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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-333110

ABSTRACT

Introduction As mortality rates from COVID-19 disease fall, the high prevalence of long-term sequelae (Long COVID) is becoming increasingly widespread, challenging healthcare systems globally. Traditional pathways of care for Long Term Conditions (LTCs) have tended to be managed by disease-specific specialties, an approach that has been ineffective in delivering care for patients with multi-morbidity. The multi-system nature of Long COVID and its impact on physical and psychological health demands a more effective model of holistic, integrated care. The evolution of integrated care systems (ICSs) in the UK presents an important opportunity to explore areas of mutual benefit to LTC, multi-morbidity and Long COVID care. There may be benefits in comparing and contrasting ICPs for Long COVID with ICPs for other LTCs. Methods and analysis This study aims to evaluate health services requirements for ICPs for Long COVID and their applicability to other LTCs including multi-morbidity and the overlap with medically not yet explained symptoms (MNYES). The study will follow a Delphi design and involve an expert panel of stakeholders including people with lived experience, as well as clinicians with expertise in Long COVID and other LTCs. Study processes will include expert panel and moderator panel meetings, surveys, and interviews. The Delphi process is part of the overall STIMULATE-ICP programme, aimed at improving integrated care for people with Long COVID. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval for this Delphi study has been obtained (Research Governance Board of the University of York) as have approvals for the other STIMULATE-ICP studies. Study outcomes are likely to inform policy for ICPs across LTCs. Results will be disseminated through scientific publication, conference presentation and communications with patients and stakeholders involved in care of other LTCs and Long COVID. Registration Researchregistry: https://www.researchregistry.com/browse-the-registry#home/registrationdetails/6246bfeeeaaed6001f08dadc/ . Strengths and limitations of this study Gap There is no general model for providing ICPs to many LTCs, especially in case of multi-morbidity or MNYES. Solution We will develop policy recommendations for such ICPs based upon a Delphi process exploring the value and interchangeability of elements of ICPs for Long COVID. This will help patients and clinicians navigate access to, or provide ICPs for, LTCs. Strengths A key tenet is that people with lived experience of Long COVID or an LTC will be involved from inception in the design and conduct of the study. Weaknesses Possible under-representation of digitally hard to reach groups, although efforts will be made to ensure that data collection is widely inclusive, following the NIHR INCLUDE framework.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332560

ABSTRACT

Background: Long Covid is associated with multiple symptoms and impairment in multiple organs. Cardiac impairment has been reported to varying degrees by varying methodologies in cross-sectional studies. Using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), we investigated the 12-month trajectory of cardiac impairment in individuals with Long Covid. Methods 534 individuals with Long Covid underwent baseline CMR (T1 and T2 mapping, cardiac mass, volumes, function, and strain) and multi-organ MRI at 6 months (IQR 4.3,7.3) since first post-COVID-19 symptoms and 330 were rescanned at 12.6 (IQR 11.4, 14.2) months if abnormal findings were reported at baseline. Symptoms, standardised questionnaires, and blood samples were collected at both timepoints. Cardiac impairment was defined as one or more of: low left or right ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and RVEF), high left or right ventricular end diastolic volume (LVEDV and RVEDV), low 3D left ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS), or elevated native T1 in ≥3 cardiac segments. A significant change over time was reported by comparison with 92 healthy controls. Results The technical success of this multiorgan assessment in non-acute settings was 99.1% at baseline, and 98.3% at follow up, with 99.6% and 98.8% for CMR respectively. Of individuals with Long Covid, 102/534 [19%] had cardiac impairment at baseline;71/102 had complete paired data at 12 months. Of those, 58% presented with ongoing cardiac impairment at 12 months. High sensitivity cardiac troponin I and B-type natriuretic peptide were not predictive of CMR findings, symptoms, or clinical outcomes. At baseline, low LVEF, high RVEDV and low GLS were associated with cardiac impairment. Low LVEF at baseline was associated with persistent cardiac impairment at 12 months. Conclusion Cardiac impairment, other than myocarditis, is present in 1 in 5 individuals with Long Covid at 6 months, persisting in over half of those at 12 months. Cardiac-related blood biomarkers are unable to identify cardiac impairment in Long COVID. Subtypes of disease (based on symptoms, examination, and investigations) and predictive biomarkers are yet to be established. Interventional trials with pre-specified subgroup analyses are required to inform therapeutic options.

3.
J Nucl Med ; 63(2): 270-273, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753320

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the temporal evolution of pulmonary 18F-FDG uptake in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and post-COVID-19 lung disease (PCLD). Methods: Using our hospital's clinical electronic records, we retrospectively identified 23 acute COVID-19, 18 PCLD, and 9 completely recovered 18F-FDG PET/CT patients during the 2 peaks of the U.K. pandemic. Pulmonary 18F-FDG uptake was measured as a lung target-to-background ratio (TBRlung = SUVmax/SUVmin) and compared with temporal stage. Results: In acute COVID-19, less than 3 wk after infection, TBRlung was strongly correlated with time after infection (r s = 0.81, P < 0.001) and was significantly higher in the late stage than in the early stage (P = 0.001). In PCLD, TBRlung was lower in patients treated with high-dose steroids (P = 0.003) and in asymptomatic patients (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Pulmonary 18F-FDG uptake in COVID-19 increases with time after infection. In PCLD, pulmonary 18F-FDG uptake rises despite viral clearance, suggesting ongoing inflammation. There was lower pulmonary 18F-FDG uptake in PCLD patients treated with steroids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/pharmacokinetics , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Radiopharmaceuticals/pharmacokinetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e057408, 2022 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673446

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Long COVID-19 is a distressing, disabling and heterogeneous syndrome often causing severe functional impairment. Predominant symptoms include fatigue, cognitive impairment ('brain fog'), breathlessness and anxiety or depression. These symptoms are amenable to rehabilitation delivered by skilled healthcare professionals, but COVID-19 has put severe strain on healthcare systems. This study aims to explore whether digitally enabled, remotely supported rehabilitation for people with long COVID-19 can enable healthcare systems to provide high quality care to large numbers of patients within the available resources. Specific objectives are to (1) develop and refine a digital health intervention (DHI) that supports patient assessment, monitoring and remote rehabilitation; (2) develop implementation models that support sustainable deployment at scale; (3) evaluate the impact of the DHI on recovery trajectories and (4) identify and mitigate health inequalities due to the digital divide. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Mixed-methods, theoretically informed, single-arm prospective study, combining methods drawn from engineering/computer science with those from biomedicine. There are four work packages (WP), one for each objective. WP1 focuses on identifying user requirements and iteratively developing the intervention to meet them; WP2 combines qualitative data from users with learning from implementation science and normalisation process theory, to promote adoption, scale-up, spread and sustainability of the intervention; WP3 uses quantitative demographic, clinical and resource use data collected by the DHI to determine illness trajectories and how these are affected by use of the DHI; while WP4 focuses on identifying and mitigating health inequalities and overarches the other three WPs. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval obtained from East Midlands - Derby Research Ethics Committee (reference 288199). Our dissemination strategy targets three audiences: (1) Policy makers, Health service managers and clinicians responsible for delivering long COVID-19 services; (2) patients and the public; (3) academics. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Research Registry number: researchregistry6173.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Nucl Med ; 63(2): 270-273, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674256

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the temporal evolution of pulmonary 18F-FDG uptake in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and post-COVID-19 lung disease (PCLD). Methods: Using our hospital's clinical electronic records, we retrospectively identified 23 acute COVID-19, 18 PCLD, and 9 completely recovered 18F-FDG PET/CT patients during the 2 peaks of the U.K. pandemic. Pulmonary 18F-FDG uptake was measured as a lung target-to-background ratio (TBRlung = SUVmax/SUVmin) and compared with temporal stage. Results: In acute COVID-19, less than 3 wk after infection, TBRlung was strongly correlated with time after infection (r s = 0.81, P < 0.001) and was significantly higher in the late stage than in the early stage (P = 0.001). In PCLD, TBRlung was lower in patients treated with high-dose steroids (P = 0.003) and in asymptomatic patients (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Pulmonary 18F-FDG uptake in COVID-19 increases with time after infection. In PCLD, pulmonary 18F-FDG uptake rises despite viral clearance, suggesting ongoing inflammation. There was lower pulmonary 18F-FDG uptake in PCLD patients treated with steroids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/pharmacokinetics , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Radiopharmaceuticals/pharmacokinetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
6.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515307

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Post-COVID-19 complications require simultaneous characterisation and management to plan policy and health system responses. We describe the 12-month experience of the first UK dedicated post-COVID-19 clinical service to include hospitalised and non-hospitalised patients. METHODS: In a single-centre, observational analysis, we report the demographics, symptoms, comorbidities, investigations, treatments, functional recovery, specialist referral and rehabilitation of 1325 individuals assessed at the University College London Hospitals post-COVID-19 service between April 2020 and April 2021, comparing by referral route: posthospitalised (PH), non-hospitalised (NH) and post emergency department (PED). Symptoms associated with poor recovery or inability to return to work full time were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: 1325 individuals were assessed (PH: 547, 41.3%; PED: 212, 16%; NH: 566, 42.7%). Compared with the PH and PED groups, the NH group were younger (median 44.6 (35.6-52.8) years vs 58.3 (47.0-67.7) years and 48.5 (39.4-55.7) years), more likely to be female (68.2%, 43.0% and 59.9%), less likely to be of ethnic minority (30.9%, 52.7% and 41.0%) or seen later after symptom onset (median (IQR): 194 (118-298) days, 69 (51-111) days and 76 (55-128) days; all p<0.0001). All groups had similar rates of onward specialist referral (NH 18.7%, PH 16.1% and PED 18.9%, p=0.452) and were more likely to require support for breathlessness (23.7%, 5.5% and 15.1%, p<0.001) and fatigue (17.8%, 4.8% and 8.0%, p<0.001). Hospitalised patients had higher rates of pulmonary emboli, persistent lung interstitial abnormalities and other organ impairment. 716 (54.0%) individuals reported <75% optimal health (median 70%, IQR 55%-85%). Less than half of employed individuals could return to work full time at first assessment. CONCLUSION: Post-COVID-19 symptoms were significant in PH and NH patients, with significant ongoing healthcare needs and utilisation. Trials of interventions and patient-centred pathways for diagnostic and treatment approaches are urgently required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Male , Minority Groups , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438096

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to over 100 million cases worldwide. The UK has had over 4 million cases, 400 000 hospital admissions and 100 000 deaths. Many patients with COVID-19 suffer long-term symptoms, predominantly breathlessness and fatigue whether hospitalised or not. Early data suggest potentially severe long-term consequence of COVID-19 is development of long COVID-19-related interstitial lung disease (LC-ILD). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The UK Interstitial Lung Disease Consortium (UKILD) will undertake longitudinal observational studies of patients with suspected ILD following COVID-19. The primary objective is to determine ILD prevalence at 12 months following infection and whether clinically severe infection correlates with severity of ILD. Secondary objectives will determine the clinical, genetic, epigenetic and biochemical factors that determine the trajectory of recovery or progression of ILD. Data will be obtained through linkage to the Post-Hospitalisation COVID platform study and community studies. Additional substudies will conduct deep phenotyping. The Xenon MRI investigation of Alveolar dysfunction Substudy will conduct longitudinal xenon alveolar gas transfer and proton perfusion MRI. The POST COVID-19 interstitial lung DiseasE substudy will conduct clinically indicated bronchoalveolar lavage with matched whole blood sampling. Assessments include exploratory single cell RNA and lung microbiomics analysis, gene expression and epigenetic assessment. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: All contributing studies have been granted appropriate ethical approvals. Results from this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals. CONCLUSION: This study will ensure the extent and consequences of LC-ILD are established and enable strategies to mitigate progression of LC-ILD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology
8.
Encyclopedia of Respiratory Medicine (Second Edition) ; : 231-242, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1415138

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is an emerging viral respiratory pathogen. The disease was first described in China in 2019, likely emerging as a zoonosis, before spreading worldwide to cause a severe global pandemic in 2020. COVID-19 is transmitted person to person, predominantly by droplet spread. COVID-19 causes a wide spectrum of clinical illness ranging from asymptomatic infection, to a mild self-limiting illness. A small proportion of individuals will go on to develop a more severe respiratory illness which may be complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome. The majority of individuals will make a full recovery but a minority of patients will have a more severe outcome. Age is the strongest predictor of outcomes with mortality increasing to 15% or higher among those aged 80years or older. Treatment options for COVID-19 continue to evolve. The strongest current evidence is the use of systemic corticosteroids which reduce mortality in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. Given the epidemic nature of COVID-19 early surge planning and expansion of both staff and bed base capacity are critical. At the time of writing a number of promising COVID-19 vaccines have been developed but the long term impact of these vaccines on the pandemic is uncertain.

10.
Lancet ; 397(10286): 1706, 2021 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219969
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e048391, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159364

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess medium-term organ impairment in symptomatic individuals following recovery from acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. DESIGN: Baseline findings from a prospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: Community-based individuals from two UK centres between 1 April and 14 September 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals ≥18 years with persistent symptoms following recovery from acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and age-matched healthy controls. INTERVENTION: Assessment of symptoms by standardised questionnaires (EQ-5D-5L, Dyspnoea-12) and organ-specific metrics by biochemical assessment and quantitative MRI. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Severe post-COVID-19 syndrome defined as ongoing respiratory symptoms and/or moderate functional impairment in activities of daily living; single-organ and multiorgan impairment (heart, lungs, kidneys, liver, pancreas, spleen) by consensus definitions at baseline investigation. RESULTS: 201 individuals (mean age 45, range 21-71 years, 71% female, 88% white, 32% healthcare workers) completed the baseline assessment (median of 141 days following SARS-CoV-2 infection, IQR 110-162). The study population was at low risk of COVID-19 mortality (obesity 20%, hypertension 7%, type 2 diabetes 2%, heart disease 5%), with only 19% hospitalised with COVID-19. 42% of individuals had 10 or more symptoms and 60% had severe post-COVID-19 syndrome. Fatigue (98%), muscle aches (87%), breathlessness (88%) and headaches (83%) were most frequently reported. Mild organ impairment was present in the heart (26%), lungs (11%), kidneys (4%), liver (28%), pancreas (40%) and spleen (4%), with single-organ and multiorgan impairment in 70% and 29%, respectively. Hospitalisation was associated with older age (p=0.001), non-white ethnicity (p=0.016), increased liver volume (p<0.0001), pancreatic inflammation (p<0.01), and fat accumulation in the liver (p<0.05) and pancreas (p<0.01). Severe post-COVID-19 syndrome was associated with radiological evidence of cardiac damage (myocarditis) (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In individuals at low risk of COVID-19 mortality with ongoing symptoms, 70% have impairment in one or more organs 4 months after initial COVID-19 symptoms, with implications for healthcare and public health, which have assumed low risk in young people with no comorbidities. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04369807; Pre-results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Activities of Daily Living , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Community-Based Participatory Research , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Eur Heart J ; 42(19): 1866-1878, 2021 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087735

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Troponin elevation is common in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, but underlying aetiologies are ill-defined. We used multi-parametric cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to assess myocardial injury in recovered COVID-19 patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred and forty-eight patients (64 ± 12 years, 70% male) with severe COVID-19 infection [all requiring hospital admission, 48 (32%) requiring ventilatory support] and troponin elevation discharged from six hospitals underwent convalescent CMR (including adenosine stress perfusion if indicated) at median 68 days. Left ventricular (LV) function was normal in 89% (ejection fraction 67% ± 11%). Late gadolinium enhancement and/or ischaemia was found in 54% (80/148). This comprised myocarditis-like scar in 26% (39/148), infarction and/or ischaemia in 22% (32/148) and dual pathology in 6% (9/148). Myocarditis-like injury was limited to three or less myocardial segments in 88% (35/40) of cases with no associated LV dysfunction; of these, 30% had active myocarditis. Myocardial infarction was found in 19% (28/148) and inducible ischaemia in 26% (20/76) of those undergoing stress perfusion (including 7 with both infarction and ischaemia). Of patients with ischaemic injury pattern, 66% (27/41) had no past history of coronary disease. There was no evidence of diffuse fibrosis or oedema in the remote myocardium (T1: COVID-19 patients 1033 ± 41 ms vs. matched controls 1028 ± 35 ms; T2: COVID-19 46 ± 3 ms vs. matched controls 47 ± 3 ms). CONCLUSIONS: During convalescence after severe COVID-19 infection with troponin elevation, myocarditis-like injury can be encountered, with limited extent and minimal functional consequence. In a proportion of patients, there is evidence of possible ongoing localized inflammation. A quarter of patients had ischaemic heart disease, of which two-thirds had no previous history. Whether these observed findings represent pre-existing clinically silent disease or de novo COVID-19-related changes remain undetermined. Diffuse oedema or fibrosis was not detected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Contrast Media , Female , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin , Ventricular Function, Left
14.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(2): e126-e131, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016405

ABSTRACT

Pressure on acute medical services in the pandemic mandated an assertive emergency department (ED) discharge policy. Given the potential for subsequent deterioration and growing appreciation of complications relating to COVID-19 infection, this follow up study was instigated to provide clinical reassurance that discharged patients had followed a safe clinical course. 199 patients discharged from the ED of our central London hospital were identified over a 20-day period at the height of the pandemic in April 2020. 44 had already reattended ED and 12 had been admitted. At 2-week telephone follow-up, 14 patients were identified who required urgent recall for assessment. At 4-week telephone follow-up, 87 patients were identified with persistent symptoms requiring face to face review. A COVID-19 follow-up clinic was therefore established to provide multi-professional review and diagnostics. 65 patients attended for this assessment. This is the first report on outcomes in COVID-19 infected patients discharged from an ED. It highlights the importance of safety-netting after discharge, the difficulty in predicting which patients might deteriorate and the need for appropriate follow up services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Patient Discharge , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , London , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(1): e57-e62, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000590

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated rapid adaptation of healthcare providers to new clinical and logistical challenges. Following identification of high levels of emergency department (ED) reattendance among patients with suspected COVID-19 at our centre, we piloted a rapid remote follow-up service for this patient group. We present our service framework and evaluation of our pilot cohort of 192 patients. We followed up patients by telephone within 36 hours of their ED attendance. Pulse oximetry was used for remote monitoring of a subset of patients. Patients required between one and six consecutive telephone assessments, dependent on illness severity, and 23 patients were recalled for in-person assessment. Approximately half of patients with confirmed or probable COVID-19 required onward referral for respiratory follow-up. This framework reduced unplanned ED reattendances in comparison with a retrospective comparator cohort (4.7% from 22.6%). We reproduced these findings in a validation cohort with a high prevalence of acute COVID-19, managed through the clinic in September-October 2020, where we identified an unplanned ED reattendance rate of 5.2%. We propose that rapid remote follow-up is a mechanism by which ambulatory patients can be clinically supported during the acute phase of illness, with benefits both to patient care and to health service resilience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Patient Discharge/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage/methods , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology
16.
Thorax ; 76(4): 396-398, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919095

ABSTRACT

Large numbers of people are being discharged from hospital following COVID-19 without assessment of recovery. In 384 patients (mean age 59.9 years; 62% male) followed a median 54 days post discharge, 53% reported persistent breathlessness, 34% cough and 69% fatigue. 14.6% had depression. In those discharged with elevated biomarkers, 30.1% and 9.5% had persistently elevated d-dimer and C reactive protein, respectively. 38% of chest radiographs remained abnormal with 9% deteriorating. Systematic follow-up after hospitalisation with COVID-19 identifies the trajectory of physical and psychological symptom burden, recovery of blood biomarkers and imaging which could be used to inform the need for rehabilitation and/or further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
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