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1.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 884034, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847188

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), public health worldwide has been greatly threatened. The development of an effective treatment for this infection is crucial and urgent but is hampered by the incomplete understanding of the viral infection mechanisms and the lack of specific antiviral agents. We previously reported that teicoplanin, a glycopeptide antibiotic that has been commonly used in the clinic to treat bacterial infection, significantly restrained the cell entry of Ebola virus, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV by specifically inhibiting the activity of cathepsin L (CTSL). Here, we found that the cleavage sites of CTSL on the spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 were highly conserved among all the variants. The treatment with teicoplanin suppressed the proteolytic activity of CTSL on spike and prevented the cellular infection of different pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 viruses. Teicoplanin potently prevented the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the cellular cytoplasm with an IC50 of 2.038 µM for the Wuhan-Hu-1 reference strain and an IC50 of 2.116 µM for the SARS-CoV-2 (D614G) variant. The pre-treatment of teicoplanin also prevented SARS-CoV-2 infection in hACE2 mice. In summary, our data reveal that CTSL is required for both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of teicoplanin for universal anti-CoVs intervention.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324602

ABSTRACT

BAckground Severe COVID-19 patients account for most of the mortality of this disease. Early detection of severe cases of the disease remains a major challenge. Here, we performed clinical and laboratory profiling of COVID-19 to explore the early warning indicators of severe cases. Methods An analysis of the evolution during the hospitalization of clinical and laboratory findings from 78 confirmed COVID-19 patients and the associated risk factors. Results Of the 78 patients who were classified as un-severe at admission, 60 patients(stable group) were stable as mild cases until discharge, and the remaining 18 patients progressed to severe cases(exacerbated group) during hospitalization. Compared with stable patients, exacerbated patients exhibited older, higher BMI values and higher proportion of smokers. In the exacerbated patients, the median time from onset to deterioration was 7.5 days. Before the time point(days 0–7 from onset), we observed higher-levels of White blood cells(WBC), neutrophil, Neutrophi-Lymphocyte-Ratio(NLR), Lactose-dehydrogenase(LDH), D-dimer, and lower-levels of albumin in the exacerbated group, compared with the stable group. In the second week after the time point, the exacerbated patients displayed lower numbers of lymphocytes, CD3 + , and CD8 + T-cells, and higher-levels of C-reactive protein(CRP), erythrocyte-sedimentation-rate(ESR), Alanine-aminotransferase(ALT),Aspartate-aminotransferase(AST), and Interleukin-6. In the third week, the highest temperature and the proportion of febrile patients declined. All of the laboratory indicators gradually improved. Conclusions Advanced age and smoking history could be risk factors for COVID-19 progression. In the early stage, high-levels of WBC and neutrophils, with noticeably increased LDH and D-dimer, could be early indicators of the disease’s conversion from mild to severe, followed by elevated inflammatory markers, liver enzymes, and decreased T-lymphocytes in the next week.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324225

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has become a global pandemic. Studies about SARS-CoV-2 co-infection with influenza A virus (IAV) in the influenza season will contribute to the antiviral interventions of co-infected patients. Methods: : A cohort of 145 COVID-19 patients in Wuhan union hospital were reviewed and we found 2 patients were co-infected with both SARS-CoV-2 and IAV. Then we searched from PubMed, Web of Science and CNKI with combinations of the following key words: “COVID-19, SARS-COV-2, influenza A and co-infection” from January 1 up to May 1, and 6 studies were included in this descriptive analysis. Results: : Of the 13 co-infected patients, 2 were from Wuhan union hospital, another 11 were collected from the reports published on PubMed, Web of Science and CNKI. Of the 13 patients, the median age was 50 years (IQR, 40.5-67.5). Among the 13 patients, 7 (53.8%) were severe types. The most common symptoms among the 13 patients were cough (100%), fever (92.3%) and dyspnea (76.9%). 8 patients had lymphocytopenia on admission and all the 13 patients had abnormal radiological changes. The median time from symptom onset to hospital admission was 4.5 days (IQR, 2.75-5.5), and the median time of hospital stay was 17 days (IQR,15-20). Conclusion: Patients with both SARS-COV-2 and IAV infection showed similar changes in symptoms and radiological images with patients infected with SARS-COV-2 only. SARS-COV-2 co-infection with IAV can lead to more severe clinical condition but had similar hospital stay compared with patients infected with SARS-COV-2 only in the fast review.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312198

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has spread globally for months. Due to its long incubation period and high testing cost, there is no clue showing its spread speed is slowing down, and hence a faster testing method is in dire need. This paper proposes an efficient Evolutionary Multi-objective neural ARchitecture Search (EMARS) framework, which can automatically search for 3D neural architectures based on a well-designed search space for COVID-19 chest CT scan classification. Within the framework, we use weight sharing strategy to significantly improve the search efficiency and finish the search process in 8 hours. We also propose a new objective, namely potential, which is of benefit to improve the search process's robustness. With the objectives of accuracy, potential, and model size, we find a lightweight model (3.39 MB), which outperforms three baseline human-designed models, i.e., ResNet3D101 (325.21 MB), DenseNet3D121 (43.06 MB), and MC3\_18 (43.84 MB). Besides, our well-designed search space enables the class activation mapping algorithm to be easily embedded into all searched models, which can provide the interpretability for medical diagnosis by visualizing the judgment based on the models to locate the lesion areas.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312197

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has spread globally for several months. Because its transmissibility and high pathogenicity seriously threaten people's lives, it is crucial to accurately and quickly detect COVID-19 infection. Many recent studies have shown that deep learning (DL) based solutions can help detect COVID-19 based on chest CT scans. However, most existing work focuses on 2D datasets, which may result in low quality models as the real CT scans are 3D images. Besides, the reported results span a broad spectrum on different datasets with a relatively unfair comparison. In this paper, we first use three state-of-the-art 3D models (ResNet3D101, DenseNet3D121, and MC3\_18) to establish the baseline performance on the three publicly available chest CT scan datasets. Then we propose a differentiable neural architecture search (DNAS) framework to automatically search for the 3D DL models for 3D chest CT scans classification with the Gumbel Softmax technique to improve the searching efficiency. We further exploit the Class Activation Mapping (CAM) technique on our models to provide the interpretability of the results. The experimental results show that our automatically searched models (CovidNet3D) outperform the baseline human-designed models on the three datasets with tens of times smaller model size and higher accuracy. Furthermore, the results also verify that CAM can be well applied in CovidNet3D for COVID-19 datasets to provide interpretability for medical diagnosis.

6.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(11): e2105378, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680239

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Delta (B.1.617.2) strain is a variant of concern (VOC) that has become the dominant strain worldwide in 2021. Its transmission capacity is approximately twice that of the original strain, with a shorter incubation period and higher viral load during infection. Importantly, the breakthrough infections of the Delta variant have continued to emerge in the first-generation vaccine recipients. There is thus an urgent need to develop a novel vaccine with SARS-CoV-2 variants as the major target. Here, receptor binding domain (RBD)-conjugated nanoparticle vaccines targeting the Delta variant, as well as the early and Beta/Gamma strains, are developed. Under both a single-dose and a prime-boost strategy, these RBD-conjugated nanoparticle vaccines induce the abundant neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and significantly protect hACE2 mice from infection by the authentic SARS-CoV-2 Delta strain, as well as the early and Beta strains. Furthermore, the elicitation of the robust production of broader cross-protective NAbs against almost all the notable SARS-CoV-2 variants including the Omicron variant in rhesus macaques by the third re-boost with trivalent vaccines is found. These results suggest that RBD-based monovalent or multivalent nanoparticle vaccines provide a promising second-generation vaccine strategy for SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Animals , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Macaca mulatta/metabolism , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Conjugate
7.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 7, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606287

ABSTRACT

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation (SHM) in antibody genes. Protein expression and activity are tightly controlled by various mechanisms. However, it remains unknown whether a signal from the extracellular environment directly affects the AID activity in the nucleus where it works. Here, we demonstrated that a deubiquitinase USP10, which specifically stabilizes nuclear AID protein, can translocate into the nucleus after AKT-mediated phosphorylation at its T674 within the NLS domain. Interestingly, the signals from BCR and TLR1/2 synergistically promoted this phosphorylation. The deficiency of USP10 in B cells significantly decreased AID protein levels, subsequently reducing neutralizing antibody production after immunization with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nanoparticle vaccines. Collectively, we demonstrated that USP10 functions as an integrator for both BCR and TLR signals and directly regulates nuclear AID activity. Its manipulation could be used for the development of vaccines and adjuvants.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines/immunology , B-Cell Activating Factor/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cytidine Deaminase/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Nanoparticles , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/immunology , Ubiquitination/immunology , AIDS Vaccines/genetics , Animals , B-Cell Activating Factor/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Cytidine Deaminase/genetics , HEK293 Cells , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Mice , Mice, Knockout , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Signal Transduction/genetics , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/genetics
8.
Cell Rep ; 38(3): 110256, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588136

ABSTRACT

Inoculation against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is ongoing worldwide. However, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants could cause immune evasion. We developed a bivalent nanoparticle vaccine that displays the receptor binding domains (RBDs) of the D614G and B.1.351 strains. With a prime-boost or a single-dose strategy, this vaccine elicits a robust neutralizing antibody and full protection against infection with the authentic D614G or B.1.351 strain in human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 transgene mice. Interestingly, 8 months after inoculation with the D614G-specific vaccine, a new boost with this bivalent vaccine potently elicits cross-neutralizing antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 variants in rhesus macaques. We suggest that the D614G/B.1.351 bivalent vaccine could be used as an initial single dose or a sequential enforcement dose to prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Protection , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Combined/therapeutic use , Animals , CHO Cells , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemical synthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetulus , Cross Protection/immunology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Nanoparticles , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Combined/chemical synthesis , Vaccines, Combined/immunology , Vero Cells
9.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 420, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585885

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is identified as a zoonotic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, which also can cross-transmit to many animals but not mice. Genetic modifications of SARS-CoV-2 or mice enable the mice susceptible to viral infection. Although neither is the natural situation, they are currently utilized to establish mouse infection models. Here we report a direct contact transmission of SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.351 in wild-type mice. The SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.351) replicated efficiently and induced significant pathological changes in lungs and tracheas, accompanied by elevated proinflammatory cytokines in the lungs and sera. Mechanistically, the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.351) spike protein turned to a high binding affinity to mouse angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (mACE2), allowing the mice highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.351) infection. Our work suggests that SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.351) expands the host range and therefore increases its transmission route without adapted mutation. As the wild house mice live with human populations quite closely, this possible transmission route could be potentially risky. In addition, because SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.351) is one of the major epidemic strains and the mACE2 in laboratory-used mice is naturally expressed and regulated, the SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.351)/mice could be a much convenient animal model system to study COVID-19 pathogenesis and evaluate antiviral inhibitors and vaccines.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/transmission , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Receptors, Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Virus Replication
11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296439

ABSTRACT

Acyclic model, often depicted as a directed acyclic graph (DAG), has been widely employed to represent directional causal relations among collected nodes. In this article, we propose an efficient method to learn linear non-Gaussian DAG in high dimensional cases, where the noises can be of any continuous non-Gaussian distribution. This is in sharp contrast to most existing DAG learning methods assuming Gaussian noise with additional variance assumptions to attain exact DAG recovery. The proposed method leverages a novel concept of topological layer to facilitate the DAG learning. Particularly, we show that the topological layers can be exactly reconstructed in a bottom-up fashion, and the parent-child relations among nodes in each layer can also be consistently established. More importantly, the proposed method does not require the faithfulness or parental faithfulness assumption which has been widely assumed in the literature of DAG learning. Its advantage is also supported by the numerical comparison against some popular competitors in various simulated examples as well as a real application on the global spread of COVID-19.

13.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(6): 1096-1104, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404664

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study data about SARS-CoV-2 virus shedding and clarify the risk factors for prolonged virus shedding. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from adults hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in Wuhan Union Hospital. We compared clinical features among patients with prolonged (a positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA on day 23 after illness onset) and short virus shedding and evaluated risk factors associated with prolonged virus shedding by multivariate regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 238 patients, the median age was 55.5 years, 57.1% were female, 92.9% (221/238) were administered with arbidol, 58.4% (139/238) were given arbidol in combination with interferon. The median duration of SARS-CoV-2 virus shedding was 23 days (IQR, 17.8-30 days) with a longest one of 51 days. The patients with prolonged virus shedding had higher value of D-dimer (P=0.002), IL-6 (P<0.001), CRP (P=0.005) and more lobes lung lesion (P=0.014) on admission, as well as older age (P=0.017) and more patients with hypertension (P=0.044) than in those the virus shedding less than 23 days. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that prolonged viral shedding was significantly associated with initiation arbidol >8 days after symptom onset [OR: 2.447, 95% CI (1.351-4.431)], ≥3 days from onset of symptoms to first medical visitation [OR: 1.880, 95% CI (1.035-3.416)], illness onset before Jan. 31, 2020 [OR: 3.289, 95% CI (1.474-7.337)]. Arbidol in combination with interferon was also significantly associated with shorter virus shedding [OR: 0.363, 95% CI (0.191-0.690)]. CONCLUSION: Duration of SARS-CoV-2 virus shedding was long. Early initiation of arbidol and arbidol in combination with interferon as well as consulting doctor timely after illness onset were helpful for SARS-CoV-2 clearance.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Indoles/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Interferons/administration & dosage , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Virus Shedding/drug effects
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(23)2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238060

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic and has claimed over 2 million lives worldwide. Although the genetic sequences of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 have high homology, the clinical and pathological characteristics of COVID-19 differ significantly from those of SARS. How and whether SARS-CoV-2 evades (cellular) immune surveillance requires further elucidation. In this study, we show that SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to major histocompability complex class Ι (MHC-Ι) down-regulation both in vitro and in vivo. The viral protein encoded by open reading frame 8 (ORF8) of SARS-CoV-2, which shares the least homology with SARS-CoV among all viral proteins, directly interacts with MHC-Ι molecules and mediates their down-regulation. In ORF8-expressing cells, MHC-Ι molecules are selectively targeted for lysosomal degradation via autophagy. Thus, SARS-CoV-2-infected cells are much less sensitive to lysis by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Because ORF8 protein impairs the antigen presentation system, inhibition of ORF8 could be a strategy to improve immune surveillance.


Subject(s)
Antigen Presentation , COVID-19/immunology , Down-Regulation/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology , Animals , Autophagy/genetics , Autophagy/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Humans , Lysosomes/genetics , Lysosomes/immunology , Lysosomes/virology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/genetics
17.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 62, 2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A local coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case confirmed on June 11, 2020 triggered an outbreak in Beijing, China after 56 consecutive days without a newly confirmed case. Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) were used to contain the source in Xinfadi (XFD) market. To rapidly control the outbreak, both traditional and newly introduced NPIs including large-scale management of high-risk populations and expanded severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) PCR-based screening in the general population were conducted in Beijing. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of the response to the COVID-19 outbreak in Beijing's XFD market and inform future response efforts of resurgence across regions. METHODS: A modified susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model was developed and applied to evaluate a range of different scenarios from the public health perspective. Two outcomes were measured: magnitude of transmission (i.e., number of cases in the outbreak) and endpoint of transmission (i.e., date of containment). The outcomes of scenario evaluations were presented relative to the reality case (i.e., 368 cases in 34 days) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI). RESULTS: Our results indicated that a 3 to 14 day delay in the identification of XFD as the infection source and initiation of NPIs would have caused a 3 to 28-fold increase in total case number (31-77 day delay in containment). A failure to implement the quarantine scheme employed in the XFD outbreak for defined key population would have caused a fivefold greater number of cases (73 day delay in containment). Similarly, failure to implement the quarantine plan executed in the XFD outbreak for close contacts would have caused twofold greater transmission (44 day delay in containment). Finally, failure to implement expanded nucleic acid screening in the general population would have yielded 1.6-fold greater transmission and a 32 day delay to containment. CONCLUSIONS: This study informs new evidence that in form the selection of NPI to use as countermeasures in response to a COVID-19 outbreak and optimal timing of their implementation. The evidence provided by this study should inform responses to future outbreaks of COVID-19 and future infectious disease outbreak preparedness efforts in China and elsewhere.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , China/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Humans , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
18.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(1): 51-57, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084616

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurs in the influenza season and has become a global pandemic. The present study aimed to examine severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) co-infection with influenza A virus (IAV) in an attempt to provide clues for the antiviral interventions of co-infected patients. We described two patients who were co-infected with SARS-CoV-2 and IAV treated at Wuhan Union Hospital, China. In addition, we performed a review in PubMed, Web of Science and CNKI (from January 1 up to November 1, 2020) with combinations of the following key words: "COVID-19, SARS-COV-2, influenza A and co-infection". A total of 28 co-infected patients were enrolled in the analysis. Of the 28 patients, the median age was 54.5 years (IQR, 34.25-67.5) and 14 cases (50.0%) were classified as severe types. The most common symptoms were fever (85.71%), cough (82.14%) and dyspnea (60.71%). Sixteen patients had lymphocytopenia on admission and 23 patients exhibited abnormal radiological changes. The median time from symptom onset to hospital admission was 4 days (IQR, 3-6), and the median time of hospital stay was 14 days (IQR, 8.5-16.75). In conclusion, patients with SARS-COV-2 and IAV co-infection were similar to those infected with SARS-COV-2 alone in symptoms and radiological images. SARS-COV-2 co-infection with IAV could lead to more severe clinical condition but did not experience longer hospital stay compared with patients infected with SARS-COV-2 alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
19.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(1): 24-30, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082574

ABSTRACT

The role of corticosteroids in the treatment of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is controversial. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of adjuvant corticosteroids treatment on the outcome of patients with COVID-19 (n=966), using Propensity Score Matching to adjust for potential differences between the corticosteroids group (n=289) and the non-corticosteroids group (n=677). Analysis of data without adjusting differences in baseline characteristics indicated that the proportion of mechanical ventilation and the mortality was higher in the corticosteroids treatment group in total or severe/critical patients. The duration of viral shedding was longer in the non-corticosteroids treatment group in total or general/mild patients. After adjusting the difference between the corticosteroids and non-corticosteroids treatment group, the analysis revealed that the use of corticosteroids had no effect on the duration of viral shedding, in-hospital mortality or 28-day mortality.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Aged , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Shedding/drug effects
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