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1.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(8): 902-905, 2022 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 de-isolation guidelines of health care workers (HCW) were formulated based on evidence describing the duration of infectious viral shedding of the wild SARS-CoV-2 virus. During the periods of COVID-19 vaccination and variants, a test-based approach was recommended to end isolation of HCW, based on emerging data describing the viral kinetics of COVID-19 variants. While Rapid antigen detection tests (RADT) are increasingly used in the diagnosis of COVID-19, their use is limited in de-isolation. METHODS: We described the use of RADT in the de-isolation of COVID-19 vaccinated HCW with mild infection who were asymptomatic on day 7 post diagnosis in a single center retrospective cohort study during the Omicron surge. RESULTS: Of the 480 HCWs, 173 (36%) had positive RADT. The positivity rate of RADT was not different in HCW who received two doses versus three doses of vaccine (34.4% versus 40.3%, p = 0.239). CONCLUSIONS: A symptom based, test-based approach using RADT is a useful tool in the de-isolation of HCW, with mild disease, in the era of Omicron. Further studies are required to evaluate the role of RADT in de-isolation of patients with severe COVID-19 disease.

2.
Intervirology ; 65(4): 230-235, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775041

ABSTRACT

Various studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 is a highly immunogenic virus. It is known that different types of immunogenic viral pathogens could trigger the formation of HLA antibodies. Therefore, there is a concern that the SARS-CoV-2 could also induce the development of HLA antibodies in volunteers, who donate convalescent plasma after their recovery from COVID-19. HLA antibodies have been identified as the main cause for transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), a well-documented life-threatening complication of transfusions. The TRALI risk could be high in COVID-19 patients who need convalescent plasma, as such patients usually have already an impaired respiratory system affected by the SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, we screened 34 convalescent plasma donors on the presence of antibodies against HLA class I and II antigens. All included donors have no any history of sensitization events such as blood transfusions, pregnancy, or previous transplants. We found a high rate of HLA antibody formation in convalescent plasma donors. The frequency of positivity for HLA antibodies for class I, class II, class I and II, and the overall reactivity was 23%, 31%, 46%, and 76%, respectively. The presented data suggest a closed correlation between SARS-CoV-2 virus infection and the development of HLA antibodies in recovered convalescent plasma donors. This finding might have the potential to reduce the risk of TRALI and mortality rate in COVID-19 patients by implementing HLA diagnostic strategies before the administration of convalescent plasma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/therapy , Immunization, Passive
3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 800376, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662577

ABSTRACT

Background: Although genetic diseases are rare, children with such conditions who get infected with COVID-19 tend to have a severe illness requiring hospitalization. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disorder of collagen resulting in fractures and skeletal deformities. Kyphoscoliosis, restrictive lung disease, and pneumonia worsen the prognosis of patients with OI. The use of bisphosphonate improves bone mineral density (BMD) and reduces fractures in OI. There is no literature describing the impact of COVID-19 in patients with OI. Methodology: A retrospective multi-center study was performed in three hospitals in Jeddah and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from March 1st, 2020, until August 31st, 2021, aiming to evaluate the outcome of COVID-19 in patients with OI. Demographics, vaccination status, underlying kyphoscoliosis, functional status, use of bisphosphonate, BMD, and COVID-19 severity, and course were recorded for all patients. Results: Twelve cases of confirmed COVID-19 were identified among 146 patients with OI. 9 (75%) of patients were less than 18 years, 6 (50%) were male, 5 (41%) had kyphoscoliosis, and 5 (41%) were wheelchair-bound. 6 (50%) received bisphosphonate, and 7(58%) had normal BMD. All patients had mild disease and did not require hospitalization. None of OI the patients with COVID-19 were fully vaccinated before the infection, and some were ineligible for vaccination. Conclusion: Patients with OI and COVID-19 in our study recovered without complications, unlike patients with other genetic diseases. Young age and mild illness contributed to the favorable outcome. Half of the patients received bisphosphonate and had normal BMD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Bone Density , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Child , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Fractures, Bone/drug therapy , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Fractures, Bone/pathology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/epidemiology , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 112-115, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have prolonged infectious viral shedding for more than 20 days. A test-based approach is suggested for de-isolation of these patients. METHODS: The strategy was evaluated by comparing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load (cycle threshold (Ct) values) and viral culture at the time of hospital discharge in a series of 13 COVID-19 patients: six immunocompetent and seven immunocompromised (five solid organ transplant patients, one lymphoma patient, and one hepatocellular carcinoma patient). RESULTS: Three of the 13 (23%) patients had positive viral cultures: one patient with lymphoma (on day 16) and two immunocompetent patients (on day 7 and day 11). Eighty percent of the patients had negative viral cultures and had a mean Ct value of 20.5. None of the solid organ transplant recipients had positive viral cultures. CONCLUSIONS: The mean Ct value for negative viral cultures was 20.5 in this case series of immunocompromised patients. Unlike those with hematological malignancies, none of the solid organ transplant patients had positive viral cultures. Adopting the test-based approach for all immunocompromised patients may lead to prolonged quarantine. Large-scale studies in disease-specific populations are needed to determine whether a test-based approach versus a symptom-based approach or a combination is applicable for the de-isolation of various immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Quarantine , Virus Shedding
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