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1.
EClinicalMedicine ; 48: 101438, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850962

ABSTRACT

Background: Disease progression of subjects with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) varies dramatically. Understanding the various types of immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is critical for better clinical management of coronavirus outbreaks and to potentially improve future therapies. Disease dynamics can be characterized by deciphering the adaptive immune response. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we analyzed 117 peripheral blood immune repertoires from healthy controls and subjects with mild to severe COVID-19 disease to elucidate the interplay between B and T cells. We used an immune repertoire Primer Extension Target Enrichment method (immunoPETE) to sequence simultaneously human leukocyte antigen (HLA) restricted T cell receptor beta chain (TRB) and unrestricted T cell receptor delta chain (TRD) and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) immune receptor repertoires. The distribution was analyzed of TRB, TRD and IgH clones between healthy and COVID-19 infected subjects. Using McFadden's Adjusted R2 variables were examined for a predictive model. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of the adaptive immune repertoire on the severity of the disease (value on the World Health Organization Clinical Progression Scale) in COVID-19. Findings: Combining clinical metadata with clonotypes of three immune receptor heavy chains (TRB, TRD, and IgH), we found significant associations between COVID-19 disease severity groups and immune receptor sequences of B and T cell compartments. Logistic regression showed an increase in shared IgH clonal types and decrease of TRD in subjects with severe COVID-19. The probability of finding shared clones of TRD clonal types was highest in healthy subjects (controls). Some specific TRB clones seems to be present in severe COVID-19 (Figure S7b). The most informative models (McFadden´s Adjusted R2=0.141) linked disease severity with immune repertoire measures across all three cell types, as well as receptor-specific cell counts, highlighting the importance of multiple lymphocyte classes in disease progression. Interpretation: Adaptive immune receptor peripheral blood repertoire measures are associated with COVID-19 disease severity. Funding: The study was funded with grants from the Berlin Institute of Health (BIH).

3.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC) ; 79(9):2070-2070, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1751301
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313936

ABSTRACT

A subset of patients has long-lasting symptoms after mild to moderate COVID-19. In a prospective observational cohort study we analysed clinical and laboratory parameters in 42 patients (29 female/13 male, median age 36.5 years) with persistent moderate to severe fatigue and exertion intolerance six months following COVID-19 referred to as Chronic COVID-19 Syndrome (CCS). Most patients were moderately to severely impaired in daily live. 19 patients fulfilled the 2003 Canadian Consensus Criteria for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome referred to as CFS/CCS. Hand grip strength (HGS) was diminished in most patients. Association of several biomarker with key symptoms of physical and mental fatigue and post exertional malaise indicate low level inflammation and hypoperfusion as potential pathomechanisms.

6.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076633

ABSTRACT

Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the heart muscle with a wide range of potential etiological factors and consequently varying clinical patterns across the world. In this review, we address the epidemiology of myocarditis. Myocarditis was considered a rare disease until intensified research efforts in recent decades revealed its true epidemiological importance. While it remains a challenge to determine the true prevalence of myocarditis, studies are underway to obtain better approximations of the proportions of this disease. Nowadays, the prevalence of myocarditis has been reported from 10.2 to 105.6 per 100,000 worldwide, and its annual occurrence is estimated at about 1.8 million cases. This wide range of reported cases reflects the uncertainty surrounding the true prevalence and a potential underdiagnosis of this disease. Since myocarditis continues to be a significant public health issue, particularly in young adults in whom myocarditis is among the most common causes of sudden cardiac death, improved diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are necessary. This manuscript aims to summarize the current knowledge on the epidemiology of myocarditis, new diagnostic approaches and the current epidemiological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
Nat Biotechnol ; 39(6): 705-716, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997913

ABSTRACT

In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), hypertension and cardiovascular diseases are major risk factors for critical disease progression. However, the underlying causes and the effects of the main anti-hypertensive therapies-angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)-remain unclear. Combining clinical data (n = 144) and single-cell sequencing data of airway samples (n = 48) with in vitro experiments, we observed a distinct inflammatory predisposition of immune cells in patients with hypertension that correlated with critical COVID-19 progression. ACEI treatment was associated with dampened COVID-19-related hyperinflammation and with increased cell intrinsic antiviral responses, whereas ARB treatment related to enhanced epithelial-immune cell interactions. Macrophages and neutrophils of patients with hypertension, in particular under ARB treatment, exhibited higher expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines CCL3 and CCL4 and the chemokine receptor CCR1. Although the limited size of our cohort does not allow us to establish clinical efficacy, our data suggest that the clinical benefits of ACEI treatment in patients with COVID-19 who have hypertension warrant further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemokine CCL3/genetics , Chemokine CCL4/genetics , Hypertension/drug therapy , Receptors, CCR1/genetics , Adult , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/genetics , Hypertension/pathology , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/virology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA-Seq , Respiratory System/drug effects , Respiratory System/pathology , Respiratory System/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Single-Cell Analysis
8.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 18(3): 169-193, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-851285

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory cardiomyopathy, characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration into the myocardium and a high risk of deteriorating cardiac function, has a heterogeneous aetiology. Inflammatory cardiomyopathy is predominantly mediated by viral infection, but can also be induced by bacterial, protozoal or fungal infections as well as a wide variety of toxic substances and drugs and systemic immune-mediated diseases. Despite extensive research, inflammatory cardiomyopathy complicated by left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure or arrhythmia is associated with a poor prognosis. At present, the reason why some patients recover without residual myocardial injury whereas others develop dilated cardiomyopathy is unclear. The relative roles of the pathogen, host genomics and environmental factors in disease progression and healing are still under discussion, including which viruses are active inducers and which are only bystanders. As a consequence, treatment strategies are not well established. In this Review, we summarize and evaluate the available evidence on the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of myocarditis and inflammatory cardiomyopathy, with a special focus on virus-induced and virus-associated myocarditis. Furthermore, we identify knowledge gaps, appraise the available experimental models and propose future directions for the field. The current knowledge and open questions regarding the cardiovascular effects associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are also discussed. This Review is the result of scientific cooperation of members of the Heart Failure Association of the ESC, the Heart Failure Society of America and the Japanese Heart Failure Society.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathies/physiopathology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Autoimmunity/immunology , Biopsy , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Cardiomyopathies/immunology , Cardiomyopathies/therapy , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coxsackievirus Infections/immunology , Coxsackievirus Infections/physiopathology , Coxsackievirus Infections/therapy , Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Echovirus Infections/immunology , Echovirus Infections/physiopathology , Echovirus Infections/therapy , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/immunology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/physiopathology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/therapy , Erythema Infectiosum/immunology , Erythema Infectiosum/physiopathology , Erythema Infectiosum/therapy , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Hepatitis C/immunology , Hepatitis C/physiopathology , Hepatitis C/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/therapy , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Influenza, Human/therapy , Leukocytes/immunology , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/therapy , Myocardium/pathology , Prognosis , Roseolovirus Infections/immunology , Roseolovirus Infections/physiopathology
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