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1.
Eur Respir Rev ; 30(161)2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412449

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious complication of severe systemic or local pulmonary inflammation, such as caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. ARDS is characterised by diffuse alveolar damage that leads to protein-rich pulmonary oedema, local alveolar hypoventilation and atelectasis. Inadequate perfusion of these areas is the main cause of hypoxaemia in ARDS. High perfusion in relation to ventilation (V/Q<1) and shunting (V/Q=0) is not only caused by impaired hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction but also redistribution of perfusion from obstructed lung vessels. Rebalancing the pulmonary vascular tone is a therapeutic challenge. Previous clinical trials on inhaled vasodilators (nitric oxide and prostacyclin) to enhance perfusion to high V/Q areas showed beneficial effects on hypoxaemia but not on mortality. However, specific patient populations with pulmonary hypertension may profit from treatment with inhaled vasodilators. Novel treatment targets to decrease perfusion in low V/Q areas include epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and specific leukotriene receptors. Still, lung protective ventilation and prone positioning are the best available standard of care. This review focuses on disturbed perfusion in ARDS and aims to provide basic scientists and clinicians with an overview of the vascular alterations and mechanisms of V/Q mismatch, current therapeutic strategies, and experimental approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Hypoxia , Lung/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasoconstriction
4.
World J Emerg Surg ; 15(1): 64, 2020 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-968942

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is a major challenge for health care services worldwide. It's impact on oncologic therapies and elective surgery has been described recently, and the literature provides guidelines regarding appropriate elective patient treatment during the pandemic. However, the impact of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on emergency surgery services has been poorly investigated up to now. METHODS: A 17-item web survey had been distributed to emergency surgeons in June 2020 around the world, investigating the impact of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on patients and septic diseases both requiring emergency surgery and the time-to-intervention in emergency surgery routine, as well as experiences with surgery in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Ninety-eight collaborators from 31 countries responded to the survey. The majority (65.3%) estimated the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on emergency surgical patient care as being strong or very strong. Due to the pandemic, 87.8% reported a decrease in the total number of patients undergoing emergency surgery and approximately 25% estimated a delay of more than 2 h in the time-to-diagnosis and another 2 h in the time-to-intervention. Fifty percent make structural problems with in-hospital logistics (e.g. transport of patients, closed normal wards etc.) mainly responsible for delayed emergency surgery and the frequent need (56.1%) for a triage of emergency surgical patients. 56.1% of the collaborators observed more severe septic abdominal diseases during the pandemic, especially for perforated appendicitis and severe septic cholecystitis (41.8% and 40.2%, respectively). 62.2% had experiences with surgery in COVID-19-infected patients. CONCLUSIONS: The results of The WSES COVID-19 emergency surgery survey are alarming. The combination of an estimated decrease in numbers of emergency surgical patients and an observed increase in more severe septic diseases may be a result of the fear of patients from infection with COVID-19 and a consecutive delayed hospital admission and diagnosis. A critical delay in time-to-diagnosis and time-to-intervention may be a result of changes in in-hospital logistics and operating room as well as intensive care capacities. Both reflect the potentially harmful impact of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on emergency surgery services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Facilities and Services Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Surgical Procedures, Operative/statistics & numerical data , General Surgery/statistics & numerical data , Health Care Surveys , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 598379, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954188

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with high mortality. Lung-protective ventilation is the current standard of care in patients with ARDS, but it might lead to hypercapnia, which is independently associated with worse outcomes. Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) has been proposed as an adjuvant therapy to avoid progression of clinical severity and limit further ventilator-induced lung injury, but its use in COVID-19 has not been described yet. Acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) is common among critically ill COVID-19 patients. In centers with available dialysis, low-flow ECCO2R (<500 mL/min) using RRT platforms could be carried out by dialysis specialists and might be an option to efficiently allocate resources during the COVID-19 pandemic for patients with hypercapnia as the main indication. Here, we report the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of ECCO2R using an RRT platform to provide either standalone ECCO2R or ECCO2R combined with RRT in four hypercapnic patients with moderate ARDS. A randomized clinical trial is required to assess the overall benefit and harm. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT04351906.

6.
Thorax ; 76(2): 201-204, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-920934

ABSTRACT

Various forms of diffuse parenchymal lung disease have been proposed as potential consequences of severe COVID­19. We describe the clinical, radiological and histological findings of patients with COVID­19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome who later developed severe organising pneumonia including longitudinal follow-up. Our findings may have important implications for the therapeutic modalities in the late-phase of severe COVID­19 and might partially explain why a subgroup of COVID­19 patients benefits from systemic corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Biopsy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Am J Transplant ; 20(10): 2928-2932, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-268563

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global health problem with pandemic character. Lung transplant recipients may be particularly at risk due to the high degree of immunosuppression and the lung being the organ primarily affected by COVID-19. We describe a 16-year-old male and a 64-year-old female recently lung transplanted patients with COVID-19 during inpatient rehabilitation. Both patients were receiving triple immunosuppressive therapy and had no signs of allograft dysfunction. Both patients had close contact with a person who developed COVID-19 and were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Subsequently, both patients underwent systematic screening and SARS-CoV-2 was ultimately detected. Although the 16-year-old boy was completely asymptomatic, the 64-year-old woman developed only mild COVID-19. Immunosuppressive therapy was unchanged and no experimental treatment was initiated. No signs of graft involvement or dysfunction were noticed. In conclusion, our report of patients with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and mild COVID-19, respectively, may indicate that lung transplant recipients are not per se at risk for severe COVID-19. Further observations and controlled trials are urgently needed to study SARS-CoV-2 infection in lung transplant recipients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Lung Transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Transplant Recipients , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Postoperative Period , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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