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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 812338, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785390

ABSTRACT

Multiple methodologies have been developed to identify and predict adverse events (AEs); however, many of these methods do not consider how patient population characteristics, such as diseases, age, and gender, affect AEs seen. In this study, we evaluated the utility of collecting and analyzing AE data related to hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) from US Prescribing Information (USPIs, also called drug product labels or package inserts), the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS), and peer-reviewed literature from PubMed/EMBASE, followed by AE classification and modeling using the Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE). Our USPI analysis showed that CQ and HCQ AE profiles were similar, although HCQ was reported to be associated with fewer types of cardiovascular, nervous system, and musculoskeletal AEs. According to EMBASE literature mining, CQ and HCQ were associated with QT prolongation (primarily when treating COVID-19), heart arrhythmias, development of Torsade des Pointes, and retinopathy (primarily when treating lupus). The FAERS data was analyzed by proportional ratio reporting, Chi-square test, and minimal case number filtering, followed by OAE classification. HCQ was associated with 63 significant AEs (including 21 cardiovascular AEs) for COVID-19 patients and 120 significant AEs (including 12 cardiovascular AEs) for lupus patients, supporting the hypothesis that the disease being treated affects the type and number of certain CQ/HCQ AEs that are manifested. Using an HCQ AE patient example reported in the literature, we also ontologically modeled how an AE occurs and what factors (e.g., age, biological sex, and medical history) are involved in the AE formation. The methodology developed in this study can be used for other drugs and indications to better identify patient populations that are particularly vulnerable to AEs.

2.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-326154

ABSTRACT

While we pay attention to the latest advances in clinical natural language processing (NLP), we can notice some resistance in the clinical and translational research community to adopt NLP models due to limited transparency, interpretability, and usability. In this study, we proposed an open natural language processing development framework. We evaluated it through the implementation of NLP algorithms for the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C). Based on the interests in information extraction from COVID-19 related clinical notes, our work includes 1) an open data annotation process using COVID-19 signs and symptoms as the use case, 2) a community-driven ruleset composing platform, and 3) a synthetic text data generation workflow to generate texts for information extraction tasks without involving human subjects. The corpora were derived from texts from three different institutions (Mayo Clinic, University of Kentucky, University of Minnesota). The gold standard annotations were tested with a single institution's (Mayo) ruleset. This resulted in performances of 0.876, 0.706, and 0.694 in F-scores for Mayo, Minnesota, and Kentucky test datasets, respectively. The study as a consortium effort of the N3C NLP subgroup demonstrates the feasibility of creating a federated NLP algorithm development and benchmarking platform to enhance multi-institution clinical NLP study and adoption. Although we use COVID-19 as a use case in this effort, our framework is general enough to be applied to other domains of interest in clinical NLP.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324770

ABSTRACT

Given the existing COVID-19 pandemic worldwide, it is critical to systematically study the interactions between hosts and coronaviruses including SARS-Cov, MERS-Cov, and SARS-CoV-2 (cause of COVID-19). We first created four host-pathogen interaction (HPI)-Outcome postulates, and generated a HPI-Outcome model as the basis for understanding host-coronavirus interactions (HCI) and their relations with the disease outcomes. We hypothesized that ontology can be used as an integrative platform to classify and analyze HCI and disease outcomes. Accordingly, we annotated and categorized different coronaviruses, hosts, and phenotypes using ontologies and identified their relations. Various COVID-19 phenotypes are hypothesized to be caused by the backend HCI mechanisms. To further identify the causal HCI-outcome relations, we collected 35 experimentally-verified HCI protein-protein interactions (PPIs), and applied literature mining to identify additional host PPIs in response to coronavirus infections. The results were formulated in a logical ontology representation for integrative HCI-outcome understanding. Using known PPIs as baits, we also developed and applied a domain-inferred prediction method to predict new PPIs and identified their pathological targets on multiple organs. Overall, our proposed ontology-based integrative framework combined with computational predictions can be used to support fundamental understanding of the intricate interactions between human patients and coronaviruses (including SARS-CoV-2) and their association with various disease outcomes.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323772

ABSTRACT

The epidemic of COVID-19 has caused an unpredictable and devastated disaster to the public health in different territories around the world. Common phenotypes include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and chills. With more cases investigated, other clinical phenotypes are gradually recognized, for example, loss of smell, and loss of tastes. Compared with discharged or cured patients, severe or died patients often have one or more comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we systematically collected and analyzed COVID-19-related clinical phenotypes from 70 articles. The commonly occurring 17 phenotypes were classified into different groups based on the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO). Based on the HP classification, we systematically analyze three nervous phenotypes (loss of smell, loss of taste, and headache) and four abdominal phenotypes (nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea) identified in patients, and found that patients from Europe and USA turned to have higher nervous phenotypes and abdominal phenotypes than patients from Asia. A total of 23 comorbidities were found to commonly exist among COVID-19 patients. Patients with these comorbidities such as diabetes and kidney failure had worse outcomes compared with those without these comorbidities.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315687

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus-infected diseases have posed great threats to human health. In past years, highly infectious coronavirus-induced diseases, including COVID-19, SARS, and MERS, have resulted in world-wide severe infections. Our literature annotations identified 72 chemical drugs and 27 antibodies effective against at least one human coronavirus infection in vitro or in vivo. Many of these drugs inhibit viral entry to cells and viral replication inside cells or modulate host immune responses. Many antimicrobial drugs, including antimalarial (e.g., chloroquine and mefloquine) and antifungal (e.g., terconazole and rapamycin) drugs as well as antibiotics (e.g., teicoplanin and azithromycin) were associated with anti-coronavirus activity. A few drugs, including remdesivir, chloroquine phosphate, favipiravir, and tocilizumab, have already been reported to be effective in treating COVID-19. After mapping our identified drugs to three ontologies ChEBI, NDF-RT, and DrON, many features such as roles and mechanisms of action (MoAs) of these drugs were identified and categorized. For example, out of 35 drugs with MoA annotations in NDF-RT, 34 have MoAs of different types of inhibitors and antagonists. Two clustering analyses, one based on ChEBI-based semantic similarity, the other based on drug chemical similarity, were performed to cluster over 60 drugs to new categories. Moreover, PCA analysis of anti-coronavirus drugs found differences in physicochemical properties between those inhibiting viral entry and viral replication. A total of 137 host genes were identified as the targets of 47 anti-coronavirus drugs, resulting in a network of 370 interactions among these drugs and targets. Chlorpromazine, dasatinib, and anisomycin are the hubs of the drug-target network with the highest number of connected target proteins. Many enriched pathways such as calcium signaling and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathways were identified. These findings may be used to facilitate drug repurposing against COVID-19.

6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 770031, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686499

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic is disaster to public health worldwide. Better perspective on COVID's features early in its course-prior to the development of vaccines and widespread variants-may prove useful in the understanding of future pandemics. Ontology provides a standardized integrative method for knowledge modeling and computer-assisted reasoning. In this study, we systematically extracted and analyzed clinical phenotypes and comorbidities in COVID-19 patients found at different countries and regions during the early pandemic using an ontology-based bioinformatics approach, with the aim to identify new insights and hidden patterns of the COVID-19 symptoms. Results: A total of 48 research articles reporting analysis of first-hand clinical data from over 40,000 COVID-19 patients were surveyed. The patients studied therein were diagnosed with COVID-19 before May 2020. A total of 18 commonly-occurring phenotypes in these COVID-19 patients were first identified and then classified into different hierarchical groups based on the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO). This meta-analytic approach revealed that fever, cough, and the loss of smell and taste were ranked as the most commonly-occurring phenotype in China, the US, and Italy, respectively. We also found that the patients from Europe and the US appeared to have more frequent occurrence of many nervous and abdominal symptom phenotypes (e.g., loss of smell, loss of taste, and diarrhea) than patients from China during the early pandemic. A total of 22 comorbidities, such as diabetes and kidney failure, were found to commonly exist in COVID-19 patients and positively correlated with the severity of the disease. The knowledge learned from the study was further modeled and represented in the Coronavirus Infectious Disease Ontology (CIDO), supporting semantic queries and analysis. Furthermore, also considering the symptoms caused by new viral variants at the later stages, a spiral model hypothesis was proposed to address the changes of specific symptoms during different stages of the pandemic. Conclusions: Differential patterns of symptoms in COVID-19 patients were found given different locations, time, and comorbidity types during the early pandemic. The ontology-based informatics provides a unique approach to systematically model, represent, and analyze COVID-19 symptoms, comorbidities, and the factors that influence the disease outcomes.

7.
Vaccine X ; : 100139, 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587101

ABSTRACT

The development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines during the COVID-19 pandemic has prompted the emergence of COVID-19 vaccine data. Timely access to COVID-19 vaccine information is crucial to researchers and public. To support more comprehensive annotation, integration, and analysis of COVID-19 vaccine information, we have developed Cov19VaxKB, a knowledge-focused COVID-19 vaccine database (http://www.violinet.org/cov19vaxkb/). Cov19VaxKB features comprehensive lists of COVID-19 vaccines, vaccine formulations, clinical trials, publications, news articles, and vaccine adverse event case reports. A web-based query interface enables comparison of product information and host responses among various vaccines. The knowledge base also includes a vaccine design tool for predicting vaccine targets and a statistical analysis tool that identifies enriched adverse events for FDA-authorized COVID-19 vaccines based on VAERS case report data. To support data exchange, Cov19VaxKB is synchronized with Vaccine Ontology and the Vaccine Investigation and Online Information Network (VIOLIN) database. The data integration and analytical features of Cov19VaxKB can facilitate vaccine research and development while also serving as a useful reference for the public.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295329

ABSTRACT

While we pay attention to the latest advances in clinical natural language processing (NLP), we can notice some resistance in the clinical and translational research community to adopt NLP models due to limited transparency, Interpretability and usability. Built upon our previous work, in this study, we proposed an open natural language processing development framework and evaluated it through the implementation of NLP algorithms for the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C). Based on the interests in information extraction from COVID-19 related clinical notes, our work includes 1) an open data annotation process using COVID-19 signs and symptoms as the use case, 2) a community-driven ruleset composing platform, and 3) a synthetic text data generation workflow to generate texts for information extraction tasks without involving human subjects. The generated corpora derived out of the texts from multiple intuitions and gold standard annotation are tested on a single institution's rule set has the performances in F1 score of 0.876, 0.706 and 0.694, respectively. The study as a consortium effort of the N3C NLP subgroup demonstrates the feasibility of creating a federated NLP algorithm development and benchmarking platform to enhance multi-institution clinical NLP study.

9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2414: 1-16, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516809

ABSTRACT

Reverse vaccinology (RV) is the state-of-the-art vaccine development strategy that starts with predicting vaccine antigens by bioinformatics analysis of the whole genome of a pathogen of interest. Vaxign is the first web-based RV vaccine prediction method based on calculating and filtering different criteria of proteins. Vaxign-ML is a new Vaxign machine learning (ML) method that predicts vaccine antigens based on extreme gradient boosting with the advance of new technologies and cumulation of protective antigen data. Using a benchmark dataset, Vaxign-ML showed superior performance in comparison to existing open-source RV tools. Vaxign-ML is also implemented within the web-based Vaxign platform to support easy and intuitive access. Vaxign-ML is also available as a command-based software package for more advanced and customizable vaccine antigen prediction. Both Vaxign and Vaxign-ML have been applied to predict SARS-CoV-2 (cause of COVID-19) and Brucella vaccine antigens to demonstrate the integrative approach to analyze and select vaccine candidates using the Vaxign platform.


Subject(s)
Machine Learning , Vaccines , Vaccinology , Brucella Vaccine , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Computational Biology , Humans
10.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(Suppl 6): 508, 2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477258

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 10th and 9th revisions of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD10 and ICD9) have been adopted worldwide as a well-recognized norm to share codes for diseases, signs and symptoms, abnormal findings, etc. The international Consortium for Clinical Characterization of COVID-19 by EHR (4CE) website stores diagnosis COVID-19 disease data using ICD10 and ICD9 codes. However, the ICD systems are difficult to decode due to their many shortcomings, which can be addressed using ontology. METHODS: An ICD ontology (ICDO) was developed to logically and scientifically represent ICD terms and their relations among different ICD terms. ICDO is also aligned with the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) and reuses terms from existing ontologies. As a use case, the ICD10 and ICD9 diagnosis data from the 4CE website were extracted, mapped to ICDO, and analyzed using ICDO. RESULTS: We have developed the ICDO to ontologize the ICD terms and relations. Different from existing disease ontologies, all ICD diseases in ICDO are defined as disease processes to describe their occurrence with other properties. The ICDO decomposes each disease term into different components, including anatomic entities, process profiles, etiological causes, output phenotype, etc. Over 900 ICD terms have been represented in ICDO. Many ICDO terms are presented in both English and Chinese. The ICD10/ICD9-based diagnosis data of over 27,000 COVID-19 patients from 5 countries were extracted from the 4CE. A total of 917 COVID-19-related disease codes, each of which were associated with 1 or more cases in the 4CE dataset, were mapped to ICDO and further analyzed using the ICDO logical annotations. Our study showed that COVID-19 targeted multiple systems and organs such as the lung, heart, and kidney. Different acute and chronic kidney phenotypes were identified. Some kidney diseases appeared to result from other diseases, such as diabetes. Some of the findings could only be easily found using ICDO instead of ICD9/10. CONCLUSIONS: ICDO was developed to ontologize ICD10/10 codes and applied to study COVID-19 patient diagnosis data. Our findings showed that ICDO provides a semantic platform for more accurate detection of disease profiles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , International Classification of Diseases , Data Analysis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Biomed Semantics ; 12(1): 18, 2021 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376597

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With COVID-19 still in its pandemic stage, extensive research has generated increasing amounts of data and knowledge. As many studies are published within a short span of time, we often lose an integrative and comprehensive picture of host-coronavirus interaction (HCI) mechanisms. As of early April 2021, the ImmPort database has stored 7 studies (with 6 having details) that cover topics including molecular immune signatures, epitopes, and sex differences in terms of mortality in COVID-19 patients. The Coronavirus Infectious Disease Ontology (CIDO) represents basic HCI information. We hypothesize that the CIDO can be used as the platform to represent newly recorded information from ImmPort leading the reinforcement of CIDO. METHODS: The CIDO was used as the semantic platform for logically modeling and representing newly identified knowledge reported in the 6 ImmPort studies. A recursive eXtensible Ontology Development (XOD) strategy was established to support the CIDO representation and enhancement. Secondary data analysis was also performed to analyze different aspects of the HCI from these ImmPort studies and other related literature reports. RESULTS: The topics covered by the 6 ImmPort papers were identified to overlap with existing CIDO representation. SARS-CoV-2 viral S protein related HCI knowledge was emphasized for CIDO modeling, including its binding with ACE2, mutations causing different variants, and epitope homology by comparison with other coronavirus S proteins. Different types of cytokine signatures were also identified and added to CIDO. Our secondary analysis of two cohort COVID-19 studies with cytokine panel detection found that a total of 11 cytokines were up-regulated in female patients after infection and 8 cytokines in male patients. These sex-specific gene responses were newly modeled and represented in CIDO. A new DL query was generated to demonstrate the benefits of such integrative ontology representation. Furthermore, IL-10 signaling pathway was found to be statistically significant for both male patients and female patients. CONCLUSION: Using the recursive XOD strategy, six new ImmPort COVID-19 studies were systematically reviewed, the results were modeled and represented in CIDO, leading to the enhancement of CIDO. The enhanced ontology and further seconary analysis supported more comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanism of host responses to COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Biological Ontologies , COVID-19 , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Semantics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
12.
J Biomed Inform ; 120: 103861, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293913

ABSTRACT

The current intensive research on potential remedies and vaccinations for COVID-19 would greatly benefit from an ontology of standardized COVID terms. The Coronavirus Infectious Disease Ontology (CIDO) is the largest among several COVID ontologies, and it keeps growing, but it is still a medium sized ontology. Sophisticated CIDO users, who need more than searching for a specific concept, require orientation and comprehension of CIDO. In previous research, we designed a summarization network called "partial-area taxonomy" to support comprehension of ontologies. The partial-area taxonomy for CIDO is of smaller magnitude than CIDO, but is still too large for comprehension. We present here the "weighted aggregate taxonomy" of CIDO, designed to provide compact views at various granularities of our partial-area taxonomy (and the CIDO ontology). Such a compact view provides a "big picture" of the content of an ontology. In previous work, in the visualization patterns used for partial-area taxonomies, the nodes were arranged in levels according to the numbers of relationships of their concepts. Applying this visualization pattern to CIDO's weighted aggregate taxonomy resulted in an overly long and narrow layout that does not support orientation and comprehension since the names of nodes are barely readable. Thus, we introduce in this paper an innovative visualization of the weighted aggregate taxonomy for better orientation and comprehension of CIDO (and other ontologies). A measure for the efficiency of a layout is introduced and is used to demonstrate the advantage of the new layout over the previous one. With this new visualization, the user can "see the forest for the trees" of the ontology. Benefits of this visualization in highlighting insights into CIDO's content are provided. Generality of the new layout is demonstrated.


Subject(s)
Biological Ontologies , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Comprehension , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Brief Funct Genomics ; 20(4): 235-248, 2021 07 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280068

ABSTRACT

Omics technologies are widely used in biomedical research. Precision medicine focuses on individual-level disease treatment and prevention. Here, we propose the usage of the term 'precision omics' to represent the combinatorial strategy that applies omics to translate large-scale molecular omics data for precision disease understanding and accurate disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Given the complexity of both omics and precision medicine, precision omics requires standardized representation and integration of heterogeneous data types. Ontology has emerged as an important artificial intelligence component to become critical for standard data and metadata representation, standardization and integration. To support precision omics, we propose a precision omics ontology hypothesis, which hypothesizes that the effectiveness of precision omics is positively correlated with the interoperability of ontologies used for data and knowledge integration. Therefore, to make effective precision omics studies, interoperable ontologies are required to standardize and incorporate heterogeneous data and knowledge in a human- and computer-interpretable manner. Methods for efficient development and application of interoperable ontologies are proposed and illustrated. With the interoperable omics data and knowledge, omics tools such as OmicsViz can also be evolved to process, integrate, visualize and analyze various omics data, leading to the identification of new knowledge and hypotheses of molecular mechanisms underlying the outcomes of diseases such as COVID-19. Given extensive COVID-19 omics research, we propose the strategy of precision omics supported by interoperable ontologies, accompanied with ontology-based semantic reasoning and machine learning, leading to systematic disease mechanism understanding and rational design of precision treatment and prevention. SHORT ABSTRACT: Precision medicine focuses on individual-level disease treatment and prevention. Precision omics is a new strategy that applies omics for precision medicine research, which requires standardized representation and integration of individual genetics and phenotypes, experimental conditions, and data analysis settings. Ontology has emerged as an important artificial intelligence component to become critical for standard data and metadata representation, standardization and integration. To support precision omics, interoperable ontologies are required in order to standardize and incorporate heterogeneous data and knowledge in a human- and computer-interpretable manner. With the interoperable omics data and knowledge, omics tools such as OmicsViz can also be evolved to process, integrate, visualize and analyze various omics data, leading to the identification of new knowledge and hypotheses of molecular mechanisms underlying disease outcomes. The precision COVID-19 omics study is provided as the primary use case to illustrate the rationale and implementation of the precision omics strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Genomics , Proteomics , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Precision Medicine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
15.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 44, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269383

ABSTRACT

The presence of SARS-CoV-2 mutants, including the emerging variant B.1.1.7, has raised great concerns in terms of pathogenesis, transmission, and immune escape. Characterizing SARS-CoV-2 mutations, evolution, and effects on infectivity and pathogenicity is crucial to the design of antibody therapies and surveillance strategies. Here, we analyzed 454,443 SARS-CoV-2 spike genes/proteins and 14,427 whole-genome sequences. We demonstrated that the early variant B.1.1.7 may not have evolved spontaneously in the United Kingdom or within human populations. Our extensive analyses suggested that Canidae, Mustelidae or Felidae, especially the Canidae family (for example, dog) could be a possible host of the direct progenitor of variant B.1.1.7. An alternative hypothesis is that the variant was simply yet to be sampled. Notably, the SARS-CoV-2 whole-genome represents a large number of potential co-mutations. In addition, we used an experimental SARS-CoV-2 reporter replicon system to introduce the dominant co-mutations NSP12_c14408t, 5'UTR_c241t, and NSP3_c3037t into the viral genome, and to monitor the effect of the mutations on viral replication. Our experimental results demonstrated that the co-mutations significantly attenuated the viral replication. The study provides valuable clues for discovering the transmission chains of variant B.1.1.7 and understanding the evolutionary process of SARS-CoV-2.

16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10763, 2021 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242041

ABSTRACT

Research on drugs against SARS-CoV-2 (cause of COVID-19) has been one of the major world concerns at present. There have been abundant research data and findings in this field. The interference of drugs on gene expression in cell lines, drug-target, protein-virus receptor networks, and immune cell infiltration of the host may provide useful information for anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug research. To simplify the complex bioinformatics analysis and facilitate the evaluation of the latest research data, we developed OmiczViz ( http://medcode.link/omicsviz ), a web tool that has integrated drug-cell line interference data, virus-host protein-protein interactions, and drug-target interactions. To demonstrate the usages of OmiczViz, we analyzed the gene expression data from cell lines treated with chloroquine and ruxolitinib, the drug-target protein networks of 48 anti-coronavirus drugs and drugs bound with ACE2, and the profiles of immune cell infiltration between different COVID-19 patient groups. Our research shows that chloroquine had a regulatory role of the immune response in renal cell line but not in lung cell line. The anti-coronavirus drug-target network analysis suggested that antihistamine of promethaziney and dietary supplement of Zinc might be beneficial when used jointly with antiviral drugs. The immune infiltration analysis indicated that both the COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU and the elderly with infection showed immune exhaustion status, yet with different molecular mechanisms. The interactive graphic interface of OmiczViz also makes it easier to analyze newly discovered and user-uploaded data, leading to an in-depth understanding of existing findings and an expansion of existing knowledge of SARS-CoV-2. Collectively, OmicsViz is web program that promotes the research on medical agents against SARS-CoV-2 and supports the evaluation of the latest research findings.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , User-Computer Interface , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Internet , Nitriles , Protein Binding , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyrimidines , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(W1): W671-W678, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233864

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is one of the most significant inventions in medicine. Reverse vaccinology (RV) is a state-of-the-art technique to predict vaccine candidates from pathogen's genome(s). To promote vaccine development, we updated Vaxign2, the first web-based vaccine design program using reverse vaccinology with machine learning. Vaxign2 is a comprehensive web server for rational vaccine design, consisting of predictive and computational workflow components. The predictive part includes the original Vaxign filtering-based method and a new machine learning-based method, Vaxign-ML. The benchmarking results using a validation dataset showed that Vaxign-ML had superior prediction performance compared to other RV tools. Besides the prediction component, Vaxign2 implemented various post-prediction analyses to significantly enhance users' capability to refine the prediction results based on different vaccine design rationales and considerably reduce user time to analyze the Vaxign/Vaxign-ML prediction results. Users provide proteome sequences as input data, select candidates based on Vaxign outputs and Vaxign-ML scores, and perform post-prediction analysis. Vaxign2 also includes precomputed results from approximately 1 million proteins in 398 proteomes of 36 pathogens. As a demonstration, Vaxign2 was used to effectively analyse SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus causing COVID-19. The comprehensive framework of Vaxign2 can support better and more rational vaccine design. Vaxign2 is publicly accessible at http://www.violinet.org/vaxign2.


Subject(s)
Drug Design , Internet , Machine Learning , Software , Vaccines , Vaccinology/methods , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Proteome , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines/chemistry , Vaccines/immunology , Workflow
19.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 16, 2021 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065922

ABSTRACT

Our systematic literature collection and annotation identified 106 chemical drugs and 31 antibodies effective against the infection of at least one human coronavirus (including SARS-CoV, SAR-CoV-2, and MERS-CoV) in vitro or in vivo in an experimental or clinical setting. A total of 163 drug protein targets were identified, and 125 biological processes involving the drug targets were significantly enriched based on a Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. The Coronavirus Infectious Disease Ontology (CIDO) was used as an ontological platform to represent the anti-coronaviral drugs, chemical compounds, drug targets, biological processes, viruses, and the relations among these entities. In addition to new term generation, CIDO also adopted various terms from existing ontologies and developed new relations and axioms to semantically represent our annotated knowledge. The CIDO knowledgebase was systematically analyzed for scientific insights. To support rational drug design, a "Host-coronavirus interaction (HCI) checkpoint cocktail" strategy was proposed to interrupt the important checkpoints in the dynamic HCI network, and ontologies would greatly support the design process with interoperable knowledge representation and reasoning.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Datasets as Topic , Drug Design , Humans , Knowledge Bases , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 19: 518-529, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002467

ABSTRACT

The development of effective and safe vaccines is the ultimate way to efficiently stop the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Built on the fact that SARS-CoV-2 utilizes the association of its Spike (S) protein with the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to invade host cells, we computationally redesigned the S protein sequence to improve its immunogenicity and antigenicity. Toward this purpose, we extended an evolutionary protein design algorithm, EvoDesign, to create thousands of stable S protein variants that perturb the core protein sequence but keep the surface conformation and B cell epitopes. The T cell epitope content and similarity scores of the perturbed sequences were calculated and evaluated. Out of 22,914 designs with favorable stability energy, 301 candidates contained at least two pre-existing immunity-related epitopes and had promising immunogenic potential. The benchmark tests showed that, although the epitope restraints were not included in the scoring function of EvoDesign, the top S protein design successfully recovered 31 out of the 32 major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-II T cell promiscuous epitopes in the native S protein, where two epitopes were present in all seven human coronaviruses. Moreover, the newly designed S protein introduced nine new MHC-II T cell promiscuous epitopes that do not exist in the wildtype SARS-CoV-2. These results demonstrated a new and effective avenue to enhance a target protein's immunogenicity using rational protein design, which could be applied for new vaccine design against COVID-19 and other pathogens.

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