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1.
Front Neurol ; 13: 896716, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35463147
3.
Front Neurol ; 13: 833020, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35250835

ABSTRACT

About two-thirds of patients with minor strokes are discharged home. However, these patients may have difficulties returning to their usual living activities. To investigate the factors associated with successful home discharge, our aim was to provide a decision tree (based on clinical data) that could identify if a patient discharged home could return to pre-stroke activities and to perform an external validation of this decision tree on an independent cohort. Two cohorts of patients with minor strokes gathered from stroke registries at the Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière and University Hospital Bern were included in this study (n = 105 for the construction cohort coming from France; n = 100 for the second cohort coming from Switzerland). The decision tree was built using the classification and regression tree (CART) analysis on the construction cohort. It was then applied to the validation cohort. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, false positive, and false-negative rates were reported for both cohorts. In the construction cohort, 60 patients (57%) returned to their usual, pre-stroke level of independence. The CART analysis produced a decision tree with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) as the first decision point, followed by discharge NIHSS score or age, and then by the occupational status. The overall prediction accuracy to the favorable outcome was 80% in the construction cohort and reached 72% accuracy in the validation cohort. This decision tree highlighted the role of cognitive function as a crucial factor for patients to return to their usual activities after a minor stroke. The algorithm may help clinicians to tailor planning of patients' discharge.

4.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA121036824, 2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35240862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) has recently been reported as a common thrombotic manifestation in association with vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia, a syndrome that mimics heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and occurs after vaccination with adenovirus-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. We aimed to systematically review the incidence, clinical features, and prognosis of CVT occurring in patients with HIT. METHODS: The study protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021249652). MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched up to June 1, 2021 for HIT case series including >20 patients, or any report of HIT-related CVT. Demographic, neuroradiological, clinical, and mortality data were retrieved. Meta-analysis of proportions with random-effect modeling was used to derive rate of CVT in HIT and in-hospital mortality. Pooled estimates were compared with those for CVT without HIT and HIT without CVT, to determine differences in mortality. RESULTS: From 19073 results, we selected 23 case series of HIT (n=1220) and 27 cases of HIT-related CVT (n=27, 71% female). CVT developed in 1.6% of 1220 patients with HIT (95% CI,1.0%-2.5%, I2=0%). Hemorrhagic brain lesions occurred in 81.8% of cases of HIT-related CVT and other concomitant thrombosis affecting other vascular territory was reported in 47.8% of cases. In-hospital mortality was 33.3%. HIT-related CVT carried a 29% absolute increase in mortality rate compared with historical CVT controls (33.3% versus 4.3%, P<0.001) and a 17.4% excess mortality compared with HIT without CVT (33.3% versus 15.9%, P=0.046). CONCLUSIONS: CVT is a rare thrombotic manifestation in patients with HIT. HIT-related CVT has higher rates of intracerebral hemorrhage and a higher mortality risk, when compared with CVT in historical controls. The recently reported high frequency of CVT in patients with vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia was not observed in HIT, suggesting that additional pathophysiological mechanisms besides anti-platelet factor-4 antibodies might be involved in vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia-related CVT.

5.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(3): 761-770, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To explore the prevalence, risk factors, time correlation, characteristics and clinical outcome of dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) in a cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) population. METHODS: We included patients from the International CVT Consortium registries. Diagnosis of dAVF was confirmed centrally. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors for dAVF among consecutive CVT patients and investigated its impact on clinical outcome using logistic regression analysis. We defined poor outcome as modified Rankin Scale score 3-6 at last follow-up. RESULTS: dAVF was confirmed in 29/1218 (2.4%) consecutive CVT patients. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) follow-up time was 8 (5-23) months. Patients with dAVF were older (median [IQR] 53 [44-61] vs. 41 [29-53] years; p < 0.001), more frequently male (69% vs. 33%; p < 0.001), more often had chronic clinical CVT onset (>30 days: 39% vs. 7%; p < 0.001) and sigmoid sinus thrombosis (86% vs. 51%; p < 0.001), and less frequently had parenchymal lesions (31% vs. 55%; p = 0.013) at baseline imaging. Clinical outcome at last follow-up did not differ between patients with and without dAVF. Additionally, five patients were confirmed with dAVF from non-consecutive CVT cohorts. Among all patients with CVT and dAVF, 17/34 (50%) had multiple fistulas and 23/34 (68%) had cortical venous drainage. Of 34 patients with dAVF with 36 separate CVT events, 3/36 fistulas (8%) were diagnosed prior to, 20/36 (56%) simultaneously and 13/36 after (36%, median 115 [IQR 38-337] days) diagnosis of CVT. CONCLUSIONS: Dural arteriovenous fistulas occur in at least 2% of CVT patients and are associated with chronic CVT onset, older age and male sex. Most CVT-related dAVFs are detected simultaneously or subsequently to diagnosis of CVT.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations , Intracranial Thrombosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Venous Thrombosis , Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations/complications , Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations/diagnostic imaging , Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations/epidemiology , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/complications , Intracranial Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , Male , Risk Factors , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
6.
Neurology ; 98(7): e759-e768, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) as a part of the thrombosis and thrombocytopenia syndrome is a rare adverse drug reaction of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination. Estimated background rate of CVST with thrombocytopenia is 0.1 per million per month. We assessed the age-stratified risk of CVST with and without thrombocytopenia after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. METHODS: We estimated the absolute risk of CVST with and without thrombocytopenia within 28 days of a first dose of 4 SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations using data from the European Medicines Agency's EudraVigilance database (until June 13, 2021). As a denominator, we used data on vaccine delivery from 31 European countries. For 22.8 million adults from 25 countries, we estimated the absolute risk of CVST after the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCov-19 per age category. RESULTS: The absolute risk of CVST within 28 days of first-dose vaccination was 7.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.9-8.3), 0.7 (95% CI 0.2-2.4), 0.6 (95% CI 0.5-0.7), and 0.6 (95% CI 0.3-1.1) per million of first doses of ChAdOx1 nCov-19, Ad26.COV2.S, BNT162b2, and mRNA-1273, respectively. The absolute risk of CVST with thrombocytopenia within 28 days of first dose vaccination was 4.4 (95% CI 3.9-4.9), 0.7 (95% CI 0.2-2.4), 0.0 (95% CI 0.0-0.1), and 0.0 (95% CI 0.0-0.2) per million of first doses of ChAdOx1 nCov-19, Ad26.COV2.S, BNT162b2, and mRNA-1273, respectively. In recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19, the absolute risk of CVST, both with and without thrombocytopenia, was the highest in the 18- to 24-year-old group (7.3 per million, 95% CI 2.8-18.8 and 3.7 per million, 95% CI 1.0-13.3, respectively). The risk of CVST with thrombocytopenia in ChAdOx1 nCov-19 recipients was the lowest in the age group ≥70 years (0.2, 95% CI 0.0-1.3). Age <60 years compared to ≥60 years was a predictor for CVST with thrombocytopenia (incidence rate ratio 5.79, 95% CI 2.98-11.24, p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: The risk of CVST with thrombocytopenia within 28 days of first-dose vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCov-19 was higher in younger age groups. The risk of CVST with thrombocytopenia was slightly increased in patients receiving Ad26.COV2.S compared with the estimated background risk. The risk of CVST with thrombocytopenia was not increased in recipients of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , /adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Trauma Case Rep ; 37: 100573, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34917739

ABSTRACT

An atypical course of the vertebral artery can be medically relevant in displaced Hangman fractures, especially if the artery course runs within the fracture gap of the C2 isthmus. During surgical reduction, the artery can be occluded inside the fracture, potentially leading to ischemic conditions of the brain. The aim of this study was to report two cases according to the CARE (case reporting) guidelines, in which intraoperative color-coded duplex-ultrasound was performed to secure safe surgical reduction of hangman fractures in two patients with an atypical course of the vertebral artery. Two patients with displaced hangman fractures (Effendi-Levine type II) were diagnosed with an atypical course of the vertebral artery running inside the fracture gap. This endangered safe surgical management with the risk of iatrogenic occlusion or injury during reduction through entrapment of the vessel inside the fracture gap. Therefore, an intraoperative color-coded duplex-ultrasound of the vertebral artery was conducted before and after reduction of the fracture, as well as at the end of the surgery. The surgical treatment in both cases included posterior unilateral spondylodesis, followed by anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). In both patients, a safe reduction of the fracture was performed. Neither occlusion nor dissection of the vertebral artery occurred. The duplex ultrasound before and after reduction, and at the end of the procedure showed normal blood flow and morphology of both vertebral arteries. At follow-up examinations, the patients showed a favorable clinical outcome, radiographic signs of fusion, and no irregularity of the vertebral arteries. This case report serves as proof-of-concept, demonstrating the feasibility of this regimen to minimize the risk of entrapment or occlusion of the vertebral artery in the surgical management of displaced Hangman fractures with atypical course of the vertebral artery running inside the fracture gap.

8.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(11): 1314-1323, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581763

ABSTRACT

Importance: Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) has been reported after vaccination with the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) and Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson). Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination with and without TTS. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from an international registry of consecutive patients with CVST within 28 days of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination included between March 29 and June 18, 2021, from 81 hospitals in 19 countries. For reference, data from patients with CVST between 2015 and 2018 were derived from an existing international registry. Clinical characteristics and mortality rate were described for adults with (1) CVST in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia, (2) CVST after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination not fulling criteria for TTS, and (3) CVST unrelated to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Exposures: Patients were classified as having TTS if they had new-onset thrombocytopenia without recent exposure to heparin, in accordance with the Brighton Collaboration interim criteria. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical characteristics and mortality rate. Results: Of 116 patients with postvaccination CVST, 78 (67.2%) had TTS, of whom 76 had been vaccinated with ChAdOx1 nCov-19; 38 (32.8%) had no indication of TTS. The control group included 207 patients with CVST before the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 63 of 78 (81%), 30 of 38 (79%), and 145 of 207 (70.0%) patients, respectively, were female, and the mean (SD) age was 45 (14), 55 (20), and 42 (16) years, respectively. Concomitant thromboembolism occurred in 25 of 70 patients (36%) in the TTS group, 2 of 35 (6%) in the no TTS group, and 10 of 206 (4.9%) in the control group, and in-hospital mortality rates were 47% (36 of 76; 95% CI, 37-58), 5% (2 of 37; 95% CI, 1-18), and 3.9% (8 of 207; 95% CI, 2.0-7.4), respectively. The mortality rate was 61% (14 of 23) among patients in the TTS group diagnosed before the condition garnered attention in the scientific community and 42% (22 of 53) among patients diagnosed later. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of patients with CVST, a distinct clinical profile and high mortality rate was observed in patients meeting criteria for TTS after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/mortality , Registries , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/mortality , Thrombocytopenia/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Sex Factors , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/blood , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Syndrome , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/chemically induced , Young Adult
9.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(1): 339-344, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536256

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: High mortality rates have been reported in patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) due to vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) after vaccination with adenoviral vector SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the mortality of patients with CVST-VITT has decreased over time. METHODS: The EudraVigilance database of the European Medicines Agency was used to identify cases of CVST with concomitant thrombocytopenia occurring within 28 days of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Vaccines were grouped based on vaccine type (adenoviral or mRNA). Cases with CVST onset until 28 March were compared to cases after 28 March 2021, which was the day when the first scientific paper on VITT was published. RESULTS: In total, 270 cases of CVST with thrombocytopenia were identified, of which 266 (99%) occurred after adenoviral vector SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, n = 243; Ad26.COV2.S, n = 23). The reported mortality amongst adenoviral cases with onset up to 28 March 2021 was 47/99 (47%, 95% confidence interval 37%-58%) compared to 36/167 (22%, 95% confidence interval 16%-29%) in cases with onset after 28 March (p < 0.001). None of the four cases of CVST with thrombocytopenia occurring after mRNA vaccination died. CONCLUSION: The reported mortality of CVST with thrombocytopenia after vaccination with adenoviral vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines has significantly decreased over time, which may indicate a beneficial effect of earlier recognition and/or improved treatment on outcome after VITT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Thrombocytopenia , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
11.
J Neurosurg ; 136(3): 647-654, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450592

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Postoperative internal carotid artery (ICA) intimal flap (IF) is a potential complication after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for carotid artery stenosis. There are no clear recommendations in the current literature on the management of this condition due to sparse evidence. Some authors advocate carotid stent placement or reoperation, while others suggest watchful waiting. The aim of this study was to analyze incidence and management strategies of postoperative ICA-IF, and moreover, to put these findings into context with a systematic literature review. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed all consecutive CEA cases performed at the University Hospital of Bern over a decade (January 2008 to December 2018). The incidence of postoperative ICA-IF, risk factors, management strategies, and outcomes were analyzed. These results were put into context with a systematic review following the PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 725 CEAs were performed between January 2008 and December 2018. Postoperative ICA-IF was detected by routine duplex neurovascular ultrasound (NVUS) in 13 patients, corresponding to an incidence rate of 1.8% (95% CI 1.0%-3.1%). There were no associated intraluminal thrombi on the detected IF. Intraoperative shunt placement was used in 5.6% and one or more intima tack sutures were performed in 42.5% of the 725 cases. There was no significant association between intraoperative shunt placement and the occurrence of an IF (p > 0.99). Two patients (15.4%) with IF experienced a transient postoperative neurological deficit (transient ischemic attack). In these cases, the symptoms resolved spontaneously without any interventions or change in the antiplatelet regimen. All other cases (84.6%) with IF were asymptomatic. In 1 patient (7.7%) with IF, the antiplatelet treatment was switched from a mono- to a dual-antiaggregating regimen because the IF led to a stenosis > 70%; this patient remained asymptomatic. All cases of IFs were managed conservatively with close radiological follow-up evaluations, without reoperation or stenting of the ICA. All 13 IFs vanished spontaneously after a mean duration of 6.9 months (median 1.5 months, range 0.5-48 months). A systematic literature review revealed a postoperative ICA-IF incidence of 3.0% (95% CI 2.1%-4.1%) with relatively heterogenous management strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative ICA-IF is a rare finding after CEA. Conservative therapy with close NVUS follow-up evaluations appears to be an acceptable and safe management strategy for asymptomatic IFs without associated intraluminal thrombi.


Subject(s)
Carotid Stenosis , Endarterectomy, Carotid , Carotid Artery, Internal/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery, Internal/surgery , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Cohort Studies , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Endarterectomy, Carotid/methods , Humans , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
12.
Ther Umsch ; 78(6): 259-268, 2021 Aug.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291655

ABSTRACT

Healthy diet in primary and secondary prevention of stroke Abstract. An unhealthy diet is one of the modifiable risk factors for stroke. The world population's diet is suboptimal. Healthy and nutritious food such as whole grain, vegetables, fruit and fish is not consumed enough, and unhealthy food such as sweetened beverages, processed meat and salty food takes up a higher proportion of the diet than recommended. We also see this imbalance in Switzerland. After a thorough literature review, we summarize the current findings about different diets and food groups affecting the risk of stroke. Generally, a diet low in salt and rich in potassium, vegetables, fruit, whole grains and unsaturated fats, moderate consumption of fish and low intake of meat is recommended to decrease the risk of stroke. The Mediterranean diet comprises all these aspects and was shown to reduce the stroke risk considerably. Generally, a high variety of food has more impact than supplementation of vitamins, minerals and micronutrients.


Subject(s)
Diet, Healthy , Stroke , Animals , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Secondary Prevention , Stroke/prevention & control , Switzerland
13.
Ther Umsch ; 78(6): 247, 2021 08.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291657
14.
Ther Umsch ; 78(6): 277-289, 2021 Aug.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291662

ABSTRACT

Atherosclerosis of the intracranial arteries and of the extracranial carotid artery. Abstract. Intracranial atherosclerotic stenoses are the most common cause of ischemic stroke worldwide. Nowadays, three therapeutic approaches are available for consideration for patients with intracranial atherosclerotic stenoses: A conservative therapy (best medical treatment, management of vascular risk factors and healthy lifestyle), endovascular and surgical therapy. Conservative approach has been recommended for patients with asymptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenoses, as well as for those with symptomatic stenoses. Endovascular therapy should be considered as a treatment option for carefully selected patients with recurrent ischemic strokes attributed to the stenotic artery while receiving best medical therapy. Surgical revascularisation is rarely favored in patients with intracranial stenoses. In patients with extracranial atherosclerotic stenoses, carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been associated with a lower risk of death and recurrent stroke when compared to carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS). Especially in elderly patients over 70 years of age CEA is preferred over CAS due to the twofold increased 30-day risk of recurrent stroke or death in patients treated with CAS. Results from contemporary studies using modern techniques and devices are expected. It remains unclear whether patients with asymptomatic extracranial atherosclerotic stenoses receiving best medical treatment would benefit of invasive procedures such as CEA or CAS.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Carotid Stenosis , Endarterectomy, Carotid , Stroke , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angioplasty , Atherosclerosis/therapy , Carotid Arteries , Carotid Stenosis/therapy , Humans , Risk Factors , Stents , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/therapy , Treatment Outcome
15.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(11): 3656-3662, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) has been described after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The clinical characteristics of 213 post-vaccination CVST cases notified to the European Medicines Agency are reported. METHODS: Data on adverse drug reactions after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination notified until 8 April 2021 under the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Term 'Central nervous system vascular disorders' were obtained from the EudraVigilance database. Post-vaccination CVST was compared with 100 European patients with CVST from before the COVID-19 pandemic derived from the International CVST Consortium. RESULTS: In all, 213 CVST cases were identified: 187 after AstraZeneca/Oxford (ChAdOx1 nCov-19) vaccination and 26 after a messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccination (25 with Pfizer/BioNTech, BNT162b2, and one with Moderna, mRNA-1273). Thrombocytopenia was reported in 107/187 CVST cases (57%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 50%-64%) in the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 group, in none in the mRNA vaccine group (0%, 95% CI 0%-13%) and in 7/100 (7%, 95% CI 3%-14%) in the pre-COVID-19 group. In the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 group, 39 (21%) reported COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction tests were performed within 30 days of CVST symptom onset, and all were negative. Of the 117 patients with a reported outcome in the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 group, 44 (38%, 95% CI 29%-47%) had died, compared to 2/10 (20%, 95% CI 6%-51%) in the mRNA vaccine group and 3/100 (3%, 95% CI 1%-8%) in the pre-COVID-19 group. Mortality amongst patients with thrombocytopenia in the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 group was 49% (95% CI 39%-60%). CONCLUSIONS: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis occurring after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination has a clinical profile distinct from CVST unrelated to vaccination. Only CVST after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination was associated with thrombocytopenia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
16.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(11): 3682-3691, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233384

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An incomplete circle of Willis (CoW) has been associated with a higher risk of stroke and might affect collateral flow in large vessel occlusion (LVO) stroke. We aimed to investigate the distribution of CoW variants in a LVO stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) cohort and analyze their impact on 3-month functional outcome. METHODS: CoW anatomy was assessed with time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF-MRA) in 193 stroke patients with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA)-M1-occlusion receiving endovascular treatment (EVT) and 73 TIA patients without LVO. The main CoW variants were categorized into four vascular models of presumed collateral flow via the CoW. RESULTS: 82.4% (n = 159) of stroke and 72.6% (n = 53) of TIA patients had an incomplete CoW. Most variants affected the posterior circulation (stroke: 77.2%, n = 149; TIA: 58.9%, n = 43; p = 0.004). Initial stroke severity defined by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on admission was similar for patients with and without CoW variants. CoW integrity did not differ between groups with favorable (modified Rankin Scale [mRS]): 0-2) and unfavorable (mRS: 3-6) 3-month outcome. However, we found trends towards a higher mortality in patients with any type of CoW variant (p = 0.08) and a higher frequency of incomplete CoW among patients dying within 3 months after stroke onset (p = 0.119). In a logistic regression analysis adjusted for the potential confounders age, sex and atrial fibrillation, neither the vascular models nor anterior or posterior variants were independently associated with outcome. CONCLUSION: Our data provide no evidence for an association of CoW variants with clinical outcome in LVO stroke patients receiving EVT.


Subject(s)
Ischemic Attack, Transient , Stroke , Circle of Willis/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Ischemic Attack, Transient/diagnostic imaging , Middle Cerebral Artery , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Treatment Outcome
17.
JAMA ; 326(4): 332-338, 2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213527

ABSTRACT

Importance: Cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in combination with thrombocytopenia have recently been reported within 4 to 28 days of vaccination with the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (AstraZeneca/Oxford) and Ad.26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) COVID-19 vaccines. An immune-mediated response associated with platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies has been proposed as the underlying pathomechanism. Objective: To determine the frequencies of admission thrombocytopenia, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and presence of platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies in patients diagnosed with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a descriptive analysis of a retrospective sample of consecutive patients diagnosed with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis between January 1987 and March 2018 from 7 hospitals participating in the International Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Consortium from Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Sweden, Mexico, Iran, and Costa Rica. Of 952 patients, 865 with available baseline platelet count were included. In a subset of 93 patients, frozen plasma samples collected during a previous study between September 2009 and February 2016 were analyzed for the presence of platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies. Exposures: Diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Frequencies of admission thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150 ×103/µL), heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (as diagnosed by the treating physician), and platelet factor 4/heparin IgG antibodies (optical density >0.4, in a subset of patients with previously collected plasma samples). Results: Of 865 patients (median age, 40 years [interquartile range, 29-53 years], 70% women), 73 (8.4%; 95% CI, 6.8%-10.5%) had thrombocytopenia, which was mild (100-149 ×103/µL) in 52 (6.0%), moderate (50-99 ×103/µL) in 17 (2.0%), and severe (<50 ×103/µL) in 4 (0.5%). Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies was diagnosed in a single patient (0.1%; 95% CI, <0.1%-0.7%). Of the convenience sample of 93 patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis included in the laboratory analysis, 8 (9%) had thrombocytopenia, and none (95% CI, 0%-4%) had platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies. Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, baseline thrombocytopenia was uncommon, and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies were rare. These findings may inform investigations of the possible association between the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 vaccines and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with thrombocytopenia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Heparin/immunology , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/complications , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Adult , Antibodies/blood , Female , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology
18.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(5): e04016, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34084481

ABSTRACT

Sudden onset of disturbed consciousness, neurocognitive deficits, and weakness of the proximal limbs are typical findings of a watershed stroke. Occurrence after an intense emotional experience and electrocardiogram changes are hints toward the rare cause of stroke of a takotsubo cardiomyopathy, even more if the stroke pattern is embolic.

19.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 14(4): 326-332, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33911015

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The degree of reperfusion is the most important modifiable predictor of 3 month functional outcome and mortality in ischemic stroke patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy. Whether the beneficial effect of reperfusion also leads to a reduction in long term mortality is unknown. METHODS: Patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy between January 2010 and December 2018 were included. The post-thrombectomy degree of reperfusion and emboli in new territories were core laboratory adjudicated. Reperfusion was evaluated according to the expanded Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (eTICI) scale. Vital status was obtained from the Swiss population register. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) using time split Cox regression models were calculated. Subgroup analyses were performed in patients with borderline indications. RESULTS: Our study included 1264 patients (median follow-up per patient 2.5 years). Patients with successful reperfusion had longer survival times, attributable to a lower hazard of death within 0-90 days and for >90 days to 2 years (aHR 0.34, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.46; aHR 0.37, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.62). This association was homogeneous across all predefined subgroups (p for interaction >0.05). Among patients with successful reperfusion, a significant difference in the hazard of death was observed between eTICI2b50 and eTICI3 (aHR 0.51, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.79). Emboli in new territories were present in 5% of patients, and were associated with increased mortality (aHR 2.3, 95% CI 1.11 to 4.86). CONCLUSION: Successful, and ideally complete, reperfusion without emboli in new territories is associated with a reduction in long term mortality in patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy, and this was evident across several subgroups.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , Embolism , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Embolism/etiology , Humans , Reperfusion , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/surgery , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
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