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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334339

ABSTRACT

Persistent symptoms are common after SARS-CoV-2 infection but the correlation with objective measures is unclear. We utilized the deCODE Health Study to compare multiple symptoms and physical measures between 1,721 Icelanders with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (cases) and 546 contemporary and 13,842 historical controls. Cases participated in the study five to 17 months after the acute infection. One percent reported still suffering severe symptoms more than a year after the infection. 46 of the 88 symptoms explored associated with prior infection, most significantly disturbed smell and taste, memory disturbance, and dyspnea. On the contrary, only a handful of objective measures associated with prior infection. Cases were more likely to have measured impairment in smell and taste, lower grip strength, and poorer immediate and delayed memory recall than controls. No other objective measure associated with prior infection including heart rate, blood pressure, postural orthostatic tachycardia, oxygen saturation, exercise tolerance, hearing, and traditional inflammatory, cardiac, liver and kidney blood biomarkers. There was no evidence of more anxiety or depression among cases. We estimated the prevalence of long Covid to be 7–8%. Thus, in our large case-control study of mostly non-hospitalized Icelanders, diverse symptoms were common after SARS-CoV-2 infection while objective differences between cases and controls were few and, except for smell and taste, small. Discrepancies between symptoms and objective measures suggest a more complicated biological or biopsychosocial contribution to symptoms related to prior infection than is captured by conventional tests. Traditional clinical assessment would thus not be expected to be particularly informative in relating symptoms to a past SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
Blood Cancer J ; 11(12): 191, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545601

ABSTRACT

Multiple myeloma (MM) patients have increased risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) when infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), the precursor of MM has been associated with immune dysfunction which may lead to severe COVID-19. No systematic data have been published on COVID-19 in individuals with MGUS. We conducted a large population-based cohort study evaluating the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 among individuals with MGUS. We included 75,422 Icelanders born before 1976, who had been screened for MGUS in the Iceland Screens Treats or Prevents Multiple Myeloma study (iStopMM). Data on SARS-CoV-2 testing and COVID-19 severity were acquired from the Icelandic COVID-19 Study Group. Using a test-negative study design, we included 32,047 iStopMM participants who had been tested for SARS-CoV-2, of whom 1754 had MGUS. Among these participants, 1100 participants, tested positive, 65 of whom had MGUS. Severe COVID-19 developed in 230 participants, including 16 with MGUS. MGUS was not associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection (Odds ratio (OR): 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81-1.36; p = 0.72) or severe COVID-19 (OR: 0.99; 95%CI: 0.52-1.91; p = 0.99). These findings indicate that MGUS does not affect the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 or the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Iceland/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
BMJ ; 371: m4529, 2020 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955486

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterise the symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: Iceland. PARTICIPANTS: All individuals who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) between 17 March and 30 April 2020. Cases were identified by three testing strategies: targeted testing guided by clinical suspicion, open invitation population screening based on self referral, and random population screening. All identified cases were enrolled in a telehealth monitoring service, and symptoms were systematically monitored from diagnosis to recovery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Occurrence of one or more of 19 predefined symptoms during follow-up. RESULTS: Among 1564 people positive for SARS-CoV-2, the most common presenting symptoms were myalgia (55%), headache (51%), and non-productive cough (49%). At the time of diagnosis, 83 (5.3%) individuals reported no symptoms, of whom 49 (59%) remained asymptomatic during follow-up. At diagnosis, 216 (14%) and 349 (22%) people did not meet the case definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization, respectively. Most (67%) of the SARS-CoV-2-positive patients had mild symptoms throughout the course of their disease. CONCLUSION: In the setting of broad access to RT-PCR testing, most SARS-CoV-2-positive people were found to have mild symptoms. Fever and dyspnoea were less common than previously reported. A substantial proportion of SARS-CoV-2-positive people did not meet recommended case definitions at the time of diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Iceland/epidemiology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Symptom Assessment , Young Adult
4.
N Engl J Med ; 383(18): 1724-1734, 2020 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the nature and durability of the humoral immune response to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: We measured antibodies in serum samples from 30,576 persons in Iceland, using six assays (including two pan-immunoglobulin [pan-Ig] assays), and we determined that the appropriate measure of seropositivity was a positive result with both pan-Ig assays. We tested 2102 samples collected from 1237 persons up to 4 months after diagnosis by a quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction (qPCR) assay. We measured antibodies in 4222 quarantined persons who had been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and in 23,452 persons not known to have been exposed. RESULTS: Of the 1797 persons who had recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection, 1107 of the 1215 who were tested (91.1%) were seropositive; antiviral antibody titers assayed by two pan-Ig assays increased during 2 months after diagnosis by qPCR and remained on a plateau for the remainder of the study. Of quarantined persons, 2.3% were seropositive; of those with unknown exposure, 0.3% were positive. We estimate that 0.9% of Icelanders were infected with SARS-CoV-2 and that the infection was fatal in 0.3%. We also estimate that 56% of all SARS-CoV-2 infections in Iceland had been diagnosed with qPCR, 14% had occurred in quarantined persons who had not been tested with qPCR (or who had not received a positive result, if tested), and 30% had occurred in persons outside quarantine and not tested with qPCR. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that antiviral antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 did not decline within 4 months after diagnosis. We estimate that the risk of death from infection was 0.3% and that 44% of persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Iceland were not diagnosed by qPCR.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Iceland/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
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