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Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917858


PURPOSE: We describe a diagnostic procedure suitable for scheduling (re-)vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) according to individual state of humoral immunization. METHODS: To clarify the relation between quantitative antibody measurements and humoral ex vivo immune responsiveness, we monitored 124 individuals before, during and six months after vaccination with Spikevax (Moderna, Cambridge, MA, USA). Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike (S1) protein receptor-binding domain (S1-AB) and against nucleocapsid antigens were measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay (Roche). Virus-neutralizing activities were determined by surrogate assays (NeutraLISA, Euroimmune; cPass, GenScript). Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture (full virus NT) served as an ex vivo correlate for humoral immune responsiveness. RESULTS: Vaccination responses varied considerably. Six months after the second vaccination, participants still positive for the full virus NT were safely determined by S1-AB levels ≥1000 U/mL. The full virus NT-positive fraction of participants with S1-AB levels <1000 U/mL was identified by virus-neutralizing activities >70% as determined by surrogate assays (NeutraLISA or cPas). Participants that were full virus NT-negative and presumably insufficiently protected could thus be identified by a sensitivity of >83% and a specificity of >95%. CONCLUSION: The described diagnostic strategy possibly supports individualized (re-)vaccination schedules based on simple and rapid measurement of serum-based SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels. Our data apply only to WUHAN-type SARS-CoV-2 virus and the current version of the mRNA vaccine from Moderna (Cambridge, MA, USA). Adaptation to other vaccines and more recent SARS-CoV-2 strains will require modification of cut-offs and re-evaluation of sensitivity/specificity.

Trends Analyt Chem ; 145: 116460, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475093


Viruses are responsible for multiple infections in humans that impose huge health burdens on individuals and populations worldwide. Therefore, numerous diagnostic methods and strategies have been developed for prevention, management, and decreasing the burden of viral diseases, each having its advantages and limitations. Viral infections are commonly detected using serological and nucleic acid-based methods. However, these conventional and clinical approaches have some limitations that can be resolved by implementing other detector devices. Therefore, the search for sensitive, selective, portable, and costless approaches as efficient alternative clinical methods for point of care testing (POCT) analysis has gained much attention in recent years. POCT is one of the ultimate goals in virus detection, and thus, the tests need to be rapid, specific, sensitive, accessible, and user-friendly. In this review, after a brief overview of viruses and their characteristics, the conventional viral detection methods, the clinical approaches, and their advantages and shortcomings are firstly explained. Then, LFA systems working principles, benefits, classification are discussed. Furthermore, the studies regarding designing and employing LFAs in diagnosing different types of viruses, especially SARS-CoV-2 as a main concern worldwide and innovations in the LFAs' approaches and designs, are comprehensively discussed here. Furthermore, several strategies addressed in some studies for overcoming LFA limitations like low sensitivity are reviewed. Numerous techniques are adopted to increase sensitivity and perform quantitative detection. Employing several visualization methods, using different labeling reporters, integrating LFAs with other detection methods to benefit from both LFA and the integrated detection device advantages, and designing unique membranes to increase reagent reactivity, are some of the approaches that are highlighted.