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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312255

ABSTRACT

Background: Lung ultrasound can adequately monitor disease severity in pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. We hypothesize lung ultrasound can adequately monitor COVID-19 pneumonia in critically ill patients. Methods: Adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the intensive care unit of two academic hospitals who underwent a 12-zone lung ultrasound and a chest CT examination were included. Baseline characteristics, and outcomes including composite endpoint death or ICU stay >30 days were recorded. Lung ultrasound and CT images were quantified as a Lung Ultrasound Score Involvement index (LUSI) and CT Severity Involvement index (CTSI). Primary outcome was the correlation, agreement, and concordance between LUSI and CTSI. Secondary outcome was the association of LUSI and CTSI with the composite endpoints. Results: We included 55 ultrasound examinations in 34 patients, which were 88% were male, with a mean age of 63 years and mean P/F ratio of 151. The correlation between LUSI and CTSI was strong (r=0.795), with an overall 15% bias, and limits of agreement ranging -40 to 9.7. Concordance between changes in sequentially measured LUSI and CTSI was 81%. In the univariate model, high involvement on LUSI and CTSI were associated with a composite endpoint. In the multivariate model, LUSI was the only remaining independent predictor. Conclusions: Lung ultrasound can be used as an alternative for chest CT in monitoring COVID-19 pneumonia in critically ill patients as it can quantify pulmonary involvement, register changes over the course of the disease, and predict death or ICU stay >30 days.Trial registration: NTR, NL8584. registered 01 May 2020 - retrospectively registered, https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/8584

2.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(6): 1490-1497, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478301

ABSTRACT

Lung ultrasound (LUS) can be used to assess loss of aeration, which is associated with outcome in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presenting to the emergency department. We hypothesized that LUS scores are associated with outcome in critically ill COVID-19 patients receiving invasive ventilation. This retrospective international multicenter study evaluated patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with at least one LUS study within 5 days after invasive mechanical ventilation initiation. The global LUS score was calculated by summing the 12 regional scores (range 0-36). Pleural line abnormalities and subpleural consolidations were also scored. The outcomes were successful liberation from the ventilator and intensive care mortality within 28 days, analyzed with multistate, competing risk proportional hazard models. One hundred thirty-seven patients with COVID-19-related ARDS were included in our study. The global LUS score was associated with successful liberation from mechanical ventilation (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.91 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87-0.96; P = 0.0007) independently of the ARDS severity, but not with 28 days mortality (HR: 1.03; 95% CI 0.97-1.08; P = 0.36). Subpleural consolidation and pleural line abnormalities did not add to the prognostic value of the global LUS score. Examinations within 24 hours of intubation showed no prognostic value. To conclude, a lower global LUS score 24 hours after invasive ventilation initiation is associated with increased probability of liberation from the mechanical ventilator COVID-19 ARDS patients, independently of the ARDS severity.


Subject(s)
Airway Extubation , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Internationality , Male , Middle Aged
3.
Crit Care Med ; 50(5): 750-759, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440663

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of extended lung ultrasonographic assessment, including evaluation of dynamic air bronchograms and color Doppler imaging to differentiate pneumonia and atelectasis in patients with consolidation on chest radiograph. Compare this approach to the Simplified Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score, Lung Ultrasound Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score, and the Bedside Lung Ultrasound in Emergency protocol. DESIGN: Prospective diagnostic accuracy study. SETTING: Adult ICU applying selective digestive decontamination. PATIENTS: Adult patients that underwent a chest radiograph for any indication at any time during admission. Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, coronavirus disease 2019, severe thoracic trauma, and infectious isolation measures were excluded. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Lung ultrasound was performed within 24 hours of chest radiograph. Consolidated tissue was assessed for presence of dynamic air bronchograms and with color Doppler imaging for presence of flow. Clinical data were recorded after ultrasonographic assessment. The primary outcome was diagnostic accuracy of dynamic air bronchogram and color Doppler imaging alone and within a decision tree to differentiate pneumonia from atelectasis. Of 120 patients included, 51 (42.5%) were diagnosed with pneumonia. The dynamic air bronchogram had a 45% (95% CI, 31-60%) sensitivity and 99% (95% CI, 92-100%) specificity. Color Doppler imaging had a 90% (95% CI, 79-97%) sensitivity and 68% (95% CI, 56-79%) specificity. The combined decision tree had an 86% (95% CI, 74-94%) sensitivity and an 86% (95% CI, 75-93%) specificity. The Bedside Lung Ultrasound in Emergency protocol had a 100% (95% CI, 93-100%) sensitivity and 0% (95% CI, 0-5%) specificity, while the Simplified Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score and Lung Ultrasound Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score had a 41% (95% CI, 28-56%) sensitivity, 84% (95% CI, 73-92%) specificity and 68% (95% CI, 54-81%) sensitivity, 81% (95% CI, 70-90%) specificity, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients with pulmonary consolidation on chest radiograph, an extended lung ultrasound protocol is an accurate and directly bedside available tool to differentiate pneumonia from atelectasis. It outperforms standard lung ultrasound and clinical scores.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Adult , Critical Illness , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Atelectasis/diagnostic imaging , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ultrasonography/methods
5.
Intensive Care Med Exp ; 9(1): 1, 2021 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045593

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasound can adequately monitor disease severity in pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. We hypothesize lung ultrasound can adequately monitor COVID-19 pneumonia in critically ill patients. METHODS: Adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the intensive care unit of two academic hospitals who underwent a 12-zone lung ultrasound and a chest CT examination were included. Baseline characteristics, and outcomes including composite endpoint death or ICU stay > 30 days were recorded. Lung ultrasound and CT images were quantified as a lung ultrasound score involvement index (LUSI) and CT severity involvement index (CTSI). Primary outcome was the correlation, agreement, and concordance between LUSI and CTSI. Secondary outcome was the association of LUSI and CTSI with the composite endpoints. RESULTS: We included 55 ultrasound examinations in 34 patients, which were 88% were male, with a mean age of 63 years and mean P/F ratio of 151. The correlation between LUSI and CTSI was strong (r = 0.795), with an overall 15% bias, and limits of agreement ranging - 40 to 9.7. Concordance between changes in sequentially measured LUSI and CTSI was 81%. In the univariate model, high involvement on LUSI and CTSI were associated with a composite endpoint. In the multivariate model, LUSI was the only remaining independent predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Lung ultrasound can be used as an alternative for chest CT in monitoring COVID-19 pneumonia in critically ill patients as it can quantify pulmonary involvement, register changes over the course of the disease, and predict death or ICU stay > 30 days. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NTR, NL8584. Registered 01 May 2020-retrospectively registered, https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/8584.

6.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(4)2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-952035

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over 2 million people worldwide have been infected with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2). Lung ultrasound has been proposed to diagnose and monitor it, despite the fact that little is known about the ultrasound appearance due to the novelty of the illness. The aim of this manuscript is to characterise the lung ultrasonographic appearance of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, with particular emphasis on its relationship with the time course of the illness and clinical parameters. METHODS: Adult patients from the intensive care unit of two academic hospitals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were included. Images were analysed using internationally recognised techniques which included assessment of the pleura, number of B-lines, pathology in the PLAPS (posterolateral alveolar and/or pleural syndrome) point, bedside lung ultrasound in emergency profiles, and the lung ultrasound score. The primary outcomes were frequencies, percentages and differences in lung ultrasound findings overall and between short (≤14 days) and long (>14 days) durations of symptoms and their correlation with clinical parameters. RESULTS: In this pilot observational study, 61 patients were included with 76 examinations available for analysis. 26% of patients had no anterior lung abnormalities, while the most prevalent pathological ultrasound findings were thickening of the pleura (42%), ≥3 B-lines per view (38%) and presence of PLAPS (74%). Patients with "long" duration of symptoms presented more frequently with a thickened and irregular pleura (32 (21%) versus 11 (9%)), C-profile (18 (47%) versus 8 (25%)) and pleural effusion (14 (19%) versus 3 (5%)), compared to patients with short duration of symptoms. Lung ultrasound findings did not correlate with arterial oxygen tension/inspiratory oxygen fraction ratio, fluid balance or dynamic compliance. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 results in significant, but not specific, ultrasound changes, with decreased lung sliding, thickening of the pleura and a B-profile being the most commonly observed. With time, a thickened and irregular pleura, C-profile and pleural effusion become more common findings. When screening patients, a comprehensive ultrasound protocol might be necessary.

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