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2.
Frontiers in immunology ; 12, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1652178

ABSTRACT

Recent reports of rare ChAdOx1-S vaccine-related venous thrombosis led to the suspension of its usage in several countries. Vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is characterized by thrombocytopenia and thrombosis in association with anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4) antibodies. Herein, we propose five potential anionic substances of the ChAdOx1-S vaccine that can combine with PF4 and trigger VITT, including (1) the proteins on the surface of adenovirus, e.g., negative charged glycoprotein, (2) the adjuvant components of the vaccine, e.g., Tween 80, (3) the DNA of adenovirus, (4) the S protein antigen expressed by the vaccine, and (5) the negatively charged impurity proteins expressed by the vaccine, e.g., adenovirus skeleton proteins. After analysis of each case, we consider the most possible trigger to be the negatively charged impurity proteins expressed by the vaccine. Then, we display the possible extravascular route and intravascular route of the formation of PF4 autoantibodies triggered by the negatively charged impurity proteins, which is accordant with the clinical situation. Accordingly, the susceptible individuals of VITT after ChAdOx1-S vaccination may be people who express negatively charged impurity proteins and reach a certain high titer.

4.
J Interv Med ; 4(2): 62-65, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437512

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 or most commonly known as COVID-19 is a trending global infectious disease which a few months ago was affirmed as a global health emergency or a pandemic by the WHO Emergency Committee. The common symptoms manifested in this pandemic disease are high grade fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath and flu like symptom which can evolve into severe respiratory disorders such as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and/or end-organ failure. Factors that contribute to the severity or high mortality rate in COVID-19 include old age, comorbidities like hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, neutrophilia, and organ and coagulation dysfunction. Disseminated intravascular coagulation and other various coagulopathies including Venous thromboembolism have known to become a major contributing factor to high mortality rate. Venous thromboembolism is a disease which is a combination of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Prophylactic anticoagulation in patients prone to or with a pre-existing history of venous thromboembolism is associated with decreased mortality in severe COVID-19 pneumonia. This review article focuses upon COVID-19 and increased incidence of venous thromboembolism in patients infected by COVID-19 along with the role it has in high mortality rate in COVID-19 patients.

5.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 681372, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365533

ABSTRACT

Immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is critical in tumor development. C-type (Ca2+ -dependent) lectin (CLEC) receptors, essential in innate pattern recognition, have potential regulatory effects on immune cell trafficking and modulatory effects on cancer cell activity. However, information on the expression and prognostic value of CLECs in HCC is scanty. Herein, we explored the potential role of CLECs in HCC based on TCGA, ONCOMINE, GEPIA, UALCAN, cBioPortal, Metascape, TRRUST, and TIMER databases. Results demonstrated a significantly higher mRNA level of CLEC4A and CLEC4L in HCC tissues than normal liver tissues. Contrarily, we found significantly low CLEC4G/H1/H2/M expression in HCC tissues. The IHC analysis revealed the following: Absence of CLEC4A/J/K/M in normal and liver cancer tissues; high CLEC4C expression in HCC tissues; low expression and zero detection of CLEC4D/E/H1/H2/L in HCC tissues and normal tissues, respectively. And the HepG2 and LX-2 were used to verify the expression level of CLEC4s via qRT-PCR in vitro. Furthermore, the expression of CLEC4H1 (ASGR1) and CLEC4H2 (ASGR2) exhibited a significant relation to clinical stages. However, the expression of CLEC4A, CLEC4D, CLEC4E, CLEC4J (FCER2), CLEC4K (CD207), CLEC4G, CLEC4H1, CLEC4M, and CLEC4H2 decreased with tumor progression. Patients expressing higher CLEC4H1/H2 levels had longer overall survival than patients exhibiting lower expression. Moreover, CLEC4A/D/E/J/K/G/H1/M/H2 had significant down-regulated levels of promoter methylation. The expression level of CLEC4s was correlated with the infiltration of B cells, CD8 + T cells, CD4 + T cells, macrophage cells, neutrophil cells, and dendritic cells. Functional analysis revealed the potential role of CLECL4s in virus infection, including COVID-19. Also, hsa-miR-4278 and hsa-miR-324-5p, two potential miRNA targets of CLEC4s, were uncovered. This article demonstrates that CLEC4 is crucial for the development of HCC and is associated with infiltration of various immune cells, providing evidence for new immunotherapy targets in HCC.

6.
ACS Cent Sci ; 7(5): 792-802, 2021 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225483

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global threat to human health. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we identified and validated the hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitor simeprevir as an especially promising repurposable drug for treating COVID-19. Simeprevir potently reduces SARS-CoV-2 viral load by multiple orders of magnitude and synergizes with remdesivir in vitro. Mechanistically, we showed that simeprevir not only inhibits the main protease (Mpro) and unexpectedly the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) but also modulates host immune responses. Our results thus reveal the possible anti-SARS-CoV-2 mechanism of simeprevir and highlight the translational potential of optimizing simeprevir as a therapeutic agent for managing COVID-19 and future outbreaks of CoV.

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