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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886441

ABSTRACT

This secondary analysis of the phase 3 ENSEMBLE trial (NCT04505722) assessed the impact of preexisting humoral immunity to adenovirus type 26 (Ad26) on the immunogenicity of Ad26.COV2.S-elicited SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody levels in 380 participants in Brazil, South Africa, and the United States. Among those vaccinated in Brazil and South Africa, 31% and 66%, respectively, had prevaccination serum-neutralizing activity against Ad26, with little preexisting immunity detected in the United States. Vaccine recipients in each country had similar post-vaccination spike-binding antibody levels, indicating that baseline immunity to Ad26 has no clear impact on vaccine-induced immune responses.

2.
Vaccine ; 40(32): 4403-4411, 2022 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878404

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ad26.COV2.S is a well-tolerated and effective vaccine against COVID-19. We evaluated durability of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies elicited by single-dose Ad26.COV2.S and the impact of boosting. METHODS: In randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2a and phase 2 trials, participants received single-dose Ad26.COV2.S (5 × 1010 viral particles [vp]) followed by booster doses of 5 × 1010 vp or 1.25 × 1010 vp. Neutralizing antibody levels were determined by a virus neutralization assay (VNA) approximately 8-9 months after dose 1. Binding and neutralizing antibody levels were evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and pseudotyped VNA 6 months after dose 1 and 7 and 28 days after boosting. RESULTS: Data were analyzed from phase 1/2a participants enrolled from 22 July-18 December 2020 (Cohort 1a, 18-55 years [y], N = 25; Cohort 2a, 18-55y, N = 17; Cohort 3, ≥65y, N = 22), and phase 2 participants from 14 to 22 September 2020 (18-55y and ≥ 65y, N = 73). Single-dose Ad26.COV2.S elicited stable neutralizing antibodies for at least 8-9 months and stable binding antibodies for at least 6 months, irrespective of age. A 5 × 1010 vp 2-month booster dose increased binding antibodies by 4.9- to 6.2-fold 14 days post-boost versus 28 days after initial immunization. A 6-month booster elicited a steep and robust 9-fold increase in binding antibody levels 7 days post-boost. A 5.0-fold increase in neutralizing antibodies was observed by 28 days post-boost for the Beta variant. A 1.25 × 1010 vp 6-month booster elicited a 3.6-fold increase in binding antibody levels at 7 days post-boost versus pre-boost, with a similar magnitude of post-boost responses in both age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Single-dose Ad26.COV2.S elicited durable antibody responses for at least 8 months and elicited immune memory. Booster-elicited binding and neutralizing antibody responses were rapid and robust, even with a quarter vaccine dose, and stronger with a longer interval since primary vaccination. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04436276, NCT04535453.


Subject(s)
Ad26COVS1 , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
3.
NPJ Vaccines ; 7(1): 2, 2022 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616986

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Spike-specific binding and neutralizing antibodies, elicited either by natural infection or vaccination, have emerged as potential correlates of protection. An important question, however, is whether vaccine-elicited antibodies in humans provide direct, functional protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease. In this study, we explored directly the protective efficacy of human antibodies elicited by Ad26.COV2.S vaccination by adoptive transfer studies. IgG from plasma of Ad26.COV2.S vaccinated individuals was purified and transferred into naïve golden Syrian hamster recipients, followed by intra-nasal challenge of the hamsters with SARS-CoV-2. IgG purified from Ad26.COV2.S-vaccinated individuals provided dose-dependent protection in the recipient hamsters from weight loss following challenge. In contrast, IgG purified from placebo recipients provided no protection in this adoptive transfer model. Attenuation of weight loss correlated with binding and neutralizing antibody titers of the passively transferred IgG. This study suggests that Ad26.COV2.S-elicited antibodies in humans are mechanistically involved in protection against SARS-CoV-2.

5.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S804-S805, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564392

ABSTRACT

Background In a Phase 3 trial, the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine, Ad26.COV2.S, showed robust efficacy against severe–critical COVID-19 in countries where different SARS-CoV-2 variants were circulating. We evaluated Ad26.COV2.S-elicited antibody neutralizing activity against variants of concern (VOC) B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), and B.1.617.2 (Delta) in sera from participants in clinical trials following a single dose of Ad26.COV2.S. Methods Neutralizing activities of Ad26.COV2.S (given at a dose level of 5 x 1010 viral particles [vp]) against VOC were assessed by wild-type virus neutralizing (wtVNA) and pseudovirion neutralization (psVNA) assays in sera from participants in Phase 1/2a and Phase 3 clinical trials, respectively. Geometric mean titers (GMTs) were determined at Days 29 and 71 after vaccination. Results In serum samples from Phase 1/2a participants (n = 6), at Day 29 after 1 dose of Ad26.COV2.S, wtVNA titers against VOC were lower than for the original strain (GMT = 573), with GMT = 65, 14, and 15 for Alpha, Beta, and Delta, respectively, representing 8.8-, 40.9-, and 37.7-fold decreases. By Day 71 after vaccination (n = 14), fold differences between the original strain (GMT = 375) and VOC (GMT = 113, 27, and 28) were smaller (3.3-, 13.9-, and 13.4-fold) than at Day 29, suggestive of B-cell maturation (Figure 1). Day 71 titers against the Delta variant were maintained for at least 8 months following a single dose of Ad26.COV2.S (5 x 1010 vp). In serum samples from Phase 3 participants (n = 8), psVNA titers against VOC were lower than the original strain at Day 71 after vaccination, with the lowest titers observed for the Beta variant (3.6-fold decrease vs original strain). Smaller reductions in Nab titers for VOC were observed in the psVNA assay compared to wtVNA. Figure 1. Neutralization of B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), and B.1.617.2 (Delta) lineages in serum samples from participants who received Ad26.COV2.S. n = 6 samples at Day 29 and n = 14 (n = 14 for Alpha and Beta;n = 6 for Delta, comprising the same 6 participants at Day 29) samples at Day 71 after vaccination with a single dose of Ad26.COV2.S (5 x 10

7.
Nature ; 596(7871): 268-272, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262005

ABSTRACT

The Ad26.COV2.S vaccine1-3 has demonstrated clinical efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19, including against the B.1.351 variant that is partially resistant to neutralizing antibodies1. However, the immunogenicity of this vaccine in humans against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern remains unclear. Here we report humoral and cellular immune responses from 20 Ad26.COV2.S vaccinated individuals from the COV1001 phase I-IIa clinical trial2 against the original SARS-CoV-2 strain WA1/2020 as well as against the B.1.1.7, CAL.20C, P.1 and B.1.351 variants of concern. Ad26.COV2.S induced median pseudovirus neutralizing antibody titres that were 5.0-fold and 3.3-fold lower against the B.1.351 and P.1 variants, respectively, as compared with WA1/2020 on day 71 after vaccination. Median binding antibody titres were 2.9-fold and 2.7-fold lower against the B.1.351 and P.1 variants, respectively, as compared with WA1/2020. Antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis, complement deposition and natural killer cell activation responses were largely preserved against the B.1.351 variant. CD8 and CD4 T cell responses, including central and effector memory responses, were comparable among the WA1/2020, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1 and CAL.20C variants. These data show that neutralizing antibody responses induced by Ad26.COV2.S were reduced against the B.1.351 and P.1 variants, but functional non-neutralizing antibody responses and T cell responses were largely preserved against SARS-CoV-2 variants. These findings have implications for vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
8.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(5): 585-594, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248392

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) may cause severe congenital disease after maternal-fetal transmission. No vaccine is currently available. OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and immunogenicity of Ad26.ZIKV.001, a prophylactic ZIKV vaccine candidate. DESIGN: Phase 1 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03356561). SETTING: United States. PARTICIPANTS: 100 healthy adult volunteers. INTERVENTION: Ad26.ZIKV.001, an adenovirus serotype 26 vector encoding ZIKV M-Env, administered in 1- or 2-dose regimens of 5 × 1010 or 1 × 1011 viral particles (vp), or placebo. MEASUREMENTS: Local and systemic adverse events; neutralization titers by microneutralization assay (MN50) and T-cell responses by interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot and intracellular cytokine staining; and protectivity of vaccine-induced antibodies in a subset of participants through transfer in an exploratory mouse ZIKV challenge model. RESULTS: All regimens were well tolerated, with no safety concerns identified. In both 2-dose regimens, ZIKV neutralizing titers peaked 14 days after the second vaccination, with geometric mean MN50 titers (GMTs) of 1065.6 (95% CI, 494.9 to 2294.5) for 5 × 1010 vp and 956.6 (595.8 to 1535.8) for 1 × 1011 vp. Titers persisted for at least 1 year at a GMT of 68.7 (CI, 26.4-178.9) for 5 × 1010 vp and 87.0 (CI, 29.3 to 258.6) for 1 × 1011 vp. A 1-dose regimen of 1 × 1011 vp Ad26.ZIKV.001 induced seroconversion in all participants 56 days after the first vaccination (GMT, 103.4 [CI, 52.7 to 202.9]), with titers persisting for at least 1 year (GMT, 90.2 [CI, 38.4 to 212.2]). Env-specific cellular responses were induced. Protection against ZIKV challenge was observed after antibody transfer from participants into mice, and MN50 titers correlated with protection in this model. LIMITATION: The study was conducted in a nonendemic area, so it did not assess safety and immunogenicity in a flavivirus-exposed population. CONCLUSION: The safety and immunogenicity profile makes Ad26.ZIKV.001 a promising candidate for further development if the need reemerges. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Janssen Vaccines and Infectious Diseases.


Subject(s)
Viral Vaccines/immunology , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Adenoviridae/immunology , Adult , Animals , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , United States , Zika Virus/immunology , Zika Virus Infection/immunology
9.
JAMA ; 325(15): 1535-1544, 2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222577

ABSTRACT

Importance: Control of the global COVID-19 pandemic will require the development and deployment of safe and effective vaccines. Objective: To evaluate the immunogenicity of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) in humans, including the kinetics, magnitude, and phenotype of SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. Design, Setting, and Participants: Twenty-five participants were enrolled from July 29, 2020, to August 7, 2020, and the follow-up for this day 71 interim analysis was completed on October 3, 2020; follow-up to assess durability will continue for 2 years. This study was conducted at a single clinical site in Boston, Massachusetts, as part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 clinical trial of Ad26.COV2.S. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive 1 or 2 intramuscular injections with 5 × 1010 viral particles or 1 × 1011 viral particles of Ad26.COV2.S vaccine or placebo administered on day 1 and day 57 (5 participants in each group). Main Outcomes and Measures: Humoral immune responses included binding and neutralizing antibody responses at multiple time points following immunization. Cellular immune responses included immunospot-based and intracellular cytokine staining assays to measure T-cell responses. Results: Twenty-five participants were randomized (median age, 42; age range, 22-52; 52% women, 44% male, 4% undifferentiated), and all completed the trial through the day 71 interim end point. Binding and neutralizing antibodies emerged rapidly by day 8 after initial immunization in 90% and 25% of vaccine recipients, respectively. By day 57, binding and neutralizing antibodies were detected in 100% of vaccine recipients after a single immunization. On day 71, the geometric mean titers of spike-specific binding antibodies were 2432 to 5729 and the geometric mean titers of neutralizing antibodies were 242 to 449 in the vaccinated groups. A variety of antibody subclasses, Fc receptor binding properties, and antiviral functions were induced. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were induced. Conclusion and Relevance: In this phase 1 study, a single immunization with Ad26.COV2.S induced rapid binding and neutralization antibody responses as well as cellular immune responses. Two phase 3 clinical trials are currently underway to determine the efficacy of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04436276.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Cellular , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccine Potency , Young Adult
10.
JAMA ; 325(15): 1535-1544, 2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126322

ABSTRACT

Importance: Control of the global COVID-19 pandemic will require the development and deployment of safe and effective vaccines. Objective: To evaluate the immunogenicity of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) in humans, including the kinetics, magnitude, and phenotype of SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. Design, Setting, and Participants: Twenty-five participants were enrolled from July 29, 2020, to August 7, 2020, and the follow-up for this day 71 interim analysis was completed on October 3, 2020; follow-up to assess durability will continue for 2 years. This study was conducted at a single clinical site in Boston, Massachusetts, as part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 clinical trial of Ad26.COV2.S. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive 1 or 2 intramuscular injections with 5 × 1010 viral particles or 1 × 1011 viral particles of Ad26.COV2.S vaccine or placebo administered on day 1 and day 57 (5 participants in each group). Main Outcomes and Measures: Humoral immune responses included binding and neutralizing antibody responses at multiple time points following immunization. Cellular immune responses included immunospot-based and intracellular cytokine staining assays to measure T-cell responses. Results: Twenty-five participants were randomized (median age, 42; age range, 22-52; 52% women, 44% male, 4% undifferentiated), and all completed the trial through the day 71 interim end point. Binding and neutralizing antibodies emerged rapidly by day 8 after initial immunization in 90% and 25% of vaccine recipients, respectively. By day 57, binding and neutralizing antibodies were detected in 100% of vaccine recipients after a single immunization. On day 71, the geometric mean titers of spike-specific binding antibodies were 2432 to 5729 and the geometric mean titers of neutralizing antibodies were 242 to 449 in the vaccinated groups. A variety of antibody subclasses, Fc receptor binding properties, and antiviral functions were induced. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were induced. Conclusion and Relevance: In this phase 1 study, a single immunization with Ad26.COV2.S induced rapid binding and neutralization antibody responses as well as cellular immune responses. Two phase 3 clinical trials are currently underway to determine the efficacy of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04436276.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Cellular , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccine Potency , Young Adult
11.
N Engl J Med ; 384(19): 1824-1835, 2021 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Efficacious vaccines are urgently needed to contain the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A candidate vaccine, Ad26.COV2.S, is a recombinant, replication-incompetent adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) vector encoding a full-length and stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. METHODS: In this multicenter, placebo-controlled, phase 1-2a trial, we randomly assigned healthy adults between the ages of 18 and 55 years (cohort 1) and those 65 years of age or older (cohort 3) to receive the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine at a dose of 5×1010 viral particles (low dose) or 1×1011 viral particles (high dose) per milliliter or placebo in a single-dose or two-dose schedule. Longer-term data comparing a single-dose regimen with a two-dose regimen are being collected in cohort 2; those results are not reported here. The primary end points were the safety and reactogenicity of each dose schedule. RESULTS: After the administration of the first vaccine dose in 805 participants in cohorts 1 and 3 and after the second dose in cohort 1, the most frequent solicited adverse events were fatigue, headache, myalgia, and injection-site pain. The most frequent systemic adverse event was fever. Systemic adverse events were less common in cohort 3 than in cohort 1 and in those who received the low vaccine dose than in those who received the high dose. Reactogenicity was lower after the second dose. Neutralizing-antibody titers against wild-type virus were detected in 90% or more of all participants on day 29 after the first vaccine dose (geometric mean titer [GMT], 212 to 354), regardless of vaccine dose or age group, and reached 96% by day 57 with a further increase in titers (GMT, 288 to 488) in cohort 1a. Titers remained stable until at least day 71. A second dose provided an increase in the titer by a factor of 2.6 to 2.9 (GMT, 827 to 1266). Spike-binding antibody responses were similar to neutralizing-antibody responses. On day 15, CD4+ T-cell responses were detected in 76 to 83% of the participants in cohort 1 and in 60 to 67% of those in cohort 3, with a clear skewing toward type 1 helper T cells. CD8+ T-cell responses were robust overall but lower in cohort 3. CONCLUSIONS: The safety and immunogenicity profiles of Ad26.COV2.S support further development of this vaccine candidate. (Funded by Johnson & Johnson and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority of the Department of Health and Human Services; COV1001 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04436276.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
12.
Vaccine ; 39(22): 3081-3101, 2021 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813888

ABSTRACT

Replication-incompetent adenoviral vectors have been under investigation as a platform to carry a variety of transgenes, and express them as a basis for vaccine development. A replication-incompetent adenoviral vector based on human adenovirus type 26 (Ad26) has been evaluated in several clinical trials. The Brighton Collaboration Viral Vector Vaccines Safety Working Group (V3SWG) was formed to evaluate the safety and features of recombinant viral vector vaccines. This paper reviews features of the Ad26 vectors, including tabulation of safety and risk assessment characteristics of Ad26-based vaccines. In the Ad26 vector, deletion of E1 gene rendering the vector replication incompetent is combined with additional genetic engineering for vaccine manufacturability and transgene expression optimization. These vaccines can be manufactured in mammalian cell lines at scale providing an effective, flexible system for high-yield manufacturing. Ad26 vector vaccines have favorable thermostability profiles, compatible with vaccine supply chains. Safety data are compiled in the Ad26 vaccine safety database version 4.0, with unblinded data from 23 ongoing and completed clinical studies for 3912 participants in five different Ad26-based vaccine programs. Overall, Ad26-based vaccines have been well tolerated, with no significant safety issues identified. Evaluation of Ad26-based vaccines is continuing, with >114,000 participants vaccinated as of 4th September 2020. Extensive evaluation of immunogenicity in humans shows strong, durable humoral and cellular immune responses. Clinical trials have not revealed impact of pre-existing immunity to Ad26 on vaccine immunogenicity, even in the presence of Ad26 neutralizing antibody titers or Ad26-targeting T cell responses at baseline. The first Ad26-based vaccine, against Ebola virus, received marketing authorization from EC on 1st July 2020, as part of the Ad26.ZEBOV, MVA-BN-Filo vaccine regimen. New developments based on Ad26 vectors are underway, including a COVID-19 vaccine, which is currently in phase 3 of clinical evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ebolavirus , Viral Vaccines , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/genetics
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