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1.
Front Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2199450

ABSTRACT

Aims: The transport of patients suspected of having COVID-19 requires careful consideration. Using paths selected at random and not accounting for person flow along the path are risk factors for infection spread. Intrahospital transportation (IHT) protocols and guidelines should be used to help reduce the risk of secondary virus transmission during transport. This study aimed to propose optimal IHT for patients with an infectious disease presenting in an out-patient area. Design: The map of a West China Hospital was used. We also used field investigation findings and simulated person flow to establish pathway length and transportation time. We identified three optimum pathways and estimated safety boundary marks, including a patient transportation border (PTB) and safety transportation border (STB). Finally, IHT, PTB, and STP formed a virtual transport pipeline (VTP) and a traceable IHT management system, which can generate a virtual isolation space. Results: The three pathways met efficiency, accessibility, and by-stander flow criteria. No facility characteristic modification was required. Conclusions: Using virtual models to identify pathways through out-patient hospital areas may help reduce the risk of infection spread.

2.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13:992062, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198864

ABSTRACT

As the global COVID-19 pandemic continues and new SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern emerge, vaccines remain an important tool for preventing the pandemic. The inactivated or subunit vaccines themselves generally exhibit low immunogenicity, which needs adjuvants to improve the immune response. We previously developed a receptor binding domain (RBD)-targeted and self-assembled nanoparticle to elicit a potent immune response in both mice and rhesus macaques. Herein, we further improved the RBD production in the eukaryote system by in situ Crispr/Cas9-engineered CHO cells. By comparing the immune effects of various Toll-like receptor-targeted adjuvants to enhance nanoparticle vaccine immunization, we found that Pam2CSK4, a TLR2/6 agonist, could mostly increase the titers of antigen-specific neutralizing antibodies and durability in humoral immunity. Remarkably, together with Pam2CSK4, the RBD-based nanoparticle vaccine induced a significant Th1-biased immune response and enhanced the differentiation of both memory T cells and follicular helper T cells. We further found that Pam2CSK4 upregulated migration genes and many genes involved in the activation and proliferation of leukocytes. Our data indicate that Pam2CSK4 targeting TLR2, which has been shown to be effective in tuberculosis vaccines, is the optimal adjuvant for the SARS-CoV-2 nanoparticle vaccine, paving the way for an immediate clinical trial.

3.
Biomarker Research ; 11(1):6, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196486

ABSTRACT

High-frequency mutations in tumor genomes could be exploited as an asset for developing tumor vaccines. In recent years, with the tremendous breakthrough in genomics, intelligence algorithm, and in-depth insight of tumor immunology, it has become possible to rapidly target genomic alterations in tumor cell and rationally select vaccine targets. Among a variety of candidate vaccine platforms, the early application of mRNA was limited by instability low efficiency and excessive immunogenicity until the successful development of mRNA vaccines against SARS-COV-2 broken of technical bottleneck in vaccine preparation, allowing tumor mRNA vaccines to be prepared rapidly in an economical way with good performance of stability and efficiency. In this review, we systematically summarized the classification and characteristics of tumor antigens, the general process and methods for screening neoantigens, the strategies of vaccine preparations and advances in clinical trials, as well as presented the main challenges in the current mRNA tumor vaccine development.

4.
Genome Medicine ; 14(1):146, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants has raised questions regarding resistance to immunity by natural infection or immunization. We examined the sensitivity of Delta and Omicron subvariants (BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, BA.4/5, and BA.3) to neutralizing antibodies from BBIBP-CorV-vaccinated and BBIBP-CorV- or ZF2001-boosted individuals, as well as individuals with Delta and BA.1 breakthrough infections, and determined their fusogenicity and infectivity.

5.
Science Advances ; 8(51):eabq3500, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193375

ABSTRACT

It is urgent to develop more effective mRNA vaccines against the emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants owing to the immune escape. Here, we constructed a novel mRNA delivery system [IC8/Mn lipid nanoparticles (IC8/Mn LNPs)]with high immunogenicity, via introducing a stimulator of interferon genes (STING) agonist [manganese (Mn)] based on a newly synthesized ionizable lipid (IC8). It was found that Mn can not only promote maturation of antigen-presenting cells via activating STING pathway but also improve mRNA expression by facilitating lysosomal escape for the first time. Subsequently, IC8/Mn LNPs loaded with mRNA encoding the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 Delta or Omicron variant (IC8/Mn@D or IC8/Mn@O) were prepared. Both mRNA vaccines induced substantial specific immunoglobulin G responses against Delta or Omicron. IC8/Mn@D displayed strong pseudovirus neutralization ability, T helper 1-biased immune responses, and good safety. It can be concluded that IC8/Mn LNPs have great potential for developing Mn-coordinated mRNA vaccines with robust immunogenicity and good safety.

6.
29th International Conference on Geoinformatics, Geoinformatics 2022 ; 2022-August, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2191794

ABSTRACT

It is the cornerstone of precise and scientific prevention and control to understand the temporal evolution and spatial pattern of the COVID-19 epidemic. Based on the county-level COVID-19 case of the United States from January 22, 2020 to October 8, 2021, we explored and analyzed the epidemic by using time series analysis, spatial autocorrelation analysis and gravity center trajectory analysis. The results show that: (1) the epidemic in the United States experienced four stages of low incidence, growth, peak and rebound with June 15, September 30 and October 1, 2020 as the cut-off points. (2) The global Moran index experienced a process of 'increase-decrease-increase-stability', with the maximum value exceeding 0.6, indicating that the epidemic has obvious spatial aggregation;the epidemic is dominated by high-high clusters (over 150 counties) and low-low clusters (over 500 counties), presenting a pattern of 'three cores and multiple islands' and 'north-south belt'. (3) In 60% of states, the trajectory of the epidemic center of gravity is near-linear type. The epidemic hotspots in these states were relatively stable over time. In more than half of the states, the curve of the moving distance of the epidemic center of gravity is exponential. These states experienced a very rapid epidemic. This study is expected to provide a reference for evaluating the effectiveness of epidemic prevention measures and determining targeted epidemic prevention measures, as well as accumulate experience for future research on the spread of different infectious diseases in different regions. © 2022 IEEE.

7.
Cardiology Discovery ; 2(2):69-76, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190856

ABSTRACT

Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exists as a pandemic. Mortality during hospitalization is multifactorial, and there is urgent need for a risk stratification model to predict in-hospital death among COVID-19 patients. Here we aimed to construct a risk score system for early identification of COVID-19 patients at high probability of dying during in-hospital treatment.

8.
Cell Discov ; 9(1):2, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2185790

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic. Antibody resistance dampens neutralizing antibody therapy and threatens current global Coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine campaigns. In addition to the emergence of resistant SARS-CoV-2 variants, little is known about how SARS-CoV-2 evades antibodies. Here, we report a novel mechanism of extracellular vesicle (EV)-mediated cell-to-cell transmission of SARS-CoV-2, which facilitates SARS-CoV-2 to escape from neutralizing antibodies. These EVs, initially observed in SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein-expressing cells, are secreted by various SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, including Vero E6, Calu-3, and HPAEpiC cells, undergoing infection-induced pyroptosis. Various SARS-CoV-2-infected cells produce similar EVs characterized by extra-large sizes (1.6-9.5 μm in diameter, average diameter > 4.2 μm) much larger than previously reported virus-generated vesicles. Transmission electron microscopy analysis and plaque assay reveal that these SARS-CoV-2-induced EVs contain large amounts of live virus particles. In particular, the vesicle-cloaked SARS-CoV-2 virus is resistant to neutralizing antibodies and able to reinfect naïve cells independent of the reported receptors and cofactors. Consistently, the constructed 3D images show that intact EVs could be taken up by recipient cells directly, supporting vesicle-mediated cell-to-cell transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism of receptor-independent SARS-CoV-2 infection via cell-to-cell transmission, provide new insights into antibody resistance of SARS-CoV-2 and suggest potential targets for future antiviral therapeutics.

9.
Nursing Open ; 28:28, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2173315

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To explore the lived experiences of emergency department (ED) healthcare professionals regarding visiting restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic.

16.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; 43(3):341-344, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2155899

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the online learning-related screen use duration and screen types in school-aged children in Shanghai during the COVID-19 epidemic. Methods Random clustering sampling was used to select 5 591 parents of students from 8 primary and junior schools that are in the sampling pool of the national myopia survey in districts of Jiading, Pudong and Baoshan in Shanghai in April 2020. Electronic questionnaire was administered to parents regarding their child's online learning-related screen use. Results On average, the median weekly duration of online learning-related screen use was 13.33 hours, the curricular and extracurricular parts of which were 10(8.75, 16.67) and 0(0, 3.33) hours, respectively. About 29.44% of investigated school-aged children only used small-size screen for online learning. Children in higher grades, being myopic and parents neither being myopic were associated with reporting higher weekly duration(P<0.05);children in higher grades of primary school and parents neither being myopic were associated with a higher likelihood of using small-size screen for online learning(P<0.05). Conclusion At the early stage of the COVID-19 epidemic, the burden associated with online-learning-related screen use was high in school-aged children in Shanghai. Health education regarding online learning-related screen use should be addressed in parents to guide their children to use screen appropriately. © 2022 Chin J Sch Health. All rights reserved.

17.
Journal of Virology ; : e0124522, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152892

ABSTRACT

The global spread of the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the continuously emerging new variants underscore an urgent need for effective therapeutics for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we screened several FDA-approved amphiphilic drugs and determined that sertraline (SRT) exhibits potent antiviral activity against infection of SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus (PsV) and authentic virus in vitro. It effectively inhibits SARS-CoV-2 spike (S)-mediated cell-cell fusion. SRT targets the early stage of viral entry. It can bind to the S1 subunit of the S protein, especially the receptor binding domain (RBD), thus blocking S-hACE2 interaction and interfering with the proteolysis process of S protein. SRT is also effective against infection with SARS-CoV-2 PsV variants, including the newly emerging Omicron. The combination of SRT and other antivirals exhibits a strong synergistic effect against infection of SARS-CoV-2 PsV. The antiviral activity of SRT is independent of serotonin transporter expression. Moreover, SRT effectively inhibits infection of SARS-CoV-2 PsV and alleviates the inflammation process and lung pathological alterations in transduced mice in vivo. Therefore, SRT shows promise as a treatment option for COVID-19. IMPORTANCE The study shows SRT is an effective entry inhibitor against infection of SARS-CoV-2, which is currently prevalent globally. SRT targets the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 and is effective against a panel of SARS-CoV-2 variants. It also could be used in combination to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. More importantly, with long history of clinical use and proven safety, SRT might be particularly suitable to treat infection of SARS-CoV-2 in the central nervous system and optimized for treatment in older people, pregnant women, and COVID-19 patients with heart complications, which are associated with severity and mortality of COVID-19.

18.
Frontiers in Built Environment ; 8, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2162947

ABSTRACT

Two and half years into the COVID-19 pandemic, there is quite a lot of confusion over public health guidance necessary in order to reduce disease infection risks, from room air ventilation, the use of air cleaners, and type of mask and whether or not to wear a mask. This paper describes the development of a novel web-based calculator for use by the public to assess COVID-19 infection risks between a source and receiver in a typical room. The aim is to inform the disease infection risk in response to varying exposure times, mask-wearing, and viral variant in circulation. The calculator is based on the state-of-the-art research evidence, i.e., a room air ventilation model, mask infiltration efficiencies, room cleaner efficiencies, the quanta emission rates of various viral variants of COVID-19, and the modified Wells Riley equations. The results show that exposure times are critical in determining transmission risk. Masks are important and can reduce infection risk especially over shorter exposure times and for lower source emission quantum. N95 respirators are by far the most effective, especially for Omicron, and the results indicate that N95 respirators are necessary for the more infectious variants. Increasing fresh air ventilation rates from 2ac/h to 6ac/h can have a considerable impact in reducing transmission risk in a well-mixed space. Going from 6 ac/h to 12ac/h is less effective especially at lower exposure times. Venues can be classified in terms of risk, and appropriate high ventilation rates might be recommended for high-risk, speaking loudly and singing, such as classrooms and theatres. However, for low risk, quiet and speaking softly venues, such as offices and libraries, higher ventilation rates may not be required;instead, mechanical ventilation systems in combination with air cleaners can effectively remove small fraction size aerosol particles. The web-based calculator provides an easy-to-use and valuable tool for use in estimating infection risk.

19.
Yaoxue Xuebao ; 57(10):2902-2913, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2100539

ABSTRACT

"At present, majority of the small molecular drugs used in clinics target proteins, they exert the efficacy through the binding to specific sites on the target protein. However, the ""druggable"" protein targets account for a small portion of the total number of proteins, and ""non-druggable"" proteins account for 80%, because of not having suitable drug binding sites. In the central rule, RNA is located in the upstream of proteins and controls the transcription of proteins. The research of small molecule drugs targeting RNA can solve the problem of protein ""undruggable proteins"" in some extent. This review summarizes the representative research achievements of small molecular drugs targeting RNA in recent years, and the screening methods applied to this field, with the focuses on the latest progress of small molecular drugs targeting novel coronavirus RNA. © 2022, Chinese Pharmaceutical Association. All rights reserved."

20.
Journal of Environmental Management ; Part B. 325 (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2086407

ABSTRACT

Green bonds are becoming increasingly important in sustainable investments since their environmental protection attributes allow them to benefit from environmental degradation. However, the mechanism of environmental degradation on green bonds has not yet been studied. This study proposes a mediation model to analyze air pollution's influence on green bonds. Theoretically, air pollution leads to increased public concern through public environmental awareness and perceptions of physical health risks. Enhanced public concern drives investors' green preference and environmental responsibility, thus expanding green bond demand, in which public concern plays an important mediation role. To verify the mediating effect, causal stepwise regression and bootstrap methods are used. The empirical results confirm this theoretical mechanism. Air pollution is significantly positively related to public concern. Public concern is positively linked with green bond investment willingness, resulting in increased volatility. The total positive effect of air pollution on green bonds is partly absorbed by the mediating effect of public concern that is significantly positive and reaches 30.21% of the total effect. In addition, major crisis events (e.g., COVID-19) may hinder the positive mediation process by generating a negative trend and distracting the public. This means that the government could propose appropriate measures to minimize the negative aspects in order to promote green finance. The mediation model is also useful for investors wishing to increase green assets in their portfolios and provides an incentive for businesses to promote green finance. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd

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