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Nat Commun ; 14(1): 2329, 2023 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302201


Rhinoviruses and allergens, such as house dust mite are major agents responsible for asthma exacerbations. The influence of pre-existing airway inflammation on the infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is largely unknown. We analyse mechanisms of response to viral infection in experimental in vivo rhinovirus infection in healthy controls and patients with asthma, and in in vitro experiments with house dust mite, rhinovirus and SARS-CoV-2 in human primary airway epithelium. Here, we show that rhinovirus infection in patients with asthma leads to an excessive RIG-I inflammasome activation, which diminishes its accessibility for type I/III interferon responses, leading to their early functional impairment, delayed resolution, prolonged viral clearance and unresolved inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Pre-exposure to house dust mite augments this phenomenon by inflammasome priming and auxiliary inhibition of early type I/III interferon responses. Prior infection with rhinovirus followed by SARS-CoV-2 infection augments RIG-I inflammasome activation and epithelial inflammation. Timely inhibition of the epithelial RIG-I inflammasome may lead to more efficient viral clearance and lower the burden of rhinovirus and SARS-CoV-2 infections.

Antiviral Restriction Factors , Asthma , COVID-19 , DEAD Box Protein 58 , Inflammasomes , Rhinovirus , Humans , Antiviral Restriction Factors/genetics , Antiviral Restriction Factors/metabolism , Asthma/genetics , Asthma/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Enterovirus Infections/genetics , Enterovirus Infections/immunology , Inflammasomes/genetics , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Inflammation , Interferon Type I , Picornaviridae Infections/genetics , Picornaviridae Infections/immunology , Rhinovirus/metabolism , Rhinovirus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2125524, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414844


Importance: As of May 2021, more than 32 million cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed in the United States, resulting in more than 615 000 deaths. Anaphylactic reactions associated with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-authorized mRNA COVID-19 vaccines have been reported. Objective: To characterize the immunologic mechanisms underlying allergic reactions to these vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series included 22 patients with suspected allergic reactions to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines between December 18, 2020, and January 27, 2021, at a large regional health care network. Participants were individuals who received at least 1 of the following International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision anaphylaxis codes: T78.2XXA, T80.52XA, T78.2XXD, or E949.9, with documentation of COVID-19 vaccination. Suspected allergy cases were identified and invited for follow-up allergy testing. Exposures: FDA-authorized mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. Main Outcomes and Measures: Allergic reactions were graded using standard definitions, including Brighton criteria. Skin prick testing was conducted to polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polysorbate 80 (P80). Histamine (1 mg/mL) and filtered saline (negative control) were used for internal validation. Basophil activation testing after stimulation for 30 minutes at 37 °C was also conducted. Concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgE antibodies to PEG were obtained to determine possible mechanisms. Results: Of 22 patients (20 [91%] women; mean [SD] age, 40.9 [10.3] years; 15 [68%] with clinical allergy history), 17 (77%) met Brighton anaphylaxis criteria. All reactions fully resolved. Of patients who underwent skin prick tests, 0 of 11 tested positive to PEG, 0 of 11 tested positive to P80, and 1 of 10 (10%) tested positive to the same brand of mRNA vaccine used to vaccinate that individual. Among these same participants, 10 of 11 (91%) had positive basophil activation test results to PEG and 11 of 11 (100%) had positive basophil activation test results to their administered mRNA vaccine. No PEG IgE was detected; instead, PEG IgG was found in tested individuals who had an allergy to the vaccine. Conclusions and Relevance: Based on this case series, women and those with a history of allergic reactions appear at have an elevated risk of mRNA vaccine allergy. Immunological testing suggests non-IgE-mediated immune responses to PEG may be responsible in most individuals.

COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/diagnosis , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration/organization & administration , United States Food and Drug Administration/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/adverse effects