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1.
Innovation (N Y) ; 2(4): 100176, 2021 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527885

ABSTRACT

The great losses caused by financial fraud have attracted continuous attention from academia, industry, and regulatory agencies. More concerning, the ongoing coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) unexpectedly shocks the global financial system and accelerates the use of digital financial services, which brings new challenges in effective financial fraud detection. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of intelligent financial fraud detection practices. We analyze the new features of fraud risk caused by the pandemic and review the development of data types used in fraud detection practices from quantitative tabular data to various unstructured data. The evolution of methods in financial fraud detection is summarized, and the emerging Graph Neural Network methods in the post-pandemic era are discussed in particular. Finally, some of the key challenges and potential directions are proposed to provide inspiring information on intelligent financial fraud detection in the future.

2.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 770656, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518506

ABSTRACT

In the past two decades, coronavirus (CoV) has emerged frequently in the population. Three CoVs (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2) have been identified as highly pathogenic human coronaviruses (HP-hCoVs). Particularly, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 warns that HP-hCoVs present a high risk to human health. Like other viruses, HP-hCoVs interact with their host cells in sophisticated manners for infection and pathogenesis. Here, we reviewed the current knowledge about the interference of HP-hCoVs in multiple cellular processes and their impacts on viral infection. HP-hCoVs employed various strategies to suppress and evade from immune response, including shielding viral RNA from recognition by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), impairing IFN-I production, blocking the downstream pathways of IFN-I, and other evasion strategies. This summary provides a comprehensive view of the interplay between HP-hCoVs and the host cells, which is helpful to understand the mechanism of viral pathogenesis and develop antiviral therapies.

3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512356

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, many preschool-aged children were forced to remain indoors due to social distancing measures and school closures. In this study, we examined how children's movement behaviors (sedentary behaviors, physical activity, and sleep) were affected by the pandemic. Children's (N = 25, age = 4.4 years, SD = 0.3) movement behaviors were measured before and after the COVID outbreak, respectively. Data collected using accelerometers were analyzed using compositional data analyses. A significant change in the overall time-use composition (F = 5.89, p = 0.002) was found. Results suggested that children spent more time sleeping (8% increase) and in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (16% increase), with less time spent in sedentary behaviors (9% decrease). However, parent reports suggested that children were less active and had more screen time. In conclusion, the current evidence suggests that children's physical activity is not negatively impacted by the pandemic. However, the continuous surveillance of movement behaviors of young children during the pandemic is needed.

4.
J Hepatol ; 75(2): 439-441, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The development of COVID-19 vaccines has progressed with encouraging safety and efficacy data. Concerns have been raised about SARS-CoV-2 vaccine responses in the large population of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The study aimed to explore the safety and immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccination in NAFLD. METHODS: This multicenter study included patients with NAFLD without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. All patients were vaccinated with 2 doses of inactivated vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. The primary safety outcome was the incidence of adverse reactions within 7 days after each injection and overall incidence of adverse reactions within 28 days, and the primary immunogenicity outcome was neutralizing antibody response at least 14 days after the whole-course vaccination. RESULTS: A total of 381 patients with pre-existing NAFLD were included from 11 designated centers in China. The median age was 39.0 years (IQR 33.0-48.0 years) and 179 (47.0%) were male. The median BMI was 26.1 kg/m2 (IQR 23.8-28.1 kg/m2). The number of adverse reactions within 7 days after each injection and adverse reactions within 28 days totaled 95 (24.9%) and 112 (29.4%), respectively. The most common adverse reactions were injection site pain in 70 (18.4%), followed by muscle pain in 21 (5.5%), and headache in 20 (5.2%). All adverse reactions were mild and self-limiting, and no grade 3 adverse reactions were recorded. Notably, neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 364 (95.5%) patients with NAFLD. The median neutralizing antibody titer was 32 (IQR 8-64), and the neutralizing antibody titers were maintained. CONCLUSIONS: The inactivated COVID-19 vaccine appears to be safe with good immunogenicity in patients with NAFLD. LAY SUMMARY: The development of vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has progressed rapidly, with encouraging safety and efficacy data. This study now shows that the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine appears to be safe with good immunogenicity in the large population of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
5.
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies ; 132:103408, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1433857

ABSTRACT

Household travel survey data is a critical input to travel behavior modeling, and it also can be used to generate trip schedules for activity-based traffic simulation. With emerging information and communication technology (ICT) tools like smartphones, the collection of passive datasets for travelers’ real-time information becomes available. Smartphone GPS survey apps have emerged to be a popular tool for conducting household travel surveys. Most existing studies employ high-frequency smartphone GPS data and collect accurate activity information. However, their study periods are still rather short, ranging from a few days to a few weeks. For a long-term GPS survey, the issues of missing activity information and sparse GPS data are inevitable and must be addressed carefully. This paper uses 7-month low-frequency smartphone GPS data collected from over 2000 participants, who report 5 most frequently visited locations weekly. The essential goal is to develop a synthetic model of daily activity-location scheduling to capture data with both known and unknown activities. To handle missing activity data, this research develops a new probabilistic approach, which measures the probability of visiting a place by three scores, global visit score (GVS), temporal visit score (TVS), and periodical visit score (PVS). Three different levels of activity-location schedule are modeled respectively. The first level handles only those data with known activities, while data with unknown activities are disregarded. The second takes unknown activities into account but combines all types of them into a single category. The third one models each location with unknown activities separately. These models are able to generate activity-location schedule in different levels of detail for activity-based traffic simulator. After developing activity-location schedule models, both individual and aggregated validation processes are performed with simulation. The validation result shows that the simulated proportion of activity types and activity duration are close to the survey data, indicating the effectiveness of the proposed approaches. This research sheds a light on building sustainable and long-term travel survey using GPS data with missing activity information. In addition, this study will be valuable to model infectious disease transmission, e.g. COVID-19 and assess health risk in urban areas.

6.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1034, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380915

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused numerous infections with diverse clinical symptoms. To identify human genetic variants contributing to the clinical development of COVID-19, we genotyped 1457 (598/859 with severe/mild symptoms) and sequenced 1141 (severe/mild: 474/667) patients of Chinese ancestry. We further incorporated 1401 genotyped and 948 sequenced ancestry-matched population controls, and tested genome-wide association on 1072 severe cases versus 3875 mild or population controls, followed by trans-ethnic meta-analysis with summary statistics of 3199 hospitalized cases and 897,488 population controls from the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative. We identified three significant signals outside the well-established 3p21.31 locus: an intronic variant in FOXP4-AS1 (rs1853837, odds ratio OR = 1.28, P = 2.51 × 10-10, allele frequencies in Chinese/European AF = 0.345/0.105), a frameshift insertion in ABO (rs8176719, OR = 1.19, P = 8.98 × 10-9, AF = 0.422/0.395) and a Chinese-specific intronic variant in MEF2B (rs74490654, OR = 8.73, P = 1.22 × 10-8, AF = 0.004/0). These findings highlight an important role of the adaptive immunity and the ABO blood-group system in protection from developing severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Humans , Introns/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
7.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol ; 14: 17562848211035670, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348281

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: Currently, there are no definitive therapies for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Gut microbial dysbiosis has been proved to be associated with COVID-19 severity and probiotics is an adjunctive therapy for COIVD-19. However, the potential benefit of probiotics in COVID-19 has not been studied. We aimed to assess the relationship of probiotics use with clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Methods: We conducted a propensity-score matched retrospective cohort study of adult patients with COVID-19. Eligible patients received either probiotics plus standard care (probiotics group) or standard care alone (non-probiotics group). The primary outcome was the clinical improvement rate, which was compared among propensity-score matched groups and in the unmatched cohort. Secondary outcomes included the duration of viral shedding, fever, and hospital stay. Results: Among the propensity-score matched groups, probiotics use was related to clinical improvement rates (log-rank p = 0.028). This relationship was driven primarily by a shorter (days) time to clinical improvement [difference, -3 (-4 to -1), p = 0.022], reduction in duration of fever [-1.0 (-2.0 to 0.0), p = 0.025], viral shedding [-3 (-6 to -1), p < 0.001], and hospital stay [-3 (-5 to -1), p = 0.009]. Using the Cox model with time-varying exposure, use of probiotics remained independently related to better clinical improvement rate in the unmatched cohort. Conclusion: Our study suggested that probiotics use was related to improved clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Further studies are required to validate the effect of probiotics in combating the COVID-19 pandemic.

8.
J Appl Lab Med ; 6(5): 1133-1142, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We launched a retrospective analysis of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 192 patients with COVID-19, aiming to depict the kinetic profile of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and explore the factors related to SARS-CoV-2 antibody expression. METHODS: Data on 192 confirmed patients with COVID-19 between January and February 2020 was collected from the designated hospital that received patients with COVID-19 in Guangzhou, China. Moreover, a cohort of 130 suspected patients with COVID-19 and 209 healthy people were also enrolled in this study. IgM and IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were detected by the chemiluminescence immunoassay kits in different groups. RESULTS: A total of 192 COVID-19 cases were analyzed, of which had 81.8% anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM detected and 93.2% anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG detected, respectively, at the time of sampling. The kinetics of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG showed that, the confirmed cases had anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM seroconversion occurred 5-10 days after the onset of the symptoms, and then IgM rose rapidly to reach a peak within around 2-3 weeks, maintaining at its peak for 1 week before its decline. While they had anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroconversion simultaneously or sequentially with IgM, reaching its peak within around 3 to 4 weeks and began to decline after the fifth week. Besides, correlation analysis showed that in patients with COVID-19 the level of IgM was related to gender and disease severity (P < 0.01), and the level of IgG was related to age and disease severity (P < 0.001). The univariate analysis of relevant factors indicated that the level of IgG had a weak correlation with age (r = 0.374, P < 0.01). The level of IgM in male patients was higher than that in female patients (P < 0.001). The expression level of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG were positively correlated with the severity of COVID-19 and the duration of the virus in the patients. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show that anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG can be important assisting COVID-19 diagnosis, especially in the early phase of infection. Furthermore, antibody expression in patients with COVID-19 is also correlated with disease severity, age, gender, and virus clearance or continuous replication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies
9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 604242, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332123

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Our objective was to explore the incidence and early predictive factors of acute kidney injury in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Method: We established a retrospective cohort of 408 patients who were admitted to Shenzhen Third People's Hospital in Shenzhen, China, between January 1 and March 31, 2020. Clinical outcomes and renal function were monitored until April 12, 2020, with a median follow-up duration of 21 days [interquartile range (IQR) = 14-33]. Results: When first admitted to hospital (baseline), 19.36% (79/408) presented renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <90 ml/min/1.73 m2]. During follow-up, 3.9% (16/408) developed acute kidney injury (AKI). Age ≥60 years [hazard ratio (HR) = 4.78, 95% CI = 1.10-20.69], PaO2/FiO2 ratio <300 (HR = 3.48, 95% CI = 1.04-11.62), and higher creatinine (HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01-1.07) at baseline independently predicted the risk of AKI. Respectively, 25.0% (102/408), 3.9% (16/408), 0.5% (2/408), 1.0% (4/408), and 0.2% (1/408) experienced G2, G3a, G3b, G4, and G5 as their most severe category during hospitalization, while 69.4% (283/408) had normal eGFRs throughout the follow-up period. When finally discharged from hospital, there were 12.5% (51/408) of patients with abnormal eGFRs. Conclusions: COVID-19 patients can be at risk of AKI and continuous eGFR decline during hospitalization, which can be early predicted by baseline factors. Some individuals still had renal dysfunction when finally discharged from hospital.

10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2027-2034, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153138

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerging virus. The antibody response in infected patients remains largely unknown, and the clinical value of antibody testing has not been fully demonstrated. METHODS: 173 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled. Their serial plasma samples (n = 535) collected during hospitalization were tested for total antibodies (Ab), IgM, and IgG against SARS-CoV-2. The dynamics of antibodies with disease progress were analyzed. RESULTS: Among 173 patients, the seroconversion rates for Ab, IgM, and IgG were 93.1%, 82.7%, and 64.7%, respectively. The reason for the negative antibody findings in 12 patients might be due to the lack of blood samples at the later stage of illness. The median seroconversion times for Ab, IgM, and then IgG were days 11, 12, and 4, respectively. The presence of antibodies was <40% among patients within 1 week of onset, and rapidly increased to 100.0% (Ab), 94.3% (IgM), and 79.8% (IgG) by day 15 after onset. In contrast, RNA detectability decreased from 66.7% (58/87) in samples collected before day 7 to 45.5% (25/55) during days 15-39. Combining RNA and antibody detection significantly improved the sensitivity of pathogenic diagnosis for COVID-19 (P < .001), even in the early phase of 1 week from onset (P = .007). Moreover, a higher titer of Ab was independently associated with a worse clinical classification (P = .006). CONCLUSIONS: Antibody detection offers vital clinical information during the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The findings provide strong empirical support for the routine application of serological testing in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Formation/physiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Immunoglobulin M/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Serologic Tests
11.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(12): 906-915, 2020 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067822

ABSTRACT

Objective: Here we aimed to investigate the difference in clinical characteristics and outcomes between pediatric and adult patients with COVID-19. Methods: A total of 333 consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection treated in the departments of Internal medicine of Shenzhen Third People's Hospital from January 11 th to February 10 th, 2020 were included. The data were obtained from electronic medical records. The epidemiological data, clinical characteristics, length of hospital stays, and outcomes of pediatric and adult patients were compared. Results: Compared with adult patients, pediatric patients had a shorter time of symptom onset to hospitalization than adults [median time, 1 ( IQR, 1.0-1.0) d vs. 3 ( IQR, 2.0-6.0) d, P < 0.001], milder or fewer symptoms, less severe chest CT findings. The clinical severity classification of children was less severe than adults. Up to 15 th March, the end of the follow-up, 33 (100%) children and 292 (97.3%) adult patients had been discharged from hospital. Only 2 (0.7%) adult patients died, with an overall case mortality of 0.6%. The median length of hospital stay of pediatric patients was shorter than that of adult patients [19 (95% CI: 16.6-21.4) d vs. 21 (95% CI: 19.9-22.1) d, P = 0.024]. Conclusion: Pediatric patients with COVID-19 had milder or less clinical symptoms, less evident pulmonary imaging changes, better prognosis, and shorter length of hospital stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , China/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
12.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 579406, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937452

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and identify the occurrence of viral shedding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) during follow-up. Methods: We retrospectively retrieved data from pediatric patients with COVID-19 from the Shenzhen Third People's Hospital in China. The dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 and antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed during hospitalization and after discharge. Results: From January 23 to March 15, 2020, a total of 28 pediatric patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 and were followed for at least 1 month. The median age was 7 years (IQR 3.5-10) and none of the children progressed to severe COVID-19 during hospitalization. Ten patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 1 month after discharge while four patients tested positive during the 2nd month after discharge. Only three of 12 children showed detectable immunoglobulin-M (IgM) on day 5, 18, and 21 after illness onset, respectively. Conclusions: COVID-19 disease was relatively mild among children while a number did test positive after discharge from the hospital. Public health initiatives should thus adapt control measures targeted toward children.

13.
Cell Discov ; 6(1): 83, 2020 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922257

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has accounted for millions of infections and hundreds of thousand deaths worldwide in a short-time period. The patients demonstrate a great diversity in clinical and laboratory manifestations and disease severity. Nonetheless, little is known about the host genetic contribution to the observed interindividual phenotypic variability. Here, we report the first host genetic study in the Chinese population by deeply sequencing and analyzing 332 COVID-19 patients categorized by varying levels of severity from the Shenzhen Third People's Hospital. Upon a total of 22.2 million genetic variants, we conducted both single-variant and gene-based association tests among five severity groups including asymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe, and critical ill patients after the correction of potential confounding factors. Pedigree analysis suggested a potential monogenic effect of loss of function variants in GOLGA3 and DPP7 for critically ill and asymptomatic disease demonstration. Genome-wide association study suggests the most significant gene locus associated with severity were located in TMEM189-UBE2V1 that involved in the IL-1 signaling pathway. The p.Val197Met missense variant that affects the stability of the TMPRSS2 protein displays a decreasing allele frequency among the severe patients compared to the mild and the general population. We identified that the HLA-A*11:01, B*51:01, and C*14:02 alleles significantly predispose the worst outcome of the patients. This initial genomic study of Chinese patients provides genetic insights into the phenotypic difference among the COVID-19 patient groups and highlighted genes and variants that may help guide targeted efforts in containing the outbreak. Limitations and advantages of the study were also reviewed to guide future international efforts on elucidating the genetic architecture of host-pathogen interaction for COVID-19 and other infectious and complex diseases.

14.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(17): 1084, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842908

ABSTRACT

Background: The characteristics, significance and potential cause of positive SARS-CoV-2 diagnoses in recovered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients post discharge (re-detectable positive, RP) remained elusive. Methods: A total of 262 COVID-19 patients discharged from January 23 to February 25, 2020 were enrolled into this study. RP and non-RP (NRP) patients were grouped according to disease severity, and the characterization at re-admission was analyzed. SARS-CoV-2 RNA and plasma antibody levels were measured, and all patients were followed up for at least 14 days, with a cutoff date of March 10, 2020. Results: A total of 14.5% of RP patients were detected. These patients were characterized as young and displayed mild and moderate conditions compared to NRP patients while no severe patients were RP. RP patients displayed fewer symptoms but similar plasma antibody levels during their hospitalization compared to NRP patients. Upon hospital readmission, these patients showed no obvious symptoms or disease progression. All 21 close contacts of RP patients were tested negative for viral RNA and showed no suspicious symptoms. Eighteen out of 24 of RNA-negative samples detected by the commercial kit were tested positive for viral RNA using a hyper-sensitive method, suggesting that these patients were potential carriers of the virus after recovery from COVID-19. Conclusions: Our results indicated that young patients, with a mild diagnosis of COVID-19 are more likely to display RP status after discharge. These patients show no obvious symptoms or disease progression upon re-admission. More sensitive RNA detection methods are required to monitor these patients. Our findings provide information and evidence for the management of convalescent COVID-19 patients.

15.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-526

ABSTRACT

Background: Current outbreak of the new type of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia in Wuhan, China has drawn attention of the public health system all over

17.
Hepatol Res ; 50(11): 1211-1221, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697174

ABSTRACT

AIM: With the current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and high endemic levels of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection worldwide, it is urgent to investigate liver function changes of COVID-19 patients with chronic HBV infection, and how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in turn affects the course of chronic HBV infection. METHOD: We undertook a retrospective study based on 347 COVID-19 patients (21 vs. 326 with vs. without chronic HBV infection). With the propensity score matching (PSM) method, we yielded 20 and 51 matched patients for the HBV group and the non-HBV group, respectively. RESULTS: At the end of follow-up, all of these 71 patients achieved SARS-CoV-2 clearance (P = 0.1). During the follow-up, 30% versus 31.4% in the HBV group versus non-HBV group progressed to severe COVID-19 (P = 0.97). After PSM, the longitudinal changes of median values for liver biochemistries were not significantly different between the two groups. In the HBV group versus non-HBV group, 35% (7/20) versus 37.25% (19/51) (P = 0.86) had abnormal alanine aminotransferase at least once during hospitalization, 30% (6/20) versus 31.37% (16/51) had abnormal aspartate aminotransferase (P = 0.91), 40% (8/20) versus 37.25% (19/51) had abnormal γ-glutamyltransferase (P = 0.83), and 45% (9/20) versus 39.22% (20/51) had abnormal total bilirubin levels (P = 0.91). Moreover, three patients in the HBV group had hepatitis B reactivation. CONCLUSIONS: Liver dysfunction presented in COVID-19 patients with/without chronic HBV. Moreover, those COVID-19 patients co-infected with chronic HBV could have a risk of hepatitis B reactivation. It is necessary to monitor liver function of COVID-19 patients, as well as HBV-DNA levels for those co-infected with HBV during the whole disease course.

18.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 270, 2020 07 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-632434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) broke out globally. Early prediction of the clinical progression was essential but still unclear. We aimed to evaluate the timeline of COVID-19 development and analyze risk factors of disease progression. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we included 333 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection hospitalized in the Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen from 10 January to 10 February 2020. Epidemiological feature, clinical records, laboratory and radiology manifestations were collected and analyzed. 323 patients with mild-moderate symptoms on admission were observed to determine whether they exacerbated to severe-critically ill conditions (progressive group) or not (stable group). We used logistic regression to identify the risk factors associated with clinical progression. RESULTS: Of all the 333 patients, 70 (21.0%) patients progressed into severe-critically ill conditions during hospitalization and assigned to the progressive group, 253 (76.0%) patients belonged to the stable group, another 10 patients were severe before admission. we found that the clinical features of aged over 40 (3.80 [1.72, 8.52]), males (2.21 [1.20, 4.07]), with comorbidities (1.78 [1.13, 2.81]) certain exposure history (0.38 [0.20, 0.71]), abnormal radiology manifestations (3.56 [1.13, 11.40]), low level of T lymphocytes (0.99 [0.997, 0.999]), high level of NLR (0.99 [0.97, 1.01]), IL-6 (1.05 [1.03, 1.07]) and CRP (1.67 [1.12, 2.47]) were the risk factors of disease progression by logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS: The potential risk factors of males, older age, with comorbidities, low T lymphocyte level and high level of NLR, CRP, IL-6 can help to predict clinical progression of COVID-19 at an early stage.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Progression , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , ROC Curve , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
19.
J Evid Based Med ; 13(2): 173-177, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343112

ABSTRACT

The number of research involving human subjects on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is surging, bringing challenges to the ethical review committee (ERC) in terms of reviewing speed and special ethical considerations under the pandemic. However, the existing ethical review system and regulations have their limitations to meet the demand for a prompt and efficient epidemic control. Since the research under the public health emergency is different from that carried out in familiar situations to design and implementation, the strategy for a satisfactory ERC response should balance the duty of protecting individual participants as well as the special public needs derived from the disease control. It is suggested that the ethical review-related regulations need to be updated, and a unified supervision system to the overall ERC is required. ERC collaboration, capacity-improving and efficiency-improving measures need to be taken. With respect to the reviewing guidelines, it is suggested that the international norms should be explained with more consideration of the local condition and the exceptional circumstances in this public health emergency. A joint effort needs to be taken for better research conduction.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Ethics Committees, Research/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Research Design , Therapeutic Human Experimentation/ethics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Global Health , Humans , Informed Consent/ethics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
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