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Wulf Hanson, Sarah, Abbafati, Cristiana, Aerts, Joachim, Al-Aly, Ziyad, Ashbaugh, Charlie, Ballouz, Tala, Blyuss, Oleg, Bobkova, Polina, Bonsel, Gouke, Borzakova, Svetlana, Buonsenso, Danilo, Butnaru, Denis, Carter, Austin, Chu, Helen, De Rose, Cristina, Diab, Mohamed Mustafa, Ekbom, Emil, El Tantawi, Maha, Fomin, Victor, Frithiof, Robert, Gamirova, Aysylu, Glybochko, Petr, Haagsma, Juanita, Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy, Hamilton, Erin, Harris, Gabrielle, Heijenbrok-Kal, Majanka, Helbok, Raimund, Hellemons, Merel, Hillus, David, Huijts, Susanne, Hultström, Michael, Jassat, Waasila, Kurth, Florian, Larsson, Ing-Marie, Lipcsey, Miklós, Liu, Chelsea, Loflin, Callan, Malinovschi, Andrei, Mao, Wenhui, Mazankova, Lyudmila, McCulloch, Denise, Menges, Dominik, Mohammadifard, Noushin, Munblit, Daniel, Nekliudov, Nikita, Ogbuoji, Osondu, Osmanov, Ismail, Peñalvo, José, Petersen, Maria Skaalum, Puhan, Milo, Rahman, Mujibur, Rass, Verena, Reinig, Nickolas, Ribbers, Gerard, Ricchiuto, Antonia, Rubertsson, Sten, Samitova, Elmira, Sarrafzadegan, Nizal, Shikhaleva, Anastasia, Simpson, Kyle, Sinatti, Dario, Soriano, Joan, Spiridonova, Ekaterina, Steinbeis, Fridolin, Svistunov, Andrey, Valentini, Piero, van de Water, Brittney, van den Berg-Emons, Rita, Wallin, Ewa, Witzenrath, Martin, Wu, Yifan, Xu, Hanzhang, Zoller, Thomas, Adolph, Christopher, Albright, James, Amlag, Joanne, Aravkin, Aleksandr, Bang-Jensen, Bree, Bisignano, Catherine, Castellano, Rachel, Castro, Emma, Chakrabarti, Suman, Collins, James, Dai, Xiaochen, Daoud, Farah, Dapper, Carolyn, Deen, Amanda, Duncan, Bruce, Erickson, Megan, Ewald, Samuel, Ferrari, Alize, Flaxman, Abraham, Fullman, Nancy, Gamkrelidze, Amiran, Giles, John, Guo, Gaorui, Hay, Simon, He, Jiawei, Helak, Monika, Hulland, Erin, Kereselidze, Maia, Krohn, Kris, Lazzar-Atwood, Alice, Lindstrom, Akiaja, Lozano, Rafael, Magistro, Beatrice, Malta, Deborah Carvalho, Månsson, Johan, Mantilla Herrera, Ana, Mokdad, Ali, Monasta, Lorenzo, Nomura, Shuhei, Pasovic, Maja, Pigott, David, Reiner, Robert, Reinke, Grace, Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz, Santomauro, Damian Francesco, Sholokhov, Aleksei, Spurlock, Emma Elizabeth, Walcott, Rebecca, Walker, Ally, Wiysonge, Charles Shey, Zheng, Peng, Bettger, Janet Prvu, Murray, Christopher J. L.; Vos, Theo.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337680

ABSTRACT

Importance While much of the attention on the COVID-19 pandemic was directed at the daily counts of cases and those with serious disease overwhelming health services, increasingly, reports have appeared of people who experience debilitating symptoms after the initial infection. This is popularly known as long COVID. Objective To estimate by country and territory of the number of patients affected by long COVID in 2020 and 2021, the severity of their symptoms and expected pattern of recovery Design We jointly analyzed ten ongoing cohort studies in ten countries for the occurrence of three major symptom clusters of long COVID among representative COVID cases. The defining symptoms of the three clusters (fatigue, cognitive problems, and shortness of breath) are explicitly mentioned in the WHO clinical case definition. For incidence of long COVID, we adopted the minimum duration after infection of three months from the WHO case definition. We pooled data from the contributing studies, two large medical record databases in the United States, and findings from 44 published studies using a Bayesian meta-regression tool. We separately estimated occurrence and pattern of recovery in patients with milder acute infections and those hospitalized. We estimated the incidence and prevalence of long COVID globally and by country in 2020 and 2021 as well as the severity-weighted prevalence using disability weights from the Global Burden of Disease study. Results Analyses are based on detailed information for 1906 community infections and 10526 hospitalized patients from the ten collaborating cohorts, three of which included children. We added published data on 37262 community infections and 9540 hospitalized patients as well as ICD-coded medical record data concerning 1.3 million infections. Globally, in 2020 and 2021, 144.7 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 54.8–312.9) people suffered from any of the three symptom clusters of long COVID. This corresponds to 3.69% (1.38–7.96) of all infections. The fatigue, respiratory, and cognitive clusters occurred in 51.0% (16.9–92.4), 60.4% (18.9–89.1), and 35.4% (9.4–75.1) of long COVID cases, respectively. Those with milder acute COVID-19 cases had a quicker estimated recovery (median duration 3.99 months [IQR 3.84–4.20]) than those admitted for the acute infection (median duration 8.84 months [IQR 8.10–9.78]). At twelve months, 15.1% (10.3–21.1) continued to experience long COVID symptoms. Conclusions and relevance The occurrence of debilitating ongoing symptoms of COVID-19 is common. Knowing how many people are affected, and for how long, is important to plan for rehabilitative services and support to return to social activities, places of learning, and the workplace when symptoms start to wane. Key Points Question What are the extent and nature of the most common long COVID symptoms by country in 2020 and 2021? Findings Globally, 144.7 million people experienced one or more of three symptom clusters (fatigue;cognitive problems;and ongoing respiratory problems) of long COVID three months after infection, in 2020 and 2021. Most cases arose from milder infections. At 12 months after infection, 15.1% of these cases had not yet recovered. Meaning The substantial number of people with long COVID are in need of rehabilitative care and support to transition back into the workplace or education when symptoms start to wane.

3.
Eur J Neurol ; 2022 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Health risks associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection are undisputed. Moreover, the capability of vaccination to prevent symptomatic, severe, and fatal COVID-19 is recognized. There is also early evidence that vaccination can reduce the chance for long COVID-19. Nonetheless, the willingness to get vaccinated and receive booster shots remains subpar among people with neurologic disorders. Vaccine scepticism not only jeopardizes collective efforts to end the COVID-19 pandemic but puts individual lives at risk, as some chronic neurologic diseases are associated with a higher risk for an unfavorable COVID-19 course. METHODS: In this position paper, the NeuroCOVID-19 Task Force of the European Academy of Neurology (EAN) summarizes the current knowledge on the prognosis of COVID-19 among patients with neurologic disease, elucidates potential barriers to vaccination coverage, and formulates strategies to overcome vaccination hesitancy. A survey among the Task Force members on the phenomenon of vaccination hesitancy among people with neurologic disease supports the lines of argumentation. RESULTS: The study revealed that people with multiple sclerosis and other nervous system autoimmune disorders are most skeptical of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. The prevailing concerns included the chance of worsening the pre-existing neurological condition, vaccination-related adverse events, and drug interaction. CONCLUSIONS: The EAN NeuroCOVID-19 Task Force reinforces the key role of neurologists as advocates of COVID-19 vaccination. Neurologists need to argue in the interest of their patients about the overwhelming individual and global benefits of COVID-19 vaccination. Moreover, they need to keep on eye on this vulnerable patient group, its concerns, and the emergence of potential safety signals.

4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 792881, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775691

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) convalescents are at risk of developing a de novo mental health disorder or worsening of a pre-existing one. COVID-19 outpatients have been less well characterized than their hospitalized counterparts. The objectives of our study were to identify indicators for poor mental health following COVID-19 outpatient management and to identify high-risk individuals. Methods: We conducted a binational online survey study with adult non-hospitalized COVID-19 convalescents (Austria/AT: n = 1,157, Italy/IT: n = 893). Primary endpoints were positive screening for depression and anxiety (Patient Health Questionnaire; PHQ-4) and self-perceived overall mental health (OMH) and quality of life (QoL) rated with 4 point Likert scales. Psychosocial stress was surveyed with a modified PHQ stress module. Associations of the mental health and QoL with socio-demographic, COVID-19 course, and recovery variables were assessed by multi-parameter Random Forest and Poisson modeling. Mental health risk subsets were defined by self-organizing maps (SOMs) and hierarchical clustering algorithms. The survey analyses are publicly available (https://im2-ibk.shinyapps.io/mental_health_dashboard/). Results: Depression and/or anxiety before infection was reported by 4.6% (IT)/6% (AT) of participants. At a median of 79 days (AT)/96 days (IT) post-COVID-19 onset, 12.4% (AT)/19.3% (IT) of subjects were screened positive for anxiety and 17.3% (AT)/23.2% (IT) for depression. Over one-fifth of the respondents rated their OMH (AT: 21.8%, IT: 24.1%) or QoL (AT: 20.3%, IT: 25.9%) as fair or poor. Psychosocial stress, physical performance loss, high numbers of acute and sub-acute COVID-19 complaints, and the presence of acute and sub-acute neurocognitive symptoms (impaired concentration, confusion, and forgetfulness) were the strongest correlates of deteriorating mental health and poor QoL. In clustering analysis, these variables defined subsets with a particularly high propensity of post-COVID-19 mental health impairment and decreased QoL. Pre-existing depression or anxiety (DA) was associated with an increased symptom burden during acute COVID-19 and recovery. Conclusion: Our study revealed a bidirectional relationship between COVID-19 symptoms and mental health. We put forward specific acute symptoms of the disease as "red flags" of mental health deterioration, which should prompt general practitioners to identify non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients who may benefit from early psychological and psychiatric intervention. Clinical Trial Registration: [ClinicalTrials.gov], identifier [NCT04661462].

5.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(6): 1685-1696, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neurological sequelae from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may persist after recovery from acute infection. Here, the aim was to describe the natural history of neurological manifestations over 1 year after COVID-19. METHODS: A prospective, multicentre, longitudinal cohort study in COVID-19 survivors was performed. At a 3-month and 1-year follow-up, patients were assessed for neurological impairments by a neurological examination and a standardized test battery including the assessment of hyposmia (16-item Sniffin' Sticks test), cognitive deficits (Montreal Cognitive Assessment < 26) and mental health (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist 5). RESULTS: Eighty-one patients were evaluated 1 year after COVID-19, out of which 76 (94%) patients completed a 3-month and 1-year follow-up. Patients were 54 (47-64) years old and 59% were male. New and persistent neurological disorders were found in 15% (3 months) and 12% (10/81; 1 year). Symptoms at 1-year follow-up were reported by 48/81 (59%) patients, including fatigue (38%), concentration difficulties (25%), forgetfulness (25%), sleep disturbances (22%), myalgia (17%), limb weakness (17%), headache (16%), impaired sensation (16%) and hyposmia (15%). Neurological examination revealed findings in 52/81 (64%) patients without improvement over time (3 months, 61%, p = 0.230) including objective hyposmia (Sniffin' Sticks test <13; 51%). Cognitive deficits were apparent in 18%, whereas signs of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorders were found in 6%, 29% and 10% respectively 1 year after infection. These mental and cognitive disorders had not improved after the 3-month follow-up (all p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that a significant patient number still suffer from neurological sequelae including neuropsychiatric symptoms 1 year after COVID-19 calling for interdisciplinary management of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 133(23-24): 1237-1247, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756805

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Widely varying mortality rates of critically ill Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) patients in the world highlighted the need for local surveillance of baseline characteristics, treatment strategies and outcome. We compared two periods of the COVID-19 pandemic to identify important differences in characteristics and therapeutic measures and their influence on the outcome of critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This multicenter prospective register study included all patients with a SARS-CoV­2 infection confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, who were treated in 1 of the 12 intensive care units (ICU) from 8 hospitals in Tyrol, Austria during 2 defined periods (1 February 2020 until 17 July: first wave and 18 July 2020 until 22 February 2021: second wave) of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Overall, 508 patients were analyzed. The majority (n = 401) presented during the second wave, where the median age was significantly higher (64 years, IQR 54-74 years vs. 72 years, IQR 62-78 years, p < 0.001). Invasive mechanical ventilation was less frequent during the second period (50.5% vs 67.3%, p = 0.003), as was the use of vasopressors (50.3% vs. 69.2%, p = 0.001) and renal replacement therapy (12.0% vs. 19.6%, p = 0.061), which resulted in shorter ICU length of stay (10 days, IQR 5-18 days vs. 18 days, IQR 5-31 days, p < 0.001). Nonetheless, ICU mortality did not change (28.9% vs. 21.5%, p = 0.159) and hospital mortality even increased (22.4% vs. 33.4%, p = 0.039) in the second period. Age, frailty and the number of comorbidities were significant predictors of hospital mortality in a multivariate logistic regression analysis of the overall cohort. CONCLUSION: Advanced treatment strategies and learning effects over time resulted in reduced rates of mechanical ventilation and vasopressor use in the second wave associated with shorter ICU length of stay. Despite these improvements, age appears to be a dominant factor for hospital mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Austria , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(6): 1663-1684, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite the increasing number of reports on the spectrum of neurological manifestations of COVID-19 (neuro-COVID), few studies have assessed short- and long-term outcome of the disease. METHODS: This is a cohort study enrolling adult patients with neuro-COVID seen in neurological consultation. Data were collected prospectively or retrospectively in the European Academy of Neurology NEuro-covid ReGistrY ((ENERGY). The outcome at discharge was measured using the modified Rankin Scale and defined as 'stable/improved' if the modified Rankin Scale score was equal to or lower than the pre-morbid score, 'worse' if the score was higher than the pre-morbid score. Status at 6 months was also recorded. Demographic and clinical variables were assessed as predictors of outcome at discharge and 6 months. RESULTS: From July 2020 to March 2021, 971 patients from 19 countries were included. 810 (83.4%) were hospitalized. 432 (53.3%) were discharged with worse functional status. Older age, stupor/coma, stroke and intensive care unit (ICU) admission were predictors of worse outcome at discharge. 132 (16.3%) died in hospital. Older age, cancer, cardiovascular complications, refractory shock, stupor/coma and ICU admission were associated with death. 262 were followed for 6 months. Acute stroke or ataxia, ICU admission and degree of functional impairment at discharge were predictors of worse outcome. 65/221 hospitalized patients (29.4%) and 10/32 non-hospitalized patients (24.4%) experienced persisting neurological symptoms/signs. 10/262 patients (3.8%) developed new neurological complaints during the 6 months of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Neuro-COVID is a severe disease associated with worse functional status at discharge, particularly in older subjects and those with comorbidities and acute complications of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurology , Stroke , Stupor , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Coma , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317002

ABSTRACT

Encephalopathy is a common complication of COVID-19 that can both be a challenge to manage and also negatively impacts prognosis. Whilst encephalopathy may be due to common systemic causes, such as hypoxia, COVID-19 has also been associated with more prolonged encephalopathy due to less common but nevertheless severe complications, such as inflammation of the brain parenchyma, cerebrovascular involvement and seizures, which may be disproportionate to COVID-19 severity and which require specific management. The aim of this review is to provide pragmatic guidance on the management of COVID-19 encephalopathy through a consensus agreement of the Global COVID-19 Neuro-Research Coalition.A systematic literature search of Medline, MedRxiv, and BioRx was conducted between 1st January 2020 and 11th June 2021 with additional review of references cited within the identified bibliographies. A modified Delphi-approach was then undertaken to develop recommendations along with a parallel approach to score the strength of both the recommendation and the supporting evidence.This manuscript presents analysis of contemporaneous evidence for definition, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of COVID-19 encephalopathy and practical guidance for clinical assessment, investigation, and acute and long-term management.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314287

ABSTRACT

Introduction: On February 25 th , 2020, the first two patients were tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Tyrol, Austria. Based on alarming reports from the neighboring region Lombardy in Italy, rapid measures were taken to ensure adequate intensive care unit (ICU) preparedness for a surge of critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Methods: A coordinated county wide step-up approach ensured adequate ICU bed availability for COVID-19 patients avoiding shortage of mechanical ventilation capacity. All patients admitted to an ICU with confirmed or strongly suspected COVID-19 in the region of Tyrol, Austria were recorded in the Tyrolean COVID-19 Intensive Care Registry. Data were censored on July 17 th , 2020. Results: From March 9 th , 2020 to July 17 th , 2020, 106 critically ill patients with COVID-19 were admitted to an ICU. Median age was 64 (interquartile range [IQR], 54-74) years and the majority of patients were male (76 patients [71.7%]). Median simplified acute physiology score III (SAPS III) was 56 (IQR, 49-64) points. The median duration from appearance of first symptoms to ICU admission was 8 (IQR, 5-11) days. Frequently observed comorbidities were arterial hypertension in 71 patients (67.0%), cardiovascular (45 patients [42.5%]) and renal comorbidities (21 patients [19.8%]). Invasive mechanical ventilation was required in 72 patients (67.9%), 6 patients (5.6%) required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment. Renal replacement therapy was necessary in 21 patients (19.8%). Median ICU length of stay (LOS) was 18 (IQR, 5-31) days, median hospital LOS was 27 (IQR, 13-49) days.ICU mortality was 21.7% (23 patients), while only one patient (0.9%) died after ICU discharge on a general ward (hospital mortality 22,6%). As of July 17 th , 2020, two patients are still hospitalized, one in an ICU, one on a general ward. Conclusions: Critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to an ICU in the region of Tyrol, Austria, showed a high severity of disease often requiring complex treatments with increased lengths of ICU- and hospital stay. Despite that, we found ICU and hospital mortality in this cohort to be remarkably low. Adaptive surge response providing sufficient ICU resources presumably has contributed to the overall favorable outcome.

10.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3348-3359, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607398

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To assess neurological manifestations and health-related quality of life (QoL) 3 months after COVID-19. METHODS: In this prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study we systematically evaluated neurological signs and diseases by detailed neurological examination and a predefined test battery assessing smelling disorders (16-item Sniffin Sticks test), cognitive deficits (Montreal Cognitive Assessment), QoL (36-item Short Form), and mental health (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-5) 3 months after disease onset. RESULTS: Of 135 consecutive COVID-19 patients, 31 (23%) required intensive care unit (ICU) care (severe), 72 (53%) were admitted to the regular ward (moderate), and 32 (24%) underwent outpatient care (mild) during acute disease. At the 3-month follow-up, 20 patients (15%) presented with one or more neurological syndromes that were not evident before COVID-19. These included polyneuro/myopathy (n = 17, 13%) with one patient presenting with Guillain-Barré syndrome, mild encephalopathy (n = 2, 2%), parkinsonism (n = 1, 1%), orthostatic hypotension (n = 1, 1%), and ischemic stroke (n = 1, 1%). Objective testing revealed hyposmia/anosmia in 57/127 (45%) patients at the 3-month follow-up. Self-reported hyposmia/anosmia was lower (17%) at 3 months, however, improved when compared to the acute disease phase (44%; p < 0.001). At follow-up, cognitive deficits were apparent in 23%, and QoL was impaired in 31%. Assessment of mental health revealed symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorders in 11%, 25%, and 11%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite recovery from the acute infection, neurological symptoms were prevalent at the 3-month follow-up. Above all, smelling disorders were persistent in a large proportion of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Cohort Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3411-3417, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Since the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, several reports indicated neurological involvement in COVID-19 disease. Muscle involvement has also been reported as evidenced by creatine kinase (CK) elevations and reports of myalgia. METHODS: Creatine kinase, markers of inflammation, pre-existing diseases and statin use were extracted from records of Austrian hospitalised COVID-19 patients. Disease severity was classified as severe in case of intensive care unit (ICU) admission or mortality. COVID-19 patients were additionally compared to an historical group of hospitalised influenza patients. RESULTS: Three hundred fifty-one patients with SARS-CoV-2 and 258 with influenza were included in the final analysis. CK was elevated in 27% of COVID-19 and in 28% of influenza patients. CK was higher in severe COVID-19 as were markers of inflammation. CK correlated significantly with inflammation markers, which had an independent impact on CK when adjusted for demographic variables and disease severity. Compared to influenza patients, COVID-19 patients were older, more frequently male, had more comorbidities, and more frequently had a severe disease course. Nevertheless, influenza patients had higher baseline CK than COVID-19, and 35.7% of intensive care unit (ICU)-admitted patients had CK levels >1,000 U/L compared to only 4.7% of ICU-admitted COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: HyperCKemia occurs in a similar frequency in COVID-19 and influenza infection. CK levels were lower in COVID-19 than in influenza in mild and severe disease. CK levels strongly correlate with disease severity and markers of inflammation. To date, it remains unclear whether hyperCKemia is due to a virus-triggered inflammatory response or direct muscle toxicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Muscles , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3303-3323, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603795

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global public health issue. Neurological complications have been reported in up to one-third of affected cases, but their distribution varies significantly in terms of prevalence, incidence and phenotypical characteristics. Variability can be mostly explained by the differing sources of cases (hospital vs. community-based), the accuracy of the diagnostic approach and the interpretation of the patients' complaints. Moreover, after recovering, patients can still experience neurological symptoms. To obtain a more precise picture of the neurological manifestations and outcome of the COVID-19 infection, an international registry (ENERGY) has been created by the European Academy of Neurology in collaboration with European national neurological societies and the Neurocritical Care Society and Research Network. ENERGY can be implemented as a stand-alone instrument for patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 and neurological findings or as an addendum to an existing registry not targeting neurological symptoms. Data are also collected to study the impact of neurological symptoms and neurological complications on outcomes. The variables included in the registry have been selected in the interests of most countries, to favour pooling with data from other sources and to facilitate data collection even in resource-poor countries. Included are adults with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection, ascertained through neurological consultation, and providing informed consent. Key demographic and clinical findings are collected at registration. Patients are followed up to 12 months in search of incident neurological manifestations. As of 19 August, 254 centres from 69 countries and four continents have made requests to join the study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurology , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long COVID, defined as presence of COVID-19 symptoms 28 days or more after clinical onset, is an emerging challenge to healthcare systems. The objective of this study was to explore recovery phenotypes in non-hospitalized COVID-19 individuals. METHODS: A dual cohort, online survey study was conducted between September 2020 and July 2021 in the neighboring European regions Tyrol (TY, Austria, n = 1157) and South Tyrol (STY, Italy, n = 893). Data on demographics, comorbidities, COVID-19 symptoms and recovery adult outpatients were collected. Phenotypes of acute COVID-19, post-acute sequelae and risk of protracted recovery were explored by semi-supervised clustering and multi-parameter LASSO modeling. RESULTS: Working age subjects (TY: 43 yrs (IQR: 31 - 53), STY: 45 yrs (IQR: 35 - 55)) and females (TY: 65.1%, STY: 68.3%) predominated the study cohorts. Nearly half of the participants (TY: 47.6%, STY: 49.3%) reported symptom persistence beyond 28 days. Two acute COVID-19 phenotypes were discerned: the non-specific infection phenotype and the multi-organ phenotype (MOP). Acute MOP symptoms encompassing multiple neurological, cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal and dermatological complaints were linked to elevated risk of protracted recovery. The major subset of long COVID individuals (TY: 49.3%, STY: 55.6%) displayed no persistent hyposmia or hypogeusia but high counts of post-acute MOP symptoms and poor self-reported physical recovery. CONCLUSION: The results of our two-cohort analysis delineated phenotypic diversity of acute and post-acute COVID-19 manifestations in home-isolated patients which needs to be considered for predicting protracted convalescence and allocation of medical resources.

14.
Neurocrit Care ; 35(2): 577-589, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies demonstrate that fever/elevated temperature is associated with poor outcomes in patients with vascular brain injury; however, there are no conclusive studies that demonstrate that fever prevention/controlled normothermia is associated with better outcomes. The primary objective of the INTREPID (Impact of Fever Prevention in Brain-Injured Patients) trial is to test the hypothesis that fever prevention is superior to standard temperature management in patients with acute vascular brain injury. METHODS: INTREPID is a prospective randomized open blinded endpoint study of fever prevention versus usual care in patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. The fever prevention intervention utilizes the Arctic Sun System and will be compared to standard care patients in whom fever may spontaneously develop. Ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage or subarachnoid hemorrhage patients will be included within disease-specific time-windows. Both awake and sedated patients will be included, and treatment is initiated immediately upon enrollment. Eligible patients are expected to require intensive care for at least 72 h post-injury, will not be deemed unlikely to survive without severe disability, and will be treated for up to 14 days, or until deemed ready for discharge from the ICU, whichever comes first. Fifty sites in the USA and worldwide will participate, with a target enrollment of 1176 patients (1000 evaluable). The target temperature is 37.0 °C. The primary efficacy outcome is the total fever burden by °C-h, defined as the area under the temperature curve above 37.9 °C. The primary secondary outcome, on which the sample size is based, is the modified Rankin Scale Score at 3 months. All efficacy analyses including the primary and key secondary endpoints will be primarily based on an intention-to-treat population. Analysis of the as-treated and per protocol populations will also be performed on the primary and key secondary endpoints as sensitivity analyses. DISCUSSION: The INTREPID trial will provide the first results of the impact of a pivotal fever prevention intervention in patients with acute stroke ( www.clinicaltrials.gov ; NCT02996266; registered prospectively 05DEC2016).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brain , Critical Care , Humans , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 133(23-24): 1237-1247, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474017

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Widely varying mortality rates of critically ill Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) patients in the world highlighted the need for local surveillance of baseline characteristics, treatment strategies and outcome. We compared two periods of the COVID-19 pandemic to identify important differences in characteristics and therapeutic measures and their influence on the outcome of critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This multicenter prospective register study included all patients with a SARS-CoV­2 infection confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, who were treated in 1 of the 12 intensive care units (ICU) from 8 hospitals in Tyrol, Austria during 2 defined periods (1 February 2020 until 17 July: first wave and 18 July 2020 until 22 February 2021: second wave) of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Overall, 508 patients were analyzed. The majority (n = 401) presented during the second wave, where the median age was significantly higher (64 years, IQR 54-74 years vs. 72 years, IQR 62-78 years, p < 0.001). Invasive mechanical ventilation was less frequent during the second period (50.5% vs 67.3%, p = 0.003), as was the use of vasopressors (50.3% vs. 69.2%, p = 0.001) and renal replacement therapy (12.0% vs. 19.6%, p = 0.061), which resulted in shorter ICU length of stay (10 days, IQR 5-18 days vs. 18 days, IQR 5-31 days, p < 0.001). Nonetheless, ICU mortality did not change (28.9% vs. 21.5%, p = 0.159) and hospital mortality even increased (22.4% vs. 33.4%, p = 0.039) in the second period. Age, frailty and the number of comorbidities were significant predictors of hospital mortality in a multivariate logistic regression analysis of the overall cohort. CONCLUSION: Advanced treatment strategies and learning effects over time resulted in reduced rates of mechanical ventilation and vasopressor use in the second wave associated with shorter ICU length of stay. Despite these improvements, age appears to be a dominant factor for hospital mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Austria , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Qual Life Res ; 31(5): 1401-1414, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439744

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess patient characteristics associated with health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) and its mental and physical subcategories 3 months after diagnosis with COVID-19. METHODS: In this prospective multicentre cohort study, HR-QoL was assessed in 90 patients using the SF-36 questionnaire (36-item Short Form Health Survey), which consists of 8 health domains that can be divided into a mental and physical health component. Mental health symptoms including anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorders were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-5 (PCL-5) 3 months after COVID-19. Using descriptive statistics and multivariable regression analysis, we identified factors associated with impaired HR-QoL 3 months after COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: Patients were 55 years of age (IQR, 49-63; 39% women) and were classified as severe (23%), moderate (57%), or mild (20%) according to acute disease severity. HR-QoL was impaired in 28/90 patients (31%). Younger age [per year, adjOR (95%CI) 0.94 (0.88-1.00), p = 0.049], longer hospitalization [per day, adjOR (95%CI) 1.07 (1.01-1.13), p = 0.015], impaired sleep [adjOR (95%CI) 5.54 (1.2-25.61), p = 0.028], and anxiety [adjOR (95%CI) 15.67 (3.03-80.99), p = 0.001) were independently associated with impaired HR-QoL. Twenty-nine percent (n = 26) scored below the normal range on the mental health component of the SF-36 and independent associations emerged for anxiety, depression, and self-reported numbness. Impairments in the physical health component of the SF-36 were reported by 12 (13%) patients and linked to hypogeusia and fatigue. CONCLUSION: Every third patient reported a reduction in HR-QoL 3 months after COVID-19 diagnosis and impairments were more prominent in mental than physical well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life/psychology
18.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 690383, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Little is known regarding the prevalence and predictors of prolonged cognitive and psychological symptoms of COVID-19 among community-dwellers. We aimed to quantitatively measure self-reported metrics of fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety, depression, and sleep and identify factors associated with these metrics among United States residents with or without COVID-19. METHODS: We solicited 1000 adult United States residents for an online survey conducted February 3-5, 2021 utilizing a commercial crowdsourcing community research platform. The platform curates eligible participants to approximate United States demographics by age, sex, and race proportions. COVID-19 was diagnosed by laboratory testing and/or by exposure to a known positive contact with subsequent typical symptoms. Prolonged COVID-19 was self-reported and coded for those with symptoms ≥ 1 month following initial diagnosis. The primary outcomes were NIH PROMIS/Neuro-QoL short-form T-scores for fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety, depression, and sleep compared among those with prolonged COVID-19 symptoms, COVID-19 without prolonged symptoms and COVID-19 negative subjects. Multivariable backwards step-wise logistic regression models were constructed to predict abnormal Neuro-QoL metrics. RESULTS: Among 999 respondents, the average age was 45 years (range 18-84), 49% were male, 76 (7.6%) had a history of COVID-19 and 19/76 (25%) COVID-19 positive participants reported prolonged symptoms lasting a median of 4 months (range 1-13). Prolonged COVID-19 participants were more often younger, female, Hispanic, and had a history of depression/mood/thought disorder (all P < 0.05). They experienced significantly higher rates of unemployment and financial insecurity, and their symptoms created greater interference with work and household activities compared to other COVID-19 status groups (all P < 0.05). After adjusting for demographics, past medical history and stressor covariates in multivariable logistic regression analysis, COVID-19 status was independently predictive of worse Neuro-QoL cognitive dysfunction scores (adjusted OR 11.52, 95% CI 1.01-2.28, P = 0.047), but there were no significant differences in quantitative measures of anxiety, depression, fatigue, or sleep. CONCLUSION: Prolonged symptoms occurred in 25% of COVID-19 positive participants, and NeuroQoL cognitive dysfunction scores were significantly worse among COVID-19 positive subjects, even after accounting for demographic and stressor covariates. Fatigue, anxiety, depression, and sleep scores did not differ between COVID-19 positive and negative respondents.

19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e2112131, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222587

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic continues to affect millions of people globally, with increasing reports of neurological manifestations but limited data on their incidence and associations with outcome. Objective: To determine the neurological phenotypes, incidence, and outcomes among adults hospitalized with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included patients with clinically diagnosed or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 at 28 centers, representing 13 countries and 4 continents. The study was performed by the Global Consortium Study of Neurologic Dysfunction in COVID-19 (GCS-NeuroCOVID) from March 1 to September 30, 2020, and the European Academy of Neurology (EAN) Neuro-COVID Registry (ENERGY) from March to October 2020. Three cohorts were included: (1) the GCS-NeuroCOVID all COVID-19 cohort (n = 3055), which included consecutive hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with and without neurological manifestations; (2) the GCS-NeuroCOVID COVID-19 neurological cohort (n = 475), which comprised consecutive patients hospitalized with COVID-19 who had confirmed neurological manifestations; and (3) the ENERGY cohort (n = 214), which included patients with COVID-19 who received formal neurological consultation. Exposures: Clinically diagnosed or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Neurological phenotypes were classified as self-reported symptoms or neurological signs and/or syndromes assessed by clinical evaluation. Composite incidence was reported for groups with at least 1 neurological manifestation. The main outcome measure was in-hospital mortality. Results: Of the 3055 patients in the all COVID-19 cohort, 1742 (57%) were men, and the mean age was 59.9 years (95% CI, 59.3-60.6 years). Of the 475 patients in the COVID-19 neurological cohort, 262 (55%) were men, and the mean age was 62.6 years (95% CI, 61.1-64.1 years). Of the 214 patients in the ENERGY cohort, 133 (62%) were men, and the mean age was 67 years (95% CI, 52-78 years). A total of 3083 of 3743 patients (82%) across cohorts had any neurological manifestation (self-reported neurological symptoms and/or clinically captured neurological sign and/or syndrome). The most common self-reported symptoms included headache (1385 of 3732 patients [37%]) and anosmia or ageusia (977 of 3700 patients [26%]). The most prevalent neurological signs and/or syndromes were acute encephalopathy (1845 of 3740 patients [49%]), coma (649 of 3737 patients [17%]), and stroke (222 of 3737 patients [6%]), while meningitis and/or encephalitis were rare (19 of 3741 patients [0.5%]). Presence of clinically captured neurologic signs and/or syndromes was associated with increased risk of in-hospital death (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.99; 95% CI, 4.33-8.28) after adjusting for study site, age, sex, race, and ethnicity. Presence of preexisting neurological disorders (aOR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.80-2.75) was associated with increased risk of developing neurological signs and/or syndromes with COVID-19. Conclusions and Relevance: In this multicohort study, neurological manifestations were prevalent among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and were associated with higher in-hospital mortality. Preexisting neurological disorders were associated with increased risk of developing neurological signs and/or syndromes in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Nervous System Diseases/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Odds Ratio , Prevalence
20.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 155, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199922

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Critical illness from SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) is associated with a high burden of pulmonary embolism (PE) and thromboembolic events despite standard thromboprophylaxis. Available guidance is discordant, ranging from standard care to the use of therapeutic anticoagulation for enhanced thromboprophylaxis (ET). Local ET protocols have been empirically determined and are generally intermediate between standard prophylaxis and full anticoagulation. Concerns have been raised in regard to the potential risk of haemorrhage associated with therapeutic anticoagulation. This report describes the prevalence and safety of ET strategies in European Intensive Care Unit (ICUs) and their association with outcomes during the first wave of the COVID pandemic, with particular focus on haemorrhagic complications and ICU mortality. METHODS: Retrospective, observational, multi-centre study including adult critically ill COVID-19 patients. Anonymised data included demographics, clinical characteristics, thromboprophylaxis and/or anticoagulation treatment. Critical haemorrhage was defined as intracranial haemorrhage or bleeding requiring red blood cells transfusion. Survival was collected at ICU discharge. A multivariable mixed effects generalised linear model analysis matched for the propensity for receiving ET was constructed for both ICU mortality and critical haemorrhage. RESULTS: A total of 852 (79% male, age 66 [37-85] years) patients were included from 28 ICUs. Median body mass index and ICU length of stay were 27.7 (25.1-30.7) Kg/m2 and 13 (7-22) days, respectively. Thromboembolic events were reported in 146 patients (17.1%), of those 78 (9.2%) were PE. ICU mortality occurred in 335/852 (39.3%) patients. ET was used in 274 (32.1%) patients, and it was independently associated with significant reduction in ICU mortality (log odds = 0.64 [95% CIs 0.18-1.1; p = 0.0069]) but not an increased risk of critical haemorrhage (log odds = 0.187 [95%CI - 0.591 to - 0.964; p = 0.64]). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of critically ill patients with a high prevalence of thromboembolic events, ET was associated with reduced ICU mortality without an increased burden of haemorrhagic complications. This study suggests ET strategies are safe and associated with favourable outcomes. Whilst full anticoagulation has been questioned for prophylaxis in these patients, our results suggest that there may nevertheless be a role for enhanced / intermediate levels of prophylaxis. Clinical trials investigating causal relationship between intermediate thromboprophylaxis and clinical outcomes are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Care/methods , Pandemics , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
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