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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(11)2023 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236675

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers (HCW) were categorized as "essential" and "non-essential", creating a division where some were "locked-in" a system with little ability to prepare for or control the oncoming crisis. Others were "locked-out" regardless of whether their skills might be useful. The purpose of this study was to systematically gather data over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic from HCW through an interprofessional lens to examine experiences of locked-out HCW. This convergent parallel mixed-methods study captured perspectives representing nearly two dozen professions through a survey, administered via social media, and video blogs. Analysis included logistic regression models of differences in outcome measures by professional category and Rapid Identification of Themes from Audio recordings (RITA) of video blogs. We collected 1299 baseline responses from 15 April 2020 to 16 March 2021. Of those responses, 12.1% reported no signs of burnout, while 21.9% reported four or more signs. Qualitative analysis identified four themes: (1) professional identity, (2) intrinsic stressors, (3) extrinsic factors, and (4) coping strategies. There are some differences in the experiences of locked-in and locked-out HCW. This did not always lead to differing reports of moral distress and burnout, and both groups struggled to cope with the realities of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Adaptation, Psychological , Blogging , Health Personnel
2.
Crit Care Explor ; 5(4): e0893, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296331

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 highlighted the need for use of real-world data (RWD) in critical care as a near real-time resource for clinical, research, and policy efforts. Analysis of RWD is gaining momentum and can generate important evidence for policy makers and regulators. Extracting high quality RWD from electronic health records (EHRs) requires sophisticated infrastructure and dedicated resources. We sought to customize freely available public tools, supporting all phases of data harmonization, from data quality assessments to de-identification procedures, and generation of robust, data science ready RWD from EHRs. These data are made available to clinicians and researchers through CURE ID, a free platform which facilitates access to case reports of challenging clinical cases and repurposed treatments hosted by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences/National Institutes of Health in partnership with the Food and Drug Administration. This commentary describes the partnership, rationale, process, use case, impact in critical care, and future directions for this collaborative effort.

3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 168, 2023 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265007

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sexual and gender minorities (SGM) in the Southern United States face challenges in accessing sexual and gender affirming health care. Alternative care models, like inclusive mobile clinics, help mitigate barriers to care for SGM. There is limited data in the literature on the experience of medical referral processes for SGM individuals accessing services from mobile health clinics. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to describe the medical referral experiences of SGM clients and their providers at a mobile health clinic in the Southern United States. METHODS: We recruited English-speaking individuals who provided care or received care from the mobile health clinic in South Carolina between June 2019 and August 2020. Participants completed a brief demographic survey and a virtual in-depth, semi-structured individual interview. Data analysis was conducted using an iterative process to generate codes, categories, and themes. Data collection and analysis were terminated once thematic saturation was achieved. RESULTS: The findings from this study indicated that the mobile health clinic had an inconsistent referral process that was largely dependent on providers' knowledge. Furthermore, clients and providers expressed individual barriers to the referral process, such as financial barriers, and opportunities to improve the referral process, such as an opt-in follow-up from the mobile clinic and increased mobile clinic resources. CONCLUSION: The findings in this study underscore the importance of having mobile clinics create a structured referral process that all medical providers are familiar with, and the value of hiring patient navigators that can support and refer clients to care that goes beyond the mobile health clinic setting.


Subject(s)
Mobile Health Units , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Humans , South Carolina , Public Health , Gender Identity , Referral and Consultation
4.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 64(4): 359-369, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907350

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted variability in intensity of care. We aimed to characterize intensity of care among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: Examine the prevalence and predictors of admission code status, palliative care consultation, comfort-measures-only orders, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: This cross-sectional study examined data from an international registry of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. A proportional odds model evaluated predictors of more aggressive code status (i.e., Full Code) vs. less (i.e., Do Not Resuscitate, DNR). Among decedents, logistic regression was used to identify predictors of palliative care consultation, comfort measures only, and CPR at time of death. RESULTS: We included 29,923 patients across 179 sites. Among those with admission code status documented, Full Code was selected by 90% (n = 15,273). Adjusting for site, Full Code was more likely for patients who were of Black or Asian race (ORs 1.82, 95% CIs 1.5-2.19; 1.78, 1.15-3.09 respectively, relative to White race), Hispanic ethnicity (OR 1.89, CI 1.35-2.32), and male sex (OR 1.16, CI 1.0-1.33). Of the 4951 decedents, 29% received palliative care consultation, 59% transitioned to comfort measures only, and 29% received CPR, with non-White racial and ethnic groups less likely to receive comfort measures only and more likely to receive CPR. CONCLUSION: In this international cohort of patients with COVID-19, Full Code was the initial code status in the majority, and more likely among patients who were Black or Asian race, Hispanic ethnicity or male. These results provide direction for future studies to improve these disparities in care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Terminal Care , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Resuscitation Orders , Retrospective Studies
5.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; 83(7-B):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1837371

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to strain health-care systems throughout the world. While early reports compared its impacts to other contemporary disease outbreaks (e.g., SARS and MERS), it quickly became apparent that COVID-19 would dwarf these contemporary crises, escalating to a scale more on par with the 1918 influenza outbreak. This disaster will have unprecedented effects on health-care workers, among whom burnout was already a serious concern. Burnout and linked phenomena moral distress, compassion fatigue, and secondary trauma are associated with increased turnover and intent to leave health-care professions, decreased quality of care delivered to patients, and poor mental and physical health outcomes among health-care workers. ProjectCOPE: Chronicling health-care prOviders' Pandemic Experiences is a mixed-methods study exploring the perceptions and capturing the stories of a diverse cohort of health-care workers representing more than 21 distinct professions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Chapter 1 includes an extensive review of literature and summary of methodology for this dissertation's aims. Special attention is paid to two professions, nursing and massage therapy, which are the subject of analysis in Aim 2. Subsequent chapters are formatted as stand-alone manuscripts, each presenting significance, methodology, results, and discussion for one of the aims. Chapter 2 presents Aim 1: "Describe the sample and experiences of ProjectCOPE participants." In this mixed-methods study of all ProjectCOPE participants, we explore the differences between professions labeled "essential" versus "non-essential", and lay the foundation for future study of the potential impact of such policies. The study identified four themes: 1) professional identity, 2) intrinsic stressors, 3) extrinsic factors, and 4) coping strategies. Chapter 3 presents Aim 2: "Compare and contrast experiences of nurses and massage therapists during the COVID-19 pandemic." This study draws on findings from Aim 1, delving into a mixed-methods analysis of the differences and similarities between nurses' and massage therapists' experiences of working during the COVID-19 pandemic, specifically burnout and coping strategies. This study found that, despite some differences in experienced burnout as measured by instruments validated in nurses, similar experiences were reported by both professions. As part of ProjectCOPE, we developed a novel approach to meaningfully include medical students in the processing and sorting of data. Chapter 4 covers Aim 3: "Evaluate novel methodology developed for ProjectCOPE." This novel methodology is called #Evaluation (pronounced "hashtag evaluation"), and builds on medical students' knowledge and understanding of social media platforms. This chapter demonstrates #Evaluation is a valuable tool for rapid evaluation and assessment, and for teaching qualitative research to students with little-to-no experience. Finally, Chapter 5 provides an executive summary of findings, limitations, and directions for future research. Here, we highlight this dissertations contributions to science, including an inventory of topics for which these chapters represent the first or early exploration. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

6.
World J Crit Care Med ; 11(2): 102-111, 2022 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1791995

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) course may be affected by environmental factors. Ecological studies previously suggested a link between climatological factors and COVID-19 fatality rates. However, individual-level impact of these factors has not been thoroughly evaluated yet. AIM: To study the association of climatological factors related to patient location with unfavorable outcomes in patients. METHODS: In this observational analysis of the Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study: COVID-19 Registry cohort, the latitudes and altitudes of hospitals were examined as a covariate for mortality within 28 d of admission and the length of hospital stay. Adjusting for baseline parameters and admission date, multivariable regression modeling was utilized. Generalized estimating equations were used to fit the models. RESULTS: Twenty-two thousand one hundred eight patients from over 20 countries were evaluated. The median age was 62 (interquartile range: 49-74) years, and 54% of the included patients were males. The median age increased with increasing latitude as well as the frequency of comorbidities. Contrarily, the percentage of comorbidities was lower in elevated altitudes. Mortality within 28 d of hospital admission was found to be 25%. The median hospital-free days among all included patients was 20 d. Despite the significant linear relationship between mortality and hospital-free days (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.39 (1.04, 1.86), P = 0.025 for mortality within 28 d of admission; aOR = -1.47 (-2.60, -0.33), P = 0.011 for hospital-free days), suggesting that adverse patient outcomes were more common in locations further away from the Equator; the results were no longer significant when adjusted for baseline differences (aOR = 1.32 (1.00, 1.74), P = 0.051 for 28-day mortality; aOR = -1.07 (-2.13, -0.01), P = 0.050 for hospital-free days). When we looked at the altitude's effect, we discovered that it demonstrated a non-linear association with mortality within 28 d of hospital admission (aOR = 0.96 (0.62, 1.47), 1.04 (0.92, 1.19), 0.49 (0.22, 0.90), and 0.51 (0.27, 0.98), for the altitude points of 75 MASL, 125 MASL, 400 MASL, and 600 MASL, in comparison to the reference altitude of 148 m.a.s.l, respectively. P = 0.001). We detected an association between latitude and 28-day mortality as well as hospital-free days in this worldwide study. When the baseline features were taken into account, however, this did not stay significant. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that differences observed in previous epidemiological studies may be due to ecological fallacy rather than implying a causal relationship at the patient level.

7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2140568, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592803

ABSTRACT

Importance: Obesity, diabetes, and hypertension are common comorbidities in patients with severe COVID-19, yet little is known about the risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or death in patients with COVID-19 and metabolic syndrome. Objective: To determine whether metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of ARDS and death from COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter cohort study used data from the Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Respiratory Illness Universal Study collected from 181 hospitals across 26 countries from February 15, 2020, to February 18, 2021. Outcomes were compared between patients with metabolic syndrome (defined as ≥3 of the following criteria: obesity, prediabetes or diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) and a control population without metabolic syndrome. Participants included adult patients hospitalized for COVID-19 during the study period who had a completed discharge status. Data were analyzed from February 22 to October 5, 2021. Exposures: Exposures were SARS-CoV-2 infection, metabolic syndrome, obesity, prediabetes or diabetes, hypertension, and/or dyslipidemia. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included ARDS, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, need for invasive mechanical ventilation, and length of stay (LOS). Results: Among 46 441 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 29 040 patients (mean [SD] age, 61.2 [17.8] years; 13 059 [45.0%] women and 15713 [54.1%] men; 6797 Black patients [23.4%], 5325 Hispanic patients [18.3%], and 16 507 White patients [57.8%]) met inclusion criteria. A total of 5069 patients (17.5%) with metabolic syndrome were compared with 23 971 control patients (82.5%) without metabolic syndrome. In adjusted analyses, metabolic syndrome was associated with increased risk of ICU admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.32 [95% CI, 1.14-1.53]), invasive mechanical ventilation (aOR, 1.45 [95% CI, 1.28-1.65]), ARDS (aOR, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.12-1.66]), and mortality (aOR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.08-1.31]) and prolonged hospital LOS (median [IQR], 8.0 [4.2-15.8] days vs 6.8 [3.4-13.0] days; P < .001) and ICU LOS (median [IQR], 7.0 [2.8-15.0] days vs 6.4 [2.7-13.0] days; P < .001). Each additional metabolic syndrome criterion was associated with increased risk of ARDS in an additive fashion (1 criterion: 1147 patients with ARDS [10.4%]; P = .83; 2 criteria: 1191 patients with ARDS [15.3%]; P < .001; 3 criteria: 817 patients with ARDS [19.3%]; P < .001; 4 criteria: 203 patients with ARDS [24.3%]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that metabolic syndrome was associated with increased risks of ARDS and death in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. The association with ARDS was cumulative for each metabolic syndrome criteria present.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Critical Care , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(8): e0514, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393343

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Even with its proclivity for older age, coronavirus disease 2019 has been shown to affect all age groups. However, there remains a lack of research focused primarily on the young adult population. OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 and identify the risk factors associated with critical illness and mortality in hospitalized young adults. DESIGN SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective cohort study of the Society of Critical Care Medicine's Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry. Patients 18-40 years old, hospitalized from coronavirus disease 2019 from March 2020 to April 2021, were included in the analysis. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Critical illness was defined as a composite of mortality and 21 predefined interventions and complications. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations with critical illness and mortality. RESULTS: Data from 4,005 patients (152 centers, 19 countries, 18.6% non-U.S. patients) were analyzed. The median age was 32 years (interquartile range, 27-37 yr); 51% were female, 29.4% Hispanic, and 42.9% had obesity. Most patients (63.2%) had comorbidities, the most common being hypertension (14.5%) and diabetes (13.7%). Hospital and ICU mortality were 3.2% (129/4,005) and 8.3% (109/1,313), respectively. Critical illness occurred in 25% (n = 996), and 34.3% (n = 1,376) were admitted to the ICU. Older age (p = 0.03), male sex (adjusted odds ratio, 1.83 [95% CI, 1.2-2.6]), and obesity (adjusted odds ratio, 1.6 [95% CI, 1.1-2.4]) were associated with hospital mortality. In addition to the above factors, the presence of any comorbidity was associated with critical illness from coronavirus disease 2019. Multiple sensitivity analyses, including analysis with U.S. patients only and patients admitted to high-volume sites, showed similar risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized young adults, obese males with comorbidities are at higher risk of developing critical illness or dying from coronavirus disease 2019.

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