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1.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232812

ABSTRACT

The rapid mutation and spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants recently, especially through the emerging variants Omicron BA5, BF7, XBB and BQ1, necessitate the development of universal vaccines to provide broad spectrum protection against variants. For the SARS-CoV-2 universal recombinant protein vaccines, an effective approach is necessary to design broad-spectrum antigens and combine them with novel adjuvants that can induce high immunogenicity. In this study, we designed a novel targeted retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) receptor 5'triphosphate double strain RNA (5'PPP dsRNA)-based vaccine adjuvant (named AT149) and combined it with the SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron chimeric RBD-dimer recombinant protein (D-O RBD) to immunize mice. The results showed that AT149 activated the P65 NF-κB signaling pathway, which subsequently activated the interferon signal pathway by targeting the RIG-I receptor. The D-O RBD + AT149 and D-O RBD + aluminum hydroxide adjuvant (Al) + AT149 groups showed elevated levels of neutralizing antibodies against the authentic Delta variant, and Omicron subvariants, BA1, BA5, and BF7, pseudovirus BQ1.1, and XBB compared with D-O RBD + Al and D-O RBD + Al + CpG7909/Poly (I:C) groups at 14 d after the second immunization, respectively. In addition, D-O RBD + AT149 and D-O RBD + Al + AT149 groups presented higher levels of the T-cell-secreted IFN-γ immune response. Overall, we designed a novel targeted RIG-I receptor 5'PPP dsRNA-based vaccine adjuvant to significantly improve the immunogenicity and broad spectrum of the SARS-CoV-2 recombinant protein vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , Mice , Adjuvants, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Adjuvants, Immunologic , ABO Blood-Group System , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
PLoS Pathog ; 19(5): e1011384, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324465

ABSTRACT

Malayan pangolin SARS-CoV-2-related coronavirus (SARSr-CoV-2) is closely related to SARS-CoV-2. However, little is known about its pathogenicity in pangolins. Using CT scans we show that SARSr-CoV-2 positive Malayan pangolins are characterized by bilateral ground-glass opacities in lungs in a similar manner to COVID-19 patients. Histological examination and blood gas tests are indicative of dyspnea. SARSr-CoV-2 infected multiple organs in pangolins, with the lungs the major target, and histological expression data revealed that ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were co-expressed with viral RNA. Transcriptome analysis indicated that virus-positive pangolins were likely to have inadequate interferon responses, with relative greater cytokine and chemokine activity in the lung and spleen. Notably, both viral RNA and viral proteins were detected in three pangolin fetuses, providing initial evidence for vertical virus transmission. In sum, our study outlines the biological framework of SARSr-CoV-2 in pangolins, revealing striking similarities to COVID-19 in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Animals , Humans , Pangolins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virulence , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral , Tropism
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(47): e2212183119, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262523

ABSTRACT

About one in six Asian Americans have fallen victim to anti-Asian racism during the COVID-19 pandemic [J. Lee, K. Ramakrishnan, aapidata.com/blog/discrimination-survey-2022/]. By examining anti-Asian racism in the United States primarily as a domestic issue, most prior studies have overlooked the connections between shifting US-China relations and Americans' prejudices against the Chinese in China and, by extension, East Asian Americans. This study investigates the patterns and perceptual bases of nationality-based prejudices against Chinese amid the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Our nationally representative online survey experiment reveals that Americans assess a hypothetical Chinese person in China as inferior in multiple social and psychological characteristics to an otherwise identical Japanese person in Japan or East Asian American. Furthermore, subjects who perceive China as more threatening to America's national interests assess Chinese more negatively, especially in terms of trustworthiness and morality, suggesting that perceived China threats propel Americans' negative stereotypes about Chinese. A contextual analysis further indicates that counties with a higher share of Trump voters in 2016 tend to perceive all East Asian-origin groups similarly as a racial outgroup. By contrast, residents in predominantly Democrat-voting counties tend to perceive Chinese in China more negatively relative to Asian Americans, despite broadly viewing East Asians more favorably. Overall, this study underscores the often-overlooked relationships between the prevailing anti-Asian sentiments in the United States and the US-China geopolitical tensions and America's domestic political polarization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prejudice , Racism/psychology , Asian/psychology , Morals , China
4.
NPJ Vaccines ; 8(1): 38, 2023 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288732

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has had and continues to have a significant impact on global public health. One of the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 is a surface homotrimeric spike protein, which is primarily responsible for the host immune response upon infection. Here we present the preclinical studies of a broadly protective SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccine developed from our trimer domain platform using the Delta spike protein, from antigen design through purification, vaccine evaluation and manufacturability. The pre-fusion trimerized Delta spike protein, PF-D-Trimer, was highly expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, purified by a rapid one-step anti-Trimer Domain monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity process and prepared as a vaccine formulation with an adjuvant. Immunogenicity studies have shown that this vaccine candidate induces robust immune responses in mouse, rat and Syrian hamster models. It also protects K18-hACE2 transgenic mice in a homologous viral challenge. Neutralizing antibodies induced by this vaccine show cross-reactivity against the ancestral WA1, Delta and several Omicrons, including BA.5.2. The formulated PF-D Trimer is stable for up to six months without refrigeration. The Trimer Domain platform was proven to be a key technology in the rapid production of PF-D-Trimer vaccine and may be crucial to accelerate the development and accessibility of updated versions of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.

5.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1107639, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261428

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibody (NtAb) levels are key indicators in the development and evaluation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines. Establishing a unified and reliable WHO International Standard (IS) for NtAb is crucial for the calibration and harmonization of NtAb detection assays. National and other WHO secondary standards are key links in the transfer of IS to working standards but are often overlooked. The Chinese National Standard (NS) and WHO IS were developed by China and WHO in September and December 2020, respectively, the application of which prompted and coordinated sero-detection of vaccine and therapy globally. Currently, a second-generation Chinese NS is urgently required owing to the depletion of stocks and need for calibration to the WHO IS. The Chinese National Institutes for Food and Drug Control (NIFDC) developed two candidate NSs (samples 33 and 66-99) traced to the IS according to the WHO manual for the establishment of national secondary standards through a collaborative study of nine experienced labs. Either NS candidate can reduce the systematic error among different laboratories and the difference between the live virus neutralization (Neut) and pseudovirus neutralization (PsN) methods, ensuring the accuracy and comparability of NtAb test results among multiple labs and methods, especially for samples 66-99. At present, samples 66-99 have been approved as the second-generation NS, which is the first NS calibrated tracing to the IS with 580 (460-740) International Units (IU)/mL and 580 (520-640) IU/mL by Neut and PsN, respectively. The use of standards improves the reliability and comparability of NtAb detection, ensuring the continuity of the use of the IS unitage, which effectively promotes the development and application of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Calibration , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing , China , World Health Organization
6.
Viruses ; 15(1)2022 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241292

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) protein subunit vaccine is one of the mainstream technology platforms for the development of COVID-19 vaccines, and most R&D units use the receptor-binding domain (RBD) or spike (S) protein as the main target antigen. The complexity of vaccine design, sequence, and expression systems makes it urgent to establish common antigen assays to facilitate vaccine development. In this study, we report the development of a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine the antigen content of SARS-CoV-2 protein subunit vaccines based on the United States Pharmacopeia <1220> and ICH (international conference on harmonization) Q14 and Q2 (R2) requirements. A monoclonal antibody (mAb), 20D8, was identified as the detection antibody based on its high RBD binding activity (EC50 = 8.4 ng/mL), broad-spectrum anti-variant neutralizing activity (EC50: 2.7−9.8 ng/mL for pseudovirus and EC50: 9.6−127 ng/mL for authentic virus), good in vivo protection, and a recognized linear RBD epitope (369−379 aa). A porcine anti-RBD polyclonal antibody was selected as the coating antibody. Assay performance met the requirements of the analytical target profile with an accuracy and precision of ≥90% and adequate specificity. Within the specification range of 70−143%, the method capability index was >0.96; the misjudgment probability was <0.39%. The method successfully detected SARS-CoV-2 protein subunit vaccine antigens (RBD or S protein sequences in Alpha, Beta, Gamma, or Delta variants) obtained from five different manufacturers. Thus, we present a new robust, reliable, and general method for measuring the antigenic content of SARS-CoV-2 protein subunit vaccines. In addition to currently marketed and emergency vaccines, it is suitable for vaccines in development containing antigens derived from pre-Omicron mutant strains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccines, Subunit , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Protein Subunits , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; : 1-11, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232612

ABSTRACT

Over one billion people have received 2-3 dosages of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine for basic immunization. Whether a booster dose should be delivered to protect against the Omicron variant and its sub-lineages, remains controversial. Here, we tested different vaccine platforms targeting the ancestral or Omicron strain as a secondary booster of the ancestral inactivated vaccine in mice. We found that the Omicron-adapted inactivated viral vaccine promoted a neutralizing antibody response against Omicron in mice. Furthermore, heterologous immunization with COVID-19 vaccines based on different platforms remarkably elevated the levels of cross- neutralizing antibody against Omicron and its sub-lineages. Omicron-adapted vaccines based on heterologous platforms should be prioritized in future vaccination strategies to control COVID-19.

9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1091797, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227844

ABSTRACT

Owing to the success of linear mRNA coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, biopharmaceutical companies and research teams worldwide have attempted to develop more stable circular RNA (circRNA) vaccines and have achieved some preliminary results. This review aims to summarize key findings and important progress made in circRNA research, the in vivo metabolism and biological functions of circRNAs, and research progress and production process of circRNA vaccines. Further, considerations regarding the quality control of circRNA vaccines are highlighted herein, and the main challenges and problem-solving strategies in circRNA vaccine development and quality control are outlined to provide a reference for circRNA vaccine-related research.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , RNA, Circular/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger , COVID-19 Vaccines
10.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2218480

ABSTRACT

Owing to the success of linear mRNA coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, biopharmaceutical companies and research teams worldwide have attempted to develop more stable circular RNA (circRNA) vaccines and have achieved some preliminary results. This review aims to summarize key findings and important progress made in circRNA research, the in vivo metabolism and biological functions of circRNAs, and research progress and production process of circRNA vaccines. Further, considerations regarding the quality control of circRNA vaccines are highlighted herein, and the main challenges and problem-solving strategies in circRNA vaccine development and quality control are outlined to provide a reference for circRNA vaccine-related research.

11.
Communications in Transportation Research ; : 100090, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2177814

ABSTRACT

The transit bus environment is considered one of the primary sources of transmission of the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. Modeling disease transmission in public buses remains a challenge, especially with uncertainties in passenger boarding, alighting, and onboard movements. Although there are initial findings on the effectiveness of some of the mitigation policies (such as face-covering and ventilation), evidence is scarce on how these policies could affect the onboard transmission risk under a realistic bus setting considering different headways, boarding and alighting patterns, and seating capacity control. This study examines the specific policy regimes that transit agencies implemented during early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic inUSA, in which it brings crucial insights on combating current and future epidemics. We use an agent-based simulation model (ABSM) based on standard design characteristics for urban buses in USA and two different service frequency settings (10-min and 20-min headways). We find that wearing face-coverings (surgical masks) significantly reduces onboard transmission rates, from no mitigation rates of 85% in higher-frequency buses and 75% in lower-frequency buses to 12.5%. The most effective prevention outcome is the combination of KN-95 masks, open window policies, and half-capacity seating control during higher-frequency bus services, with an outcome of nearly 0% onboard infection rate. Our results advance understanding of COVID-19 risks in the urban bus environment and contribute to effective mitigation policy design, which is crucial to ensuring passenger safety. The findings of this study provide important policy implications for operational adjustment and safety protocols as transit agencies seek to plan for future emergencies.

12.
MedComm ; 3(4), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147815

ABSTRACT

Integrating different types of vaccines into a singular immunization regimen is an effective and accessible approach to strengthen and broaden the immunogenicity of existing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) vaccine candidates. To optimize the immunization strategy of the novel mRNA‐based vaccine and recombinant protein subunit vaccine that attracted much attention in COVID‐19 vaccine development, we evaluated the immunogenicity of different combined regimens with the mRNA vaccine (RNA‐RBD) and protein subunit vaccine (PS‐RBD) in mice. Compared with homologous immunization of RNA‐RBD or PS‐RBD, heterologous prime‐boost strategies for mRNA and protein subunit vaccines failed to simultaneously enhance neutralizing antibody (NAb) and Th1 cellular response in this study, showing modestly higher serum neutralizing activity and antibody‐dependent cell‐mediated cytotoxicity for “PS‐RBD prime, RNA‐RBD boost” and robust Th1 type cellular response for “RNA‐RBD prime, PS‐RBD boost”. Interestingly, immunizing the mice with the mixed formulation of the two aforementioned vaccines in various proportions further significantly enhanced the NAb responses against ancestral, Delta, and Omicron strains and manifested increased Th1‐type responses, suggesting that a mixed formulation of mRNA and protein vaccines might be a more prospective vaccination strategy. This study provides basic research data on the combined vaccination strategies of mRNA and protein‐based COVID‐19 vaccines. The immunogenicity of vaccines can be enhanced by the optimization of immunization strategies. In this paper, we investigated the immunogenicity of different combined regimens with the mRNA vaccine RNA‐RBD and protein subunit vaccine PS‐RBD. The result showed that compared with homologous immunization, heterologous prime‐boost strategies for mRNA and protein subunit vaccines failed to simultaneously enhance NAb and Th1 cellular response, but immunizing the mice with the mixed formulation of the two aforementioned vaccines in various proportions further significantly enhanced the NAb responses and Th1 cellular response.

13.
Frontiers in genetics ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147788

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have shown that, compared with healthy individuals, patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) suffer a higher severity and mortality of COVID-19. When infected with this retrovirus, patients with T2D are more likely to face severe complications from cytokine storms and be admitted to high-dependency or intensive care units. Some COVID-19 patients are known to suffer from various forms of acute respiratory distress syndrome and have a higher mortality risk due to extreme activation of inflammatory cascades. Using a conditional false discovery rate statistical framework, an independent genome-wide association study data on individuals presenting with T2D (N = 62,892) and COVID-19 (N = 38,984) were analysed. Genome-wide association study data from 2,343,084 participants were analysed and a significant positive genetic correlation between T2D and COVID-19 was observed (T2D: r for genetic = 0.1511, p-value = 0.01). Overall, 2 SNPs (rs505922 and rs3924604) shared in common between T2D and COVID-19 were identified. Functional analyses indicated that the overlapping loci annotated into the ABO and NUS1 genes might be implicated in several key metabolic pathways. A pathway association analysis identified two common pathways within T2D and COVID-19 pathogenesis, including chemokines and their respective receptors. The gene identified from the pathway analysis (CCR2) was also found to be highly expressed in blood tissue via the GTEx database. To conclude, this study reveals that certain chemokines and their receptors, which are directly involved in the genesis of cytokine storms, may lead to exacerbated hyperinflammation in T2D patients infected by COVID-19.

14.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143699

ABSTRACT

Small molecular nucleic acid drugs produce antiviral effects by activating pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this study, a small molecular nucleotide containing 5'triphosphoric acid (5'PPP) and possessing a double-stranded structure was designed and named nCoV-L. nCoV-L was found to specifically activate RIG-I, induce interferon responses, and inhibit duplication of four RNA viruses (Human enterovirus 71, Human poliovirus 1, Human coxsackievirus B5 and Influenza A virus) in cells. In vivo, nCoV-L quickly induced interferon responses and protected BALB/c suckling mice from a lethal dose of the enterovirus 71. Additionally, prophylactic administration of nCoV-L was found to reduce mouse death and relieve morbidity symptoms in a K18-hACE2 mouse lethal model of SARS-CoV-2. In summary, these findings indicate that nCoV-L activates RIG-I and quickly induces effective antiviral signals. Thus, it has potential as a broad-spectrum antiviral drug.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Mice , Animals , DEAD-box RNA Helicases/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Cell Line , DEAD Box Protein 58 , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Interferons
15.
Bioengineering (Basel) ; 9(10)2022 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081979

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the monkeypox virus (MPXV) in non-endemic countries is an emerging global health threat and may have an economic impact if proactive actions are not taken. As shown by the COVID-19 pandemic, rapid, accurate, and cost-effective virus detection techniques play a pivotal role in disease diagnosis and control. Considering the sudden multicountry MPXV outbreak, a critical evaluation of the MPXV detection approaches would be a timely addition to the endeavors in progress for MPXV control and prevention. Herein, we evaluate the current MPXV detection methods, discuss their pros and cons, and provide recommended solutions to the problems. We review the traditional and emerging nucleic acid detection approaches, immunodiagnostics, whole-particle detection, and imaging-based MPXV detection techniques. The insights provided in this article will help researchers to develop novel techniques for the diagnosis of MPXV.

16.
Front Med ; 2022 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041318

ABSTRACT

Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have been commonly deployed to prevent and control the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), resulting in a worldwide decline in influenza prevalence. However, the influenza risk in China warrants cautious assessment. We conducted a cross-sectional, seroepidemiological study in Shandong Province, Northern China in mid-2021. Hemagglutination inhibition was performed to test antibodies against four influenza vaccine strains. A combination of descriptive and meta-analyses was adopted to compare the seroprevalence of influenza antibodies before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The overall seroprevalence values against A/H1N1pdm09, A/H3N2, B/Victoria, and B/Yamagata were 17.8% (95% CI 16.2%-19.5%), 23.5% (95% CI 21.7%-25.4%), 7.6% (95% CI 6.6%-8.7%), and 15.0 (95% CI 13.5%-16.5%), respectively, in the study period. The overall vaccination rate was extremely low (2.6%). Our results revealed that antibody titers in vaccinated participants were significantly higher than those in unvaccinated individuals (P < 0.001). Notably, the meta-analysis showed that antibodies against A/H1N1pdm09 and A/H3N2 were significantly low in adults after the COVID-19 pandemic (P < 0.01). Increasing vaccination rates and maintaining NPIs are recommended to prevent an elevated influenza risk in China.

17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 949248, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022731

ABSTRACT

To cope with the decline in COVID-19 vaccine-induced immunity caused by emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, a heterologous immunization regimen using chimpanzee adenovirus vectored vaccine expressing SARS-CoV-2 spike (ChAd-S) and an inactivated vaccine (IV) was tested in mice and non-human primates (NHPs). Heterologous regimen successfully enhanced or at least maintained antibody and T cell responses and effectively protected against SARS-CoV-2 variants in mice and NHPs. An additional heterologous booster in mice further improved and prolonged the spike-specific antibody response and conferred effective neutralizing activity against the Omicron variant. Interestingly, priming with ChAd-S and boosting with IV reduced the lung injury risk caused by T cell over activation in NHPs compared to homologous ChAd-S regimen, meanwhile maintained the flexibility of antibody regulation system to react to virus invasion by upregulating or preserving antibody levels. This study demonstrated the satisfactory compatibility of ChAd-S and IV in prime-boost vaccination in animal models.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Simian , COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization , Macaca , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated
18.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(5): e0226322, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019798

ABSTRACT

We investigated the distribution, virulence, and pathogenic characteristics of mutated SARS-CoV-2 to clarify the association between virulence and the viral spreading ability of current and future circulating strains. Chinese rhesus macaques were infected with ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain GD108 and Beta variant B.1.351 (B.1.351) and assessed for clinical signs, viral distribution, pathological changes, and pulmonary inflammation. We found that GD108 replicated more efficiently in the upper respiratory tract, whereas B.1.351 replicated more efficiently in the lower respiratory tract and lung tissue, implying a reduced viral shedding and spreading ability of B.1.351 compared with that of GD108. Importantly, B.1.351 caused more severe lung injury and dramatically elevated the level of inflammatory cytokines compared with those observed after infection with GD108. Moreover, both B.1.351 and GD108 induced spike-specific T-cell responses at an early stage of infection, with higher levels of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the B.1.351 group and higher levels of interleukin 17 (IL-17) in the GD108 group, indicating a divergent pattern in the T-cell-mediated inflammatory "cytokine storm." This study provides a basis for exploring the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) and establishes an applicable animal model for evaluating the efficacy and safety of vaccines and drugs. IMPORTANCE One of the priorities of the current SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and drug research strategy is to determine the changes in transmission ability, virulence, and pathogenic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 variants. In addition, nonhuman primates (NHPs) are suitable animal models for the study of the pathogenic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and could contribute to the understanding of pathogenicity and transmission mechanisms. As SARS-CoV-2 variants continually emerge and the viral biological characteristics change frequently, the establishment of NHP infection models for different VOCs is urgently needed. In the study, the virulence and tissue distribution of B.1.351 and GD108 were comprehensively studied in NHPs. We concluded that the B.1.351 strain was more virulent but exhibited less viral shedding than the latter. This study provides a basis for determining the pathogenic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and establishes an applicable animal model for evaluating the efficacy and safety of vaccines and drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Interleukin-17 , Virus Shedding , Virulence , COVID-19 Vaccines , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Macaca mulatta , Interferon-gamma , Disease Models, Animal
19.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997806

ABSTRACT

The research and development (R&D) of novel adjuvants is an effective measure for improving the immunogenicity of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) recombinant protein vaccine. Toward this end, we designed a novel single-stranded RNA-based adjuvant, L2, from the SARS-CoV-2 prototype genome. L2 could initiate retinoic acid-inducible gene-I signaling pathways to effectively activate the innate immunity. ZF2001, an aluminum hydroxide (Al) adjuvanted SARS-CoV-2 recombinant receptor binding domain (RBD) subunit vaccine with emergency use authorization in China, was used for comparison. L2, with adjuvant compatibility with RBD, elevated the antibody response to a level more than that achieved with Al, CpG 7909, or poly(I:C) as adjuvants in mice. L2 plus Al with composite adjuvant compatibility with RBD markedly improved the immunogenicity of ZF2001; in particular, neutralizing antibody titers increased by about 44-fold for Omicron, and the combination also induced higher levels of antibodies than CpG 7909/poly(I:C) plus Al in mice. Moreover, L2 and L2 plus Al effectively improved the Th1 immune response, rather than the Th2 immune response. Taken together, L2, used as an adjuvant, enhanced the immune response of the SARS-CoV-2 recombinant RBD protein vaccine in mice. These findings should provide a basis for the R&D of novel RNA-based adjuvants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Aluminum Hydroxide , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , RNA , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Tretinoin , Vaccines, Subunit/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics
20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 814365, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952314

ABSTRACT

To effectively control and prevent the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), suitable vaccines have been researched and developed rapidly. Currently, 31 COVID-19 vaccines have been approved for emergency use or authorized for conditional marketing, with more than 9.3 billion doses of vaccines being administered globally. However, the continuous emergence of variants with high transmissibility and an ability to escape the immune responses elicited by vaccines poses severe challenges to the effectiveness of approved vaccines. Hundreds of new COVID-19 vaccines based on different technology platforms are in need of a quick evaluation for their efficiencies. Selection and enrollment of a suitable sample of population for conducting these clinical trials is often challenging because the pandemic so widespread and also due to large scale vaccination. To overcome these hurdles, methods of evaluation of vaccine efficiency based on establishment of surrogate endpoints could expedite the further research and development of vaccines. In this review, we have summarized the studies on neutralizing antibody responses and effectiveness of the various COVID-19 vaccines. Using this data we have analyzed the feasibility of establishing surrogate endpoints for evaluating the efficacy of vaccines based on neutralizing antibody titers. The considerations discussed here open up new avenues for devising novel approaches and strategies for the research and develop as well as application of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Biomarkers , COVID-19/prevention & control , Feasibility Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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