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1.
Anal Biochem ; 640: 114546, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611552

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The newly emerged coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) continues to infect humans, and no completely efficient treatment has yet been found. Antibody therapy is one way to control infection caused by COVID-19, but the use of classical antibodies has many disadvantages. Heavy chain antibodies (HCAbs) are single-domain antibodies derived from the Camelidae family. The variable part of these antibodies (Nanobodies or VHH) has interesting properties such as small size, identify criptic epitopes, stability in harsh conditions, good tissue permeability and cost-effective production causing nanobodies have become a good candidate in the treatment and diagnosis of viral infections. METHODS: Totally 157 records (up to November 10, 2021), were recognized to be reviewed in this study. 62 studies were removed after first step screening due to their deviation from inclusion criteria. The remaining 95 studies were reviewed in details. After removing articles that were not in the study area, 45 remaining studies met the inclusion criteria and were qualified to be included in the systematic review. RESULTS: In this systematic review, the application of nanobodies in the treatment and detection of COVID-19 infection was reviewed. The results of this study showed that extensive and sufficient studies have been performed in the field of production of nanobodies against SARS-CoV-2 virus and the obtained nanobodies have a great potential for use in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus. CONCLUSION: According to the obtained results, it was found that nanobodies can be used effectively in the treatment and diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Humans
2.
Iran J Public Health ; 49(Suppl 1): 18-29, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502944

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is considered as the third human coronavirus and has a high potential for transmission. Fast public health interventions through antibodies, anti-virals or novel vaccine strategies to control the virus and disease transmission have been extremely followed. SARS-CoV-2 shares about 79% genomic similarity with SARS-CoV and approximately 50% with MERS-CoV. Based on these similarities, prior knowledge in treating SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV can be used as the basis of majority of the alternatives for controlling SARS-CoV-2. Immunotherapy is an effective strategy for clinical treatment of infectious diseases such as SARS-CoV-2. Passive antibody therapy, which decreases the virus replication and disease severity, is assessed as an effective therapeutic approach to control SARS-CoV-2 epidemics. The close similarity between SARS-CoV-2 genome with the SARS-CoV genome caused both coronaviruses to bind to the same angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors that found in the human lung. There are several strategies to develop SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, which the majority of them are based on those developed previously for SARS-CoV. The interaction between the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 on the host cell surface leads to the initiation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. S protein, which is the main inducer of neutralizing antibodies, has been targeted by most of these strategies. Vaccines that induce an immune response against the S protein to inhibit its binding with the host ACE2 receptor, can be considered as effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we aimed to review frontier therapeutics and vaccination strategies for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19).

3.
J Res Med Sci ; 26: 82, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472459

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a zoonotic infection, is responsible for COVID-19 pandemic and also is known as a public health concern. However, so far, the origin of the causative virus and its intermediate hosts is yet to be fully determined. SARS-CoV-2 contains nearly 30,000 letters of RNA that allows the virus to infect cells and hijack them to make new viruses. On the other hand, among 14 detected mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 S protein that provide advantages to virus for transmission and evasion form treatment, the D614G mutation (substitution of aspartic acid [D] with glycine [G] in codon 614 was particular which could provide the facilitation of the transmission of the virus and virulence. To date, in contrary to the global effort to come up with various aspects of SARS-CoV-2, there are still great pitfalls in the knowledge of this disease and many angles remain unclear. That's why, the monitoring and periodical investigation of this emerging infection in an epidemiological study seems to be essential. The present study characterizes the current epidemiological status (i.e., possible transmission route, mortality and morbidity risk, emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, and clinical feature) of the SARS-CoV-2 in the world during these pandemic.

4.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 210: 106985, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458745

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a global issue now, can have a variety of clinical manifestations. Hundreds of articles have discussed different aspects of this infectious disease, such as physiopathology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations and treatment protocols. Recently, neurological manifestations of the disease have been found to be pretty common among COVID-19 patients. Here, neurological symptoms of COVID-19 infection with a focus on non-cerebrovascular complications are discussed in a large study population. METHODS: Neurological symptoms of 891hospitalized COVID-19 patients from March to June 2020 in a major Hospital, Tehran, Iran, were reviewed. Demographic characteristics and neurological manifestations were analyzed. RESULTS: Among 891 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, the following symptoms were observed: headache (63.9%), sleeping problems (51.3%), hyposmia/anosmia (46%), dizziness (45.4%), hypogeusia (42.1%), memory issues (31.5%), auditory disturbances (17.5%), paralysis (3.7%) and seizures (1.7%). In 29.7% of the patients, a neurological symptom was the initiating symptoms of the infection. Females were more likely to show headache and dizziness compared to males (p value<0.05). Headache intensity was also higher in females compared to males (p value<0.05). Headache prevalence was lower in older patients (p value<0.05), while memory loss and impaired consciousness were higher by increasing age (p values=0.002 and 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: Neurological manifestations were common among COVID-19 patients under study. Headache, as the most common neurological symptom among COVID-19 patients, was the most prevalent and intense among the female population. Headache, dizziness, sleeping problems, hyposmia/anosmia and hypogeusia were common COVID-19 neurological manifestations, while memory issues, auditory disturbances, paralysis, and seizures were less common.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/trends , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dizziness/diagnosis , Dizziness/epidemiology , Dizziness/therapy , Female , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/therapy , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Seizures/diagnosis , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/therapy , Young Adult
5.
J Neurovirol ; 27(5): 802-805, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245766

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading around the world. Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) typically present fever, cough, and respiratory illnesses. It has been revealed that the comorbidities can turn it into severe types, and the managements meet unpredicted complications. Here, we report a case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) coincidence with confirmed acute Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Ten days after admission and therapeutic process, the patient developed autonomic dysfunction. Despite respiratory support and receiving intravenous immunoglobulin, the patient died due to cardiac arrest. Albeit it is yet scientifically doubtful, there are raising concerns toward a possible association between GBS and SARS-CoV-2 infection, demonstrating potential neurological symptoms of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Aged , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Neurovirol ; 27(3): 504-506, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202860

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 encephalitis is a rare condition usually presenting with altered mental status. Simultaneous presence of anti-NMDAR antibody and SARS-CoV-2 virus in CSF is a very rare condition described in a few case reports so far. On the other hand, brain edema is an unusual presentation of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Herein, we reported a case with simultaneous detection of anti-NMDAR antibody and SARS-CoV-2 virus in her cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) presenting with brain edema, altered mental status, seizures, and respiratory symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/complications , COVID-19/complications , Adolescent , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 19(1): 23-33, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066152

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: With the development of various branches of sciences, we will be able to resolve different clinical aspects of various diseases better. The convergence of these sciences can potentially tackle the new corona crisis. AREAS COVERED: In this review, we attempted to explore and describe various scientific branches studying COVID-19. We have reviewed the literature focusing on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19. The primary databases targeted were Science Direct, Scopus and PubMed. The most relevant reports from the recent two decades were collected utilizing keywords including SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, COVID-19, epidemiology, therapeutics and diagnosis. EXPERT OPINION: Based on this literature review, both traditional and emerging approaches are vital for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. The traditional sciences play an essential role in the preventive and supportive care of corona infection, and modern technologies appear to be useful in the development of precise diagnosis and powerful treatment approaches for this disease. Indeed, the integration of these sciences will help us to fight COVID-19 disease more efficiently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Computational Biology , Humans , Life Style , Medicine, Traditional , Nutritional Support
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3066, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065960

ABSTRACT

Risk factors for clinical outcomes of COVID-19 pneumonia have not yet been well established in patients with underlying liver diseases. Our study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 infection among patients with underlying liver diseases and determine the risk factors for severe COVID-19 among them. In a retrospective analytical study, 1002 patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia were divided into two groups: patients with and without underlying liver diseases. The admission period was from 5 March to 14 May 2020. The prevalence of underlying conditions, Demographic data, clinical parameters, laboratory data, and participants' outcomes were evaluated. Logistic regression was used to estimate the predictive factors. Eighty-one (8%) of patients had underlying liver diseases. The frequencies of gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea and vomiting were significantly higher among patients with liver diseases (48% vs. 25% and 46.1% vs. 30% respectively, both P < 0.05). Moreover, ALT and AST were significantly higher among patients with liver diseases (54.5 ± 45.6 vs. 37.1 ± 28.4, P = 0.013 and 41.4 ± 27.2 vs. 29.2 ± 24.3, P = 0.028, respectively). Additionally, the mortality rate was significantly high in patients with liver disease (12.4% vs. 7%, P = 0.018). We also observed that the parameters such as neutrophil to leukocyte ratio [Odds Ratio Adjusted (ORAdj) 1.81, 95% CI 1.21-3.11, P = 0.011] and blood group A (ORAdj 1.59, 95% CI 1.15-2.11, P = 0.001) were associated with progression of symptoms of COVID-19. The presence of underlying liver diseases should be considered one of the poor prognostic factors for worse outcomes in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Clin Hypertens ; 27(1): 3, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1031937

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension, the most common comorbidity among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, is accompanied by worse clinical outcomes, but there is lack of evidence about prognostic factors among COVID-19 patients with hypertension. We have come up with some prognostic factors to predict the severity of COVID-19 among hypertensive patients. In addition, epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory differences among COVID-19 patients with and without underlying hypertension were evaluated. METHODS: Medical profiles of 598 COVID-19 cases were analyzed. Patients were divided into two comparative groups according to their positive or negative history of hypertension. Then, epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory and radiological features and also clinical outcomes were compared. RESULTS: 176 (29.4%) patients had underlying hypertension. Diabetes was significantly higher in hypertensive group [72 (40.9%) vs 76 (18%)] (P-value: 0.001). Cardiovascular and renal disorders were significantly higher in hypertensive patients. (P-value: 0.001 and 0.013 respectively). In COVID-19 patients with hypertension, severe/critical types were significantly higher. [42(23.8%) vs. 41(9.7%)], (P-value: 0.012). In the logistic regression model, Body mass index > 25 (ORAdj: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2 to 2.42; P-value: 0.027), age over 60 (ORAdj: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.42; P-value: 0.021), increased hospitalization period (ORAdj: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.24 to 2.97; P-value: 0.013), type 2 diabetes (ORAdj: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.15 to 3.31; P-value: 0.001) and chronic kidney disease (ORAdj: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.19 to 2.21; P-value: 0.013) were related with progression of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Hypertensive patients with Age > 60-year-old, BMI > 25 Kg/m2, CVD, diabetes and chronic kidney disease are associated with poor outcomes in those with COVID-19 infection.

10.
Mol Cell Probes ; 55: 101692, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988759

ABSTRACT

The newly emerged coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) continues to infect humans, and no effective treatment has yet been found. Antibody therapy is one way to control infection caused by COVID-19. However, the use of classical antibodies raises complex issues. Heavy chain antibodies (HCAbs) are single-domain antibodies derived from the Camelidae family. The variable part of these antibodies (Nanobodies or VHH) has interesting properties such as small size, cost-effective production, and good tissue permeability, causing VHH to be regarded as an antiviral therapeutics. However, the small size of nanobodies may lead to low antigen binding affinity and rapid renal clearance. In this systematic review, the application of nanobodies in the treatment of COVID-19 infection and other similar infections (MERS and SARS) was reviewed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Humans
11.
Mol Cell Probes ; 53: 101636, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-621879

ABSTRACT

The recently known coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has turn into the greatest global health challenge, affecting a large number of societies. The lack of specific treatment and gold-standard diagnostic system has made the situation more complicated. Efforts have led to production of several diagnostic kits that are associated with limitations such as inadequate sensitivity and accuracy. Aptamers as multipotent biological probes could be promising candidates to design sensitive and specific biosensors. Although few studies have introduced specific aptamer types of coronavirus, they may help us select the best approach to obtain specific aptamers for this virus. On the other hand, some of already-introduced aptamers have shown the inhibitory effects on coronavirus that could be applied as therapeutics. The present study has provided a systematic overview on use of aptamer-based biosensors and drugs to diagnose and treat coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Aptamers, Nucleotide/therapeutic use , Biosensing Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Aptamers, Nucleotide/metabolism , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy
12.
Le infezioni in medicina ; 28(suppl 1):17-Jun, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-599175

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the emergence of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been reported unexpectedly in Wuhan, China, with staggering infection speed across China and around the world. To date, seven known strains of HCoVs belonging to four genera (i.e., alpha?, beta?, gamma, and delta-CoV) have been recognized;the latest one has been identified as the SARS-CoV-2. Although the common transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 is the respiratory tract, it seems that other routes such as the gastrointestinal tract may be effective for the entry of the virus in the body. Although there are no biological markers to predict the susceptibility of humans to COVID-19, several risk factors have been identified to predict the susceptibility of patients to COVID-19. Initial data revealed that males, pregnant women, elderly, and underlying conditions predispose patients to higher morbidity or mortality and also might be at risk for a severe infection of COVID-19. There is a greater need to better understand the mechanisms and risk factors of transmission routes. To date, despite the whole world effort to review various aspects of SARS-CoV-2, including epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment options, there are still gaps in the knowledge of this disease and many issues remain unclear. Therefore, there is an urgent need for update data on SARS-CoV-2. Here, this study provide the current epidemiological status (transmission routes and risk of transmission, possible origins and source, mortality and morbidity risk, and geographical distribution) of the SARS-CoV-2 in the world in 2020.

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