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1.
J Infect ; 85(1): 57-63, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851543

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence and characteristics of superinfections in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients, and the impact of dexamethasone as standard therapy. METHODS: This multicentre, observational, retrospective study included patients ≥ 18 years admitted from March 1st 2020 to January 31st 2021 with COVID-19 infection who received mechanical ventilation. Patient characteristics, clinical characteristics, therapy and survival were examined. RESULTS: 155/156 patients (115 men, mean age 62 years, range 26-84 years) were included. 67 patients (43%) had 90 superinfections, pneumonia dominated (78%). Superinfections were associated with receiving dexamethasone (66% vs 32%, p<0.0001), autoimmune disease (18% vs 5.7%, p<0.016) and with longer ICU stays (26 vs 17 days, p<0,001). Invasive fungal infections were reported exclusively in dexamethasone-treated patients [8/67 (12%) vs 0/88 (0%), p<0.0001]. Unadjusted 90-day survival did not differ between patients with or without superinfections (64% vs 73%, p=0.25), but was lower in patients receiving dexamethasone versus not (58% vs 78%, p=0.007). In multiple regression analysis, superinfection was associated with dexamethasone use [OR 3.7 (1.80-7.61), p<0.001], pre-existing autoimmune disease [OR 3.82 (1.13-12.9), p=0.031] and length of ICU stay [OR 1.05 p<0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill COVID-19 patients, dexamethasone as standard of care was strongly and independently associated with superinfections.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Superinfection , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Superinfection/etiology
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313539

ABSTRACT

Background: In SARS-CoV-2 infection there is an urgent need to identify patients that will progress to severe COVID-19 and may benefit from targeted treatment. Objectives: Analyze plasma cytokines in COVID-19 patients and investigate their association with respiratory failure (RF) and treatment in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Method: Hospitalized patients (n=34) with confirmed COVID-19 were recruited into a prospective cohort study. Clinical data and blood samples were collected at inclusion and after 2-5 and 7-10 days. RF was defined as PaO2/FiO2 ratio (P/F) <40kPa. Plasma cytokines were analyzed by a Human Cytokine 27-plex assay. Measurements and Results: COVID-19 patients with RF and/or treated in ICU showed overall increased systemic cytokine levels. Plasma IL-6, IL-8, G-CSF, MCP-1, MIP-1α levels were negatively correlated with P/F, whereas combinations of IL-6, IP-10, IL-1ra and MCP-1 showed the best association with RF in ROC analysis (AUC 0.79-0.80, p<0.05). During hospitalization the decline was most significant for IP-10 (P<0.001). Conclusion: Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were present in patients with severe COVID-19. IL-6 and MCP-1 were inversely correlated with P/F with the largest AUC in ROC analyses and should be further explored as biomarkers to identify patients at risk for severe RF and as targets for improved treatment strategies.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296053

ABSTRACT

BacgroundSuper-infections in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) on mechanical ventilation were initially reported to be rare. Little is known of their incidence after dexamethasone was introduced as standard care. We aimed to determine the incidence and characteristics of superinfections in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients during the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, and explore the possible impact of the introduction of dexamethasone as standard therapy. MethodsIn this national, multi-center, observational, retrospective study we included patients ≥ 18 years admitted from March 1 st 2020 to January 31 st 2021 with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed SARSCoV-2 infection treated with invasive mechanical ventilation. Data was collected from electronic health records. Patient characteristics, clinical findings, microbiology, length of stay and 90-day survival were examined with backwards stepwise multiple regression. Results155 patients (115 men, mean age 62 years, range 26-84 years) were included. 73 patients (47%) had a total of 101 superinfections where pneumonia dominated (70%). Superinfections were more commonly observed in patients receiving dexamethasone (67% vs 30%, p<0.0001), and in patients with pre-existing autoimmune disease (18% vs 5%, p<0.01). Invasive fungal infections were reported exclusively in dexamethasone-treated patients [9/72 (13%) vs 0/83 (0%), p<0.0001]. There was no difference in 90-day survival between patients with and patients without superinfections (64% versus 73%, p=0.238). In multiple regression analysis, superinfection was associated with dexamethasone use [OR 5.35 (2.62–11.35), p<0.001], pre-existing autoimmune disease [OR 4.90 (1.50–19.4), p=0.008] and higher lymphocyte count at the time of admission [OR 2.31 (1.23–4.86), p=0.009]. ConclusionIn critically ill COVID-19 patients receiving invasive ventilation, introduction of dexamethasone as standard of care was strongly and independently associated with superinfections. A focus on this complication is warranted when studying alternative anti-inflammatory therapy.

4.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(9): 1261-1269, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New treatment modalities are urgently needed for patients with COVID-19. The World Health Organization (WHO) Solidarity trial showed no effect of remdesivir or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on mortality, but the antiviral effects of these drugs are not known. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of remdesivir and HCQ on all-cause, in-hospital mortality; the degree of respiratory failure and inflammation; and viral clearance in the oropharynx. DESIGN: NOR-Solidarity is an independent, add-on, randomized controlled trial to the WHO Solidarity trial that included biobanking and 3 months of clinical follow-up (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04321616). SETTING: 23 hospitals in Norway. PATIENTS: Eligible patients were adults hospitalized with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. INTERVENTION: Between 28 March and 4 October 2020, a total of 185 patients were randomly assigned and 181 were included in the full analysis set. Patients received remdesivir (n = 42), HCQ (n = 52), or standard of care (SoC) (n = 87). MEASUREMENTS: In addition to the primary end point of WHO Solidarity, study-specific outcomes were viral clearance in oropharyngeal specimens, the degree of respiratory failure, and inflammatory variables. RESULTS: No significant differences were seen between treatment groups in mortality during hospitalization. There was a marked decrease in SARS-CoV-2 load in the oropharynx during the first week overall, with similar decreases and 10-day viral loads among the remdesivir, HCQ, and SoC groups. Remdesivir and HCQ did not affect the degree of respiratory failure or inflammatory variables in plasma or serum. The lack of antiviral effect was not associated with symptom duration, level of viral load, degree of inflammation, or presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at hospital admittance. LIMITATION: The trial had no placebo group. CONCLUSION: Neither remdesivir nor HCQ affected viral clearance in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Clinical Therapy Research in the Specialist Health Services, Norway.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Viral Load/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Norway/epidemiology , Oropharynx/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Standard of Care , Treatment Outcome
6.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 141(3)2021 02 23.
Article in Norwegian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222252
7.
J Neurol ; 268(10): 3574-3583, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141418

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypotheses that blood biomarkers for nervous system injury, serum concentrations of neurofilament light chain protein (NfL) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAp) can serve as biomarkers for disease severity in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Forty-seven inpatients with confirmed COVID-19 had blood samples drawn on admission for assessing serum biomarkers of CNS injury by Single molecule array (Simoa), NfL and GFAp. Concentrations of NfL and GFAp were analyzed in relation to symptoms, clinical signs, inflammatory biomarkers and clinical outcomes. We used multivariate linear models to test for differences in biomarker concentrations in the subgroups, accounting for confounding effects. RESULTS: In total, 21% (n = 10) of the patients were admitted to an intensive care unit, and the overall mortality rate was 13% (n = 6). Non-survivors had higher serum concentrations of NfL (p < 0.001) upon admission than patients who were discharged alive both in adjusted analyses (p = 2.6 × 10-7) and unadjusted analyses (p = 0.001). The concentrations of NfL in non-survivors increased over repeated measurements; whereas, the concentrations in survivors were stable. The GFAp concentration was also significantly higher in non-survivors than survivors (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Increased concentrations of NfL and GFAp in COVID-19 patients on admission may indicate increased mortality risk. Measurement of blood biomarkers for nervous system injury can be useful to detect and monitor CNS injury in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Humans , Intermediate Filaments , Neurofilament Proteins , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21697, 2020 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059940

ABSTRACT

In SARS-CoV-2 infection there is an urgent need to identify patients that will progress to severe COVID-19 and may benefit from targeted treatment. In this study we analyzed plasma cytokines in COVID-19 patients and investigated their association with respiratory failure (RF) and treatment in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Hospitalized patients (n = 34) with confirmed COVID-19 were recruited into a prospective cohort study. Clinical data and blood samples were collected at inclusion and after 2-5 and 7-10 days. RF was defined as PaO2/FiO2 ratio (P/F) < 40 kPa. Plasma cytokines were analyzed by a Human Cytokine 27-plex assay. COVID-19 patients with RF and/or treated in ICU showed overall increased systemic cytokine levels. Plasma IL-6, IL-8, G-CSF, MCP-1, MIP-1α levels were negatively correlated with P/F, whereas combinations of IL-6, IP-10, IL-1ra and MCP-1 showed the best association with RF in ROC analysis (AUC 0.79-0.80, p < 0.05). During hospitalization the decline was most significant for IP-10 (p < 0.001). Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were present in patients with severe COVID-19. IL-6 and MCP-1 were inversely correlated with P/F with the largest AUC in ROC analyses and should be further explored as biomarkers to identify patients at risk for severe RF and as targets for improved treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Chemokine CCL2/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Severity of Illness Index
11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(1): 92-98, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still incompletely understood, but it seems to involve immune activation and immune dysregulation. OBJECTIVE: We examined the parameters of activation of different leukocyte subsets in COVID-19-infected patients in relation to disease severity. METHODS: We analyzed plasma levels of myeloperoxidase (a marker of neutrophil activation), soluble (s) CD25 (sCD25) and soluble T-cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-3 (sTIM-3) (markers of T-cell activation and exhaustion), and sCD14 and sCD163 (markers of monocyte/macrophage activation) in 39 COVID-19-infected patients at hospital admission and 2 additional times during the first 10 days in relation to their need for intensive care unit (ICU) treatment. RESULTS: Our major findings were as follows: (1) severe clinical outcome (ICU treatment) was associated with high plasma levels of sTIM-3 and myeloperoxidase, suggesting activated and potentially exhausted T cells and activated neutrophils, respectively; (2) in contrast, sCD14 and sCD163 showed no association with need for ICU treatment; and (3) levels of sCD25, sTIM-3, and myeloperoxidase were inversely correlated with degree of respiratory failure, as assessed by the ratio of Pao2 to fraction of inspired oxygen, and were positively correlated with the cardiac marker N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that neutrophil activation and, in particular, activated T cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 infection, suggesting that T-cell-targeted treatment options and downregulation of neutrophil activation could be of importance in this disorder.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Aged , Antigens, CD/blood , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/blood , Female , Humans , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit/blood , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/blood , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Cell Surface/blood , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Time Factors
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(40): 25018-25025, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780138

ABSTRACT

Respiratory failure in the acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is hypothesized to be driven by an overreacting innate immune response, where the complement system is a key player. In this prospective cohort study of 39 hospitalized coronavirus disease COVID-19 patients, we describe systemic complement activation and its association with development of respiratory failure. Clinical data and biological samples were obtained at admission, days 3 to 5, and days 7 to 10. Respiratory failure was defined as PO2/FiO2 ratio of ≤40 kPa. Complement activation products covering the classical/lectin (C4d), alternative (C3bBbP) and common pathway (C3bc, C5a, and sC5b-9), the lectin pathway recognition molecule MBL, and antibody serology were analyzed by enzyme-immunoassays; viral load by PCR. Controls comprised healthy blood donors. Consistently increased systemic complement activation was observed in the majority of COVID-19 patients during hospital stay. At admission, sC5b-9 and C4d were significantly higher in patients with than without respiratory failure (P = 0.008 and P = 0.034). Logistic regression showed increasing odds of respiratory failure with sC5b-9 (odds ratio 31.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 746, P = 0.03) and need for oxygen therapy with C4d (11.7, 1.1 to 130, P = 0.045). Admission sC5b-9 and C4d correlated significantly to ferritin (r = 0.64, P < 0.001; r = 0.69, P < 0.001). C4d, sC5b-9, and C5a correlated with antiviral antibodies, but not with viral load. Systemic complement activation is associated with respiratory failure in COVID-19 patients and provides a rationale for investigating complement inhibitors in future clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Complement Activation , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Male , Mannose-Binding Lectin/blood , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
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