IgG elevation that lasted for at least 3 months. SARS-CoV-2 infection elicited poly-germ line reactive antibody responses. Interestingly, 17 different IGHV germ line genes recombined with IGHJ6 showed significant clonal expansion. By comparing the IgH repertoires that we sequenced with the 774 reported SARS-CoV-2-reactive monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), 13 shared spike-specific IgH clusters were found. These shared spike-specific IgH clusters are derived from the same lineage of several recently published neutralizing MAbs, including CC12.1, CC12.3, C102, REGN10977, and 4A8. Furthermore, identical spike-specific IgH sequences were found in different COVID-19 patients, suggesting a highly convergent antibody response to SARS-CoV-2. Our analysis based on sequencing antibody repertoires from different individuals revealed key signatures of the systemic B cell response induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection. IMPORTANCE Although the canonical delineation of serum antibody responses following SARS-CoV-2 infection has been well established, the dynamics of antibody repertoire at the mRNA transcriptional level has not been well understood, especially the correlation between serum antibody titers and the antibody mRNA transcripts. In this study, we analyzed the IgH transcripts and characterized the B cell clonal expansion and differentiation, isotype switching, and somatic hypermutation in COVID-19 patients. This study provided insights at the repertoire level for the B cell response after SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , Immunoglobulin G/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology
4.
PLoS ONE Vol 16(5), 2021, ArtID e0250770 ; 16(5), 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1756155

ABSTRACT

Background & aim: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the life and work of people worldwide. The present study aimed to evaluate the rhythm disruptions of life, work, and entertainment, and their associations with the psychological impacts during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted from the 10th to 17th March 2020 in China. A structured e-questionnaire containing general information, the Chinese version of Brief Social Rhythm Scale, and Zung's self-rating scales of depression and anxiety (SDS and SAS) was posted and collected online through a public media (i.e. EQxiu online questionnaire platform). Scores in sleeping, getting up, and socializing (SGS) rhythm and eating, physical practice, and entertainment (EPE) rhythm were compared among and between participants with different sociodemographic backgrounds including gender, age, education, current occupation, annual income, health status, and chronic disease status. Correlations of SDS and SAS with SGS-scale and EPE-scale were also analyzed. Results: Overall, 5854 participants were included. There were significant differences in the scores of SGS-scale and EPE-scale among people with different sociodemographic backgrounds. The scores were significantly higher in the groups with female gender, low education level, lower or higher than average income, poor health status, ages of 26-30 years or older than 61 years, nurses and subjects with divorce or widow status. There were also significant differences in SAS and SDS scores among people with different sociodemographic backgrounds (all P< 0.05). The overall prevalence of depression and anxiety was 24.3% and 12.6%, respectively, with nurses having the highest rates of depression (32.94%) and anxiety (18.98%) among the different occupational groups. SGS-scale was moderately correlated with SDS and SAS, and disruption of SGS rhythm was an independent risk factor for depression and anxiety. Conclusion: Social rhythm disruption was independently associated with depression and anxiety. Interventions should be applied to people vulnerable to the rhythm disruption during the COVID-19 pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330371

ABSTRACT

Population antibody response is believed to be important in selection of new variant viruses. We identified that SARS-CoV-2 infections elicit a population immune response mediated by a lineage of VH1-69 germline antibodies. The representative antibody R1-32 targets a novel semi-cryptic epitope defining a new class of RBD targeting antibodies. Binding to this non-ACE2 competing epitope leading to spike destruction impairing virus entry. Based on epitope location, neutralization mechanism and analysis of antibody binding to spike variants we propose that recurrent substitutions at 452 and 490 are associated with immune evasion of this population antibody response. These substitutions, including L452R found in the Delta variant, disrupt interaction mediated by the VH1-69 specific hydrophobic HCDR2 to impair antibody-antigen association allowing variants to escape. Lacking 452/490 substitutions, the Omicron variant is sensitive to this class of antibodies. Our results provide new insights into SARS-CoV-2 variant genesis and immune evasion.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325034

ABSTRACT

Background: A large-scale global outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) out of Wuhan, from China, occurred in January 2020. Objective: To examine the clinical characteristics of COVID-19in infected patients out of Wuhan, from China. Patients and Methods: Thirteen patients were confirmed to be infected with novel coronavirus-2019 (2019-nCoV) between January 27andFebruary 8, 2020, in Baoji city, Shanxi, northwestern China. Epidemiological and clinical information, and computed to morphology imaging data from all COVID-19 patients were collected;cases were divided into two groups according to the severity of infection (mild or severe). Results: : Nine (9/13) COVID-19patientsexhibitedmild disease severity, and defined as second-generation, human-to-human transmission cases. Most patients (11/13) had a history of travel to or from Wuhan. There were no differences in sex and age between the mild and severe cases (all P >0.05). A moderate degree of fever (11/13), cough (13/13), and fatigue (8/13) were common symptoms;however, there was no statistical difference between mild and severe cases in this regard (all P >0.05). Oxyhemoglobin saturation and oxygenation index decreased, and C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) levels were elevated in all patients with COVID-19infection, with statistically significant differences between those with severe disease and mild infection (all P <0.05).Twelve of 13COVID-19patients exhibited changes in chest CT imaging features, and time course changes were different between mild and severe cases (all P <0.05). Conclusion: Most cases of COVID-19infection were second-generation human-to-human transmissions from Wuhan and were mild in severity. The clinical characteristics of COVID-19varied.Oxyhemoglobin saturation, oxygenation index, CRP and SAA levels, and CT features were reliable parameters to evaluate the severity of COVID-19 infection. However, a few patients with mild COVID-19diseaselackedtypicalcharacteristics such as fever and changes in CT imaging features.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324486

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND and OBJECTIVE The rhythms of life, work and entertainment behaviours are considered as the external behavioural manifestations of biological rhythm.To evaluate the distinctive disrupted rhythms of behaviours and their associations with mental health problems in people with different backgrounds under the stress of COVID-19 epidemic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted from 10-17 March 2020 under the stress of COVID-19 epidemic.A structured e-questionnaire containing general information,rhythm scale(subscale1 for life-work rhythms and subscale2 for entertainment rhythm) and Zung's self-rating depression and anxiety scale(SDS and SAS) were filled and the data were analysed. RESULTS Overall 5854 participants were included.Significant differences were found in rhythm, SDS and SAS scores among people with different backgrounds (all P <0.05). Subjects with female gender and poor health status were mostly suffered from disrupted rhythms of life- work-entertainment behaviours, combined with depression and anxiety. Nurses and subjects being divorced or with chronic disease with psychosomatic diseases were mostly suffered from disrupted rhythms of life-work behaviours, combined with depression and anxiety. Subjects with aged 26-30 years, or annual income of 50,000-100,000CY were mostly suffered from disrupted rhythms of life-work combined with depression. Subjects with income over 300,000CY were mostly suffered from disrupted rhythm of entertainment combined with anxiety.The prevalence rates of depression and anxiety in people with the high-scores of rhythm disruption increased by 34.50% and 47.16%, respectively, compared with those with low-scores.People with the high-scores of rhythm disruption had higher SDS and SAS scores, compared to those with low scores (all P <0.001). The independent related factors of disrupted rhythms included gender,age,marital status, health status,annual income and chronic diseases with psychosomatic diseases using logistic regression.The disrupted rhythms of life and work behaviours was positively correlated with both SDS and SAS scores. CONCLUSIONS The disrupted rhythms of life, work and entertainment behaviours were closely associated with mental health problems.The disrupted rhythms of behaviours are frequent and fluxible,triggering more severe mental health problems under the stress of COVID-19 epidemic.The physicians should be aware of their importance when evaluating their interviewees or patients’ mental health and achieving maximization of therapeutic efficacy by integrating the intervention of circadian rhythm and its behaviour.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323875

ABSTRACT

As a classic parameter from the binomial distribution, the binomial proportion has been well studied in the literature owing to its wide range of applications. In contrast, the reciprocal of the binomial proportion, also known as the inverse proportion, is often overlooked, even though it also plays an important role in various fields including clinical studies and random sampling. The maximum likelihood estimator of the inverse proportion suffers from the zero-event problem, and to overcome it, alternative methods have been developed in the literature. Nevertheless, there is little work addressing the optimality of the existing estimators, as well as their practical performance comparison. Inspired by this, we propose to further advance the literature by developing an optimal estimator for the inverse proportion in a family of shrinkage estimators. We further derive the explicit and approximate formulas for the optimal shrinkage parameter under different settings. Simulation studies show that the performance of our new estimator performs better than, or as well as, the existing competitors in most practical settings. Finally, to illustrate the usefulness of our new method, we also revisit a recent meta-analysis on COVID-19 data for assessing the relative risks of physical distancing on the infection of coronavirus, in which six out of seven studies encounter the zero-event problem.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323673

ABSTRACT

Background: To explore the kinetic changes in virology, specific antibody response and imaging during the clinical course of COVID-19. Methods: : This observational study enrolled 20 patients with COVID-19, who were hospitalized between January 20-April 6, 2020, in the two COVID-19 designated hospitals of Zhoushan, Zhejiang and Rushan, Shandong, China, The laboratory findings, imaging, serum response to viral infection, and viral RNA level in the throat and stool samples were assessed from onset to recovery phase in patients with COVID-19. Results: : SARS-COV-2 RNA was positive as early as day four. It remained positive until day 55 post-onset in the sputum-throat swabs and became negative in most cases (55%) within 14 days after onset. Lymphocytopenia occurred in 40% (8/20) of patients during the peak infection period and returned to normal at week five. The most severe inflammation in the lungs appeared in week 2 or 3 after onset, and this was completely absorbed between week 6 and 8 in 85.7% of patients. All patients had detectable antibodies to the receptor binding domain (RBD), and 95% of these patients had IgG to viral N proteins. The antibody titer peaked at week four. Anti-S IgM was positive in 7 of 20 patients after week three. Conclusions: : All COVID-19 patients in this study were self-limiting and recovered well though it may take as long as 6-8 weeks. Our findings on the kinetic changes in imaging, serum response to viral infection and viral RNA level may help understand pathogenesis and define clinical course of COVID-19.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325418

ABSTRACT

Object: A recently developing pneumonia called COVID-19 which caused by SARS-CoV-2 has quickly spread across the world. Lymphopenia and a proinflammatory cytokine storm frequently happened in severe COVID-19 patients. But no specific immunomodulate therapy on COVID-19 had been reported. In this retrospect case control study, we observed the potential therapeutic effect of recombinant human interleukin-2 (rIL-2) on severe COVID-19 patients in a hospital in Wuhan, China. Methods: : Fifty nine severe cases with COVID-19 admitted in hospital from January 29, 2020 to February 29, 2020 were included in this study. Twenty patients received a one-week to 10 days subcutaneous injection of the recombinant human interleulin-2 1 million IU per day other than regular treatment were classified as rIL-2 group. Twenty from thirty nine patients with regular treatment without intervention of rIL-2 were matched as the control group. Clinical characteristic such as age, gender, symptoms, signs, laboratory data and comorbidities were paired in these two groups. Changes of lymphocytes counts, IL-6 and C- reactive protein (CRP) before and after rIL-2 treatment and differences between rIL-2 group and non-rIL-2 group were analyzed. Results: : There were a clearly visible increasing in lymphocyte counts and a decreasing in CRP level in non rIL-2 group and rIL-2 group. The difference of the change of lymphocyte counts were significant in rIL-2 group and non-rIL-2 group (p<0.01). Though CRP decreased more in rIL-2 group, it did not show a significant difference between the two groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: RIL-2 might be a prospective adjuvant therapy for severe COVID-19 patients by increasing lymphocytes number.

11.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674827

ABSTRACT

A new SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.529 was named by the WHO as Omicron and classified as a Variant of Concern (VOC) on 26 November 2021. Because this variant has more than 50 mutations, including 30 mutations on the spike, it has generated a lot of concerns on the potential impacts of the VOC on COVID-19. Here through ELISA assays using the recombinant RBD proteins with sequences the same to that of SARS-CoV-2 WIV04 (lineage B.1), the Delta variant and the Omicron variant as the coating antigens, the binding capabilities between the RBDs and the antibodies in COVID-19 convalescent sera and vaccine sera after two doses of the inactivated vaccine produced by Sinopharm WIBP are compared with each other. The results showed that the Omicron variant may evade antibodies induced by the ancestral strain and by the inactivated vaccine, with significant reduction in the binding capability of its RBD much greater than that of the Delta variant.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Binding Sites, Antibody/physiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Humans , Immune Evasion , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology
12.
J Theor Biol ; 538: 111039, 2022 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654848

ABSTRACT

Based on the physicochemical indexes of 20 amino acids and the Hungarian algorithm, each amino acid was mapped into a vector. And, the protein sequence can be represented as time series in eleven-dimensional space. In addition, the DTW algorithm was applied to calculate the distance between two time series to compare the similarities of protein sequences. The validity and accuracy of this method was illustrated by similarity comparison of ND5 proteins of nine species. Furthermore, homology analysis of eleven ACE2 proteins, which included human, Malayan pangolin and six species of bats, confirmed that the human had shorter evolutionary distance from the pangolin than those bats. The phylogenetic tree of spike protein sequences of 36 coronaviruses, which were divided into five groups, Class I, Class II, Class III, SARS-CoVs and COVID-19, was constructed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Time Factors
13.
Vaccine ; 40(7): 994-1000, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since 2007, Beijing has offered a free trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) for residents aged ≥ 60 years and school students. The quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) was administered to school children in 2018 and will be administered to elderly adults in the future. In addition, health care workers (HCWs) who are involved in the prevention and control of COVID-19 were included in the program in 2020. This study aimed to analyze the cost-effectiveness of a comprehensive list of combined strategies of TIV and QIV for school children, elderly adults, and HCWs to identify the most cost-effective strategy. METHODS: A decision tree was developed to compare 1-year outcomes of TIV vs. QIV in three risk groups: school children, elderly adults, and HCWs. The outcome was incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Probabilistic sensitivity analyses and scenario analyses were developed to assess the robustness of the results. RESULTS: From the perspective of society, this study found that the introduction of QIVs can be cost-effective for any and all targeted groups with a willingness-to-pay threshold of 3-fold GDP per capita. Among all programs, program H (all school children, elderly adults, and HCWs received the QIV) showed a 79% probability of being cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 13,580 (95% CI: 13,294, 13,867) US$/QALY and was the preferred option in the base case scenario. CONCLUSION: The introduction of QIVs to school children, elderly adults, or HCWs is likely to be cost-effective, either separately or collectively. The introduction of QIV to school children, elderly adults, and health care workers simultaneously showed the highest probability of being cost-effective and was the preferred option.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adult , Aged , Beijing , Child , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
14.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0143821, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608700

ABSTRACT

With the emergence and wide spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOCs), such as the Delta variant (B.1.617.2 lineage and AY sublineage), it is important to track VOCs for sourcing of transmission. Currently, whole-genome sequencing is commonly used for detecting VOCs, but this is limited by the high costs of reagents and sophisticated sequencers. In this study, common mutations in the genomes of SARS-CoV-2 VOCs were identified by analyzing more than 1 million SARS-CoV-2 genomes from public data. Among them, mutations C1709A (a change of C to A at position 1709) and C56G, respectively, were found in more than 99% of the genomes of Alpha and Delta variants and were specific to them. Then, a method using the amplification refractory mutation system combined with quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (ARMS-RT-qPCR) based on the two mutations was developed for identifying both VOCs. The assay can detect as little as 1 copy/µL of the VOCs, and the results for identifying Alpha and Delta variants in clinical samples by the ARMS-RT-qPCR assay showed 100% agreement with the results using sequencing-based methods. The whole assay can be completed in 2.5 h using commercial fluorescent PCR instruments. Therefore, the ARMS-RT-qPCR assay could be used for screening the two highly concerning variants Alpha and Delta by normal PCR laboratories in airports and in hospitals and other health-related organizations. Additionally, based on the unique mutations identified by the genomic analysis, similar molecular assays can be developed for rapid identification of other VOCs. IMPORTANCE The current stage of the pandemic, led by SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs), underscores the necessity to develop a cost-effective and rapid molecular diagnosis assay to differentiate the VOCs. In this study, over 1 million SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequences of high quality from GISAID were analyzed and a network of the common mutations of the lineages was constructed. The conserved unique mutations specific for SARS-CoV-2 VOCs were found. Then, ARMS-RT-qPCR assays based on the two unique mutations of the Alpha and Delta variants were developed for the detection of the two VOCs. Application of the assay in clinical samples demonstrated that the current method is a convenient, cost-effective, and rapid way to screen the target SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Genome, Viral , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Mutation , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/trends , Pharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/classification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
15.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294686

ABSTRACT

Background: Corticosteroids were recommended by guidelines in severe or critical COVID -19 patients likely to have acute respiratory distress syndrome. In the treatment strategies of COVID -19 in China, corticosteroids were generally combined with some traditional Chinese medicine, especially Lianhua Qingwen Capsule (LHQW). We aimed to investigate the correlation between dexamethasone with or without LHQW and the nucleic acid negative conversion in severe patients with COVID-19. Methods: : The clinical course and nucleic acid negative conversion time of 452 consecutive symptomatic COVID-19 patients admitted to the west campus of Union Hospital in Wuhan from January 31, 2020, to March 13, 2020, were evaluated retrospectively. Results: : The duration of virus RNA from positive to negative in the participants was 28 days (interquartile range 21-34 days). Of the 452 patients, 105 (23.23%) subjects received dexamethasone, and 347 (76.77%) did not. Among patients receiving LHQW treatment, the nucleic acid negative conversion time in the dexamethasone group was shorter than that in the no dexamethasone group (?, -4.77;95% CI, -9.41, -0.12). Although among those who were receiving no LHQW treatment, the effect on shortening nucleic acid negative conversion time of dexamethasone was not observed (?, 5.37;95% CI,-4.88, 15.62;p interaction = 0.038). Additional multivariable propensity-score analyses yielded consistent results with the unmatched participants (β, -8.61;95% CI, -16.73, -0.50). Conclusions: : In patients hospitalized with COVID-19, the use of dexamethasone resulted in shortening nucleic acid negative conversion time among those who were receiving LHQW, suggesting that LHQW synergic with dexamethasone accelerated the SARS-CoV-2 clearance in severe patients. Trial registration: ECUH 2020-0212, a retrospective study.

16.
Endosc Int Open ; 9(11): E1680-E1685, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521894

ABSTRACT

Background and study aims The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic heavily impacted the New York metro area causing most institutions to either reduce case volume or fully close remaining open units incorporated specific guidelines for procedures lockdown potentially leading to a greater turn-over time. We analyzed the quantitative and financial impact of this lost time on our tertiary care center's endoscopy unit. Patients and methods This single-center, retrospective study included demographics, procedure details and turn-over times (TOT) from all endoscopic procedures between December 1, 2019 to June 30, 2020. Cases were categorized as pre-COVID-19 group from December 1, 2019 to March 15, 2020 and during COVID-19 (lockdown) group from March 16, 2020 to June 30, 2020. The financial impact was assessed using national averages for reimbursement of outpatient endoscopic procedures provided by Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Results A total of 3622 procedures were performed during the study period: 2297 in the pre-COVID-19 period, 1325 in the COVID-19 period, representing a 42.32 % decrease. In the COVID-19 lockdown group, there was a significant increase in TOT in both the general endoscopy cases (18.11 minutes, P  = 0.000) and advanced endoscopy cases (17.7 minutes, P  = 0.000). The 42.3 % decrease in volume equated to at least $1.6 million USD in lost revenue during the lockdown. Conclusions COVID-19 pandemic led to an increase in TOT with overall reduced procedure volume and a negative effect on revenue. Providing continued endoscopic management during a pandemic avoids delays in reopening the endoscopy unit and hampers the post-pandemic surge of delayed cases and its financial impact.

17.
Sustainability ; 13(21):11667, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1480990

ABSTRACT

Since 2019, the novel coronavirus has spread rapidly worldwide, greatly affecting social stability and human health. Pandemic prevention has become China’s primary task in responding to the transmission of COVID-19. Risk mapping and the proposal and implementation of epidemic prevention measures emphasize many research efforts. In this study, we collected location information for confirmed COVID-19 cases in Beijing, Shenyang, Dalian, and Shijiazhuang from 5 October 2020 to 5 January 2021, and selected 15 environmental variables to construct a model that comprehensively considered the parameters affecting the outbreak and spread of COVID-19 epidemics. Annual average temperature, catering, medical facilities, and other variables were processed using ArcGIS 10.3 and classified into three groups, including natural environmental variables, positive socio-environmental variables, and benign socio-environmental variables. We modeled the epidemic risk distribution for each area using the MaxEnt model based on the case occurrence data and environmental variables in four regions, and evaluated the key environmental variables influencing the epidemic distribution. The results showed that medium-risk zones were mainly distributed in Changping and Shunyi in Beijing, while Huanggu District in Shenyang and the southern part of Jinzhou District and the eastern part of Ganjingzi District in Dalian also represented areas at moderate risk of epidemics. For Shijiazhuang, Xinle, Gaocheng and other places were key COVID-19 epidemic spread areas. The jackknife assessment results revealed that positive socio-environmental variables are the most important factors affecting the outbreak and spread of COVID-19. The average contribution rate of the seafood market was 21.12%, and this contribution reached as high as 61.3% in Shenyang. The comprehensive analysis showed that improved seafood market management, strengthened crowd control and information recording, industry-catered specifications, and well-trained employees have become urgently needed prevention strategies in different regions. The comprehensive analysis indicated that the niche model could be used to classify the epidemic risk and propose prevention and control strategies when combined with the assessment results of the jackknife test, thus providing a theoretical basis and information support for suppressing the spread of COVID-19 epidemics.

18.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 70(2): 352-362, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462838

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have found that severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was associated with the physical and psychological stress of those infected. However, research is sparse regarding the long-term health consequence of community SARS exposure for older adults. METHODS: Using data from the 2011 and 2015 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), we estimated multilevel regression models of allostatic load (AL) in the years after the SARS epidemic among 7735 respondents. Interaction terms between SARS epidemic exposure and social participation or community environment were included to examine potential effects. RESULTS: We found that community SARS exposure was associated with greater AL for those who had no social participation. Among those who were in worse community environment, community SARS exposure was strongly related to elevated load in the cardiovascular system. However, for those had social participation and lived in better community environment, community SARS exposure manifested no association with AL years later. Active social participation and better community environment could offset the negative association between SARS exposure and AL. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these findings helped determine the positive direction of future social efforts and policy decisions to guide the global recovery from the devastating COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Allostasis/physiology , COVID-19 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Social Participation , Aged , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , Social Environment , Stress, Psychological/psychology
19.
Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry ; 60(10):S204-S204, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1461198
20.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430979

ABSTRACT

The worldwide pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its emergence of variants needs rapid and point-of-care testing methods for a broad diagnosis. The regular RT-qPCR is time-consuming and limited in central laboratories, so a broad and large-scale screening requirement calls for rapid and in situ methods. In this regard, a reverse transcription recombinase-aided amplification (RT-RAA) is proposed here for the rapid and point-of-care detection of SARS-CoV-2. A set of highly conserved primers and probes targeting more than 98% of SARS-CoV-2 strains, including currently circulating variants (four variants of concerns (VOCs) and three variants of interest (VOIs)), was used in this study. With the preferred primers, the RT-RAA assay showed a 100% specificity to SARS-CoV-2 from eight other respiratory RNA viruses. Moreover, the assay here is of a high sensitivity and 0.48 copies/µL can be detected within 25 min at a constant temperature (42 °C), which can be realized on portable equipment. Furthermore, the RT-RAA assay demonstrated its high agreement for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical specimens compared with RT-qPCR. The rapid, simple and point-of-care RT-RAA method is expected to be an appealing detection tool to detect SARS-CoV-2, including variants, in clinical diagnostic applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/standards , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
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