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1.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 270, 2020 07 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-632434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) broke out globally. Early prediction of the clinical progression was essential but still unclear. We aimed to evaluate the timeline of COVID-19 development and analyze risk factors of disease progression. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we included 333 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection hospitalized in the Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen from 10 January to 10 February 2020. Epidemiological feature, clinical records, laboratory and radiology manifestations were collected and analyzed. 323 patients with mild-moderate symptoms on admission were observed to determine whether they exacerbated to severe-critically ill conditions (progressive group) or not (stable group). We used logistic regression to identify the risk factors associated with clinical progression. RESULTS: Of all the 333 patients, 70 (21.0%) patients progressed into severe-critically ill conditions during hospitalization and assigned to the progressive group, 253 (76.0%) patients belonged to the stable group, another 10 patients were severe before admission. we found that the clinical features of aged over 40 (3.80 [1.72, 8.52]), males (2.21 [1.20, 4.07]), with comorbidities (1.78 [1.13, 2.81]) certain exposure history (0.38 [0.20, 0.71]), abnormal radiology manifestations (3.56 [1.13, 11.40]), low level of T lymphocytes (0.99 [0.997, 0.999]), high level of NLR (0.99 [0.97, 1.01]), IL-6 (1.05 [1.03, 1.07]) and CRP (1.67 [1.12, 2.47]) were the risk factors of disease progression by logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS: The potential risk factors of males, older age, with comorbidities, low T lymphocyte level and high level of NLR, CRP, IL-6 can help to predict clinical progression of COVID-19 at an early stage.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Progression , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , ROC Curve , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
2.
J Evid Based Med ; 13(2): 173-177, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343112

ABSTRACT

The number of research involving human subjects on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is surging, bringing challenges to the ethical review committee (ERC) in terms of reviewing speed and special ethical considerations under the pandemic. However, the existing ethical review system and regulations have their limitations to meet the demand for a prompt and efficient epidemic control. Since the research under the public health emergency is different from that carried out in familiar situations to design and implementation, the strategy for a satisfactory ERC response should balance the duty of protecting individual participants as well as the special public needs derived from the disease control. It is suggested that the ethical review-related regulations need to be updated, and a unified supervision system to the overall ERC is required. ERC collaboration, capacity-improving and efficiency-improving measures need to be taken. With respect to the reviewing guidelines, it is suggested that the international norms should be explained with more consideration of the local condition and the exceptional circumstances in this public health emergency. A joint effort needs to be taken for better research conduction.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Ethics Committees, Research/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Research Design , Therapeutic Human Experimentation/ethics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Global Health , Humans , Informed Consent/ethics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy
4.
Econ. Polit. Studies ; 2020.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-306148

ABSTRACT

This paper attempts to explore the direct effects and spill-overs of COVID-19 on stock markets. Using conventional (Formula presented.) -tests and non-parametric Mann–Whitney tests, we empirically analyse daily return data from stock markets in the People’s Republic of China, Italy, South Korea, France, Spain, Germany, Japan and the United States of America. Our empirical results show that (i) COVID-19 has a negative but short-term impact on stock markets of affected countries and that (ii) the impact of COVID-19 on stock markets has bidirectional spill-over effects between Asian countries and European and American countries. However, there is no evidence that COVID-19 negatively affects these countries’ stock markets more than it does the global average. The findings contribute to the research on economic impact of the pandemic by providing empirical evidence that COVID-19 has spill-over effects on stock markets of other countries. The results also provide a basis for assessing trends in international stock markets when the situation is alleviated worldwide.

5.
Diabetes Care ; 43(7): 1392-1398, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-273383

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patients with obesity are at increased risk of exacerbations from viral respiratory infections. However, the association of obesity with the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unclear. We examined this association using data from the only referral hospital in Shenzhen, China. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 383 consecutively hospitalized patients with COVID-19 admitted from 11 January 2020 to 16 February 2020 and followed until 26 March 2020 at the Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen were included. Underweight was defined as a BMI <18.5 kg/m2, normal weight as 18.5-23.9 kg/m2, overweight as 24.0-27.9 kg/m2, and obesity as ≥28 kg/m2. RESULTS: Of the 383 patients, 53.1% were normal weight, 4.2% were underweight, 32.0% were overweight, and 10.7% were obese at admission. Obese patients tended to have symptoms of cough (P = 0.03) and fever (P = 0.06) compared with patients who were not obese. Compared with normal weight patients, those who were overweight had 1.84-fold odds of developing severe COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR] 1.84, 95% CI 0.99-3.43, P = 0.05), while those who were obese were at 3.40-fold odds of developing severe disease (OR 3.40, 95% CI 1.40-2.86, P = 0.007), after adjusting for age, sex, epidemiological characteristics, days from disease onset to hospitalization, presence of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, liver disease, and cancer, and drug used for treatment. Additionally, after similar adjustment, men who were obese versus those who were normal weight were at increased odds of developing severe COVID-19 (OR 5.66, 95% CI 1.80-17.75, P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, obese patients had increased odds of progressing to severe COVID-19. As the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may continue to spread worldwide, clinicians should pay close attention to obese patients, who should be carefully managed with prompt and aggressive treatment.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Body Mass Index , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/physiopathology , Odds Ratio , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Risk Factors
6.
J Hepatol ; 2020 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-208943

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent data on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has begun to shine light on the impact of the disease on the liver. But no studies to date have systematically described liver test abnormalities in patients with COVID-19. We evaluated the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in patients with abnormal liver test results. METHODS: Clinical records and laboratory results were obtained from 417 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were admitted to the only referral hospital in Shenzhen, China from January 11 to February 21, 2020 and followed up to March 7, 2020. Information on clinical features of patients with abnormal liver tests were collected for analysis. RESULTS: Of 417 patients with COVID-19, 318 (76.3%) had abnormal liver test results and 90 (21.5%) had liver injury during hospitalization. The presence of abnormal liver tests became more pronounced during hospitalization within 2 weeks, with 49 (23.4%), 31 (14.8%), 24 (11.5%) and 51 (24.4%) patients having alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels elevated to more than 3× the upper limit of normal, respectively. Patients with abnormal liver tests of hepatocellular type or mixed type at admission had higher odds of progressing to severe disease (odds ratios [ORs] 2.73; 95% CI 1.19-6.3, and 4.44, 95% CI 1.93-10.23, respectively). The use of lopinavir/ritonavir was also found to lead to increased odds of liver injury (OR from 4.44 to 5.03, both p <0.01). CONCLUSION: Patients with abnormal liver tests were at higher risk of progressing to severe disease. The detrimental effects on liver injury mainly related to certain medications used during hospitalization, which should be monitored and evaluated frequently. LAY SUMMARY: Data on liver tests in patients with COVID-19 are scarce. We observed a high prevalence of liver test abnormalities and liver injury in 417 patients with COVID-19 admitted to our referral center, and the prevalence increased substantially during hospitalization. The presence of abnormal liver tests and liver injury were associated with the progression to severe pneumonia. The detrimental effects on liver injury were related to certain medications used during hospitalization, which warrants frequent monitoring and evaluation for these patients.

7.
J Hepatol ; 2020 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-48034

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent data on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has begun to shine light on the impact of the disease on the liver. But no studies to date have systematically described liver test abnormalities in patients with COVID-19. We evaluated the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in patients with abnormal liver test results. METHODS: Clinical records and laboratory results were obtained from 417 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were admitted to the only referral hospital in Shenzhen, China from January 11 to February 21, 2020 and followed up to March 7, 2020. Information on clinical features of patients with abnormal liver tests were collected for analysis. RESULTS: Of 417 patients with COVID-19, 318 (76.3%) had abnormal liver test results and 90 (21.5%) had liver injury during hospitalization. The presence of abnormal liver tests became more pronounced during hospitalization within 2 weeks, with 49 (23.4%), 31 (14.8%), 24 (11.5%) and 51 (24.4%) patients having alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels elevated to more than 3× the upper limit of normal, respectively. Patients with abnormal liver tests of hepatocellular type or mixed type at admission had higher odds of progressing to severe disease (odds ratios [ORs] 2.73; 95% CI 1.19-6.3, and 4.44, 95% CI 1.93-10.23, respectively). The use of lopinavir/ritonavir was also found to lead to increased odds of liver injury (OR from 4.44 to 5.03, both p <0.01). CONCLUSION: Patients with abnormal liver tests were at higher risk of progressing to severe disease. The detrimental effects on liver injury mainly related to certain medications used during hospitalization, which should be monitored and evaluated frequently. LAY SUMMARY: Data on liver tests in patients with COVID-19 are scarce. We observed a high prevalence of liver test abnormalities and liver injury in 417 patients with COVID-19 admitted to our referral center, and the prevalence increased substantially during hospitalization. The presence of abnormal liver tests and liver injury were associated with the progression to severe pneumonia. The detrimental effects on liver injury were related to certain medications used during hospitalization, which warrants frequent monitoring and evaluation for these patients.

8.
Allergy ; 75(7): 1742-1752, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-27762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) patients outside the epicenter of Hubei Province are less understood. METHODS: We analyzed the epidemiological and clinical features of all COVID-2019 cases in the only referral hospital in Shenzhen City, China, from January 11, 2020, to February 6, 2020, and followed until March 6, 2020. RESULTS: Among the 298 confirmed cases, 233 (81.5%) had been to Hubei, while 42 (14%) did not have a clear travel history. Only 218 (73.15%) cases had a fever as the initial symptom. Compared with the nonsevere cases, severe cases were associated with older age, those with underlying diseases, and higher levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Slower clearance of the virus was associated with a higher risk of progression to critical condition. As of March 6, 2020, 268 (89.9%) patients were discharged and the overall case fatality ratio was 1.0%. CONCLUSIONS: In a designated hospital outside Hubei Province, COVID-2019 patients could be effectively managed by properly using the existing hospital system. Mortality may be lowered when cases are relatively mild, and there are sufficient medical resources to care and treat the disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Child , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-17886

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerging virus. The antibody response in infected patient remains largely unknown, and the clinical values of antibody testing have not been fully demonstrated. METHODS: A total of 173 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled. Their serial plasma samples (n=535) collected during the hospitalization were tested for total antibodies (Ab), IgM and IgG against SARS-CoV-2. The dynamics of antibodies with the disease progress was analyzed. RESULTS: Among 173 patients, the seroconversion rate for Ab, IgM and IgG was 93.1%, 82.7% and 64.7%, respectively. The reason for the negative antibody findings in 12 patients might due to the lack of blood samples at the later stage of illness. The median seroconversion time for Ab, IgM and then IgG were day-11, day-12 and day-14, separately. The presence of antibodies was <40% among patients within 1-week since onset, and rapidly increased to 100.0% (Ab), 94.3% (IgM) and 79.8% (IgG) since day-15 after onset. In contrast, RNA detectability decreased from 66.7% (58/87) in samples collected before day-7 to 45.5% (25/55) during day 15-39. Combining RNA and antibody detections significantly improved the sensitivity of pathogenic diagnosis for COVID-19 (p<0.001), even in early phase of 1-week since onset (p=0.007). Moreover, a higher titer of Ab was independently associated with a worse clinical classification (p=0.006). CONCLUSIONS: The antibody detection offers vital clinical information during the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The findings provide strong empirical support for the routine application of serological testing in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19 patients.

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