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1.
J Relig Health ; 61(5): 4226-4244, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990717

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19), as a widespread health threat, has triggered an increase in health-related behaviours, both pro-and anti-health, especially with regard to diet and physical activity. One of the factors modifying the intensity of such activities may be the religious doctrine and religiosity with which a person is associated. A total of 1502 people (1147 women) from countries that feature one dominant religion, took part in the study. Participants represented Sunni Islam (Egypt, n = 798), Roman Catholicism (Poland, n = 443) and Orthodox Christianity (Romania, n = 261). The Coronavirus Anxiety Scale, the Eating Attitudes Test and the Inventory of Physical Activity Objectives were used in the study. Fear of COVID-19 is associated with engagement in pro-health activity, although not to such a significant extent as might be expected. The type of religion in question was revealed to moderate this relationship, but the intensity of religiosity was not found to serve as a moderator.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Christianity , Communicable Disease Control , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Poland , Religion , Romania
2.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271332, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933384

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial impact on the normalcy of life. Similarly, social media use (SMU) has increased exponentially. This study examined the association between individuals' perception of the psychological burden related to the pandemic and addictive SMU. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and May 2021 in two national contexts, Egypt, and the United Arab Emirates. Data were gathered from a sample of 1322 participants drawn from a university population who completed measures of psychological burden related to COVID-19, anxious affect, and addictive SMU. Preliminary analyses of the potential association between the study variables were conducted using bivariate correlations followed by a pre-specified mediation model. RESULTS: At a correlational level, all three study variables were positively associated with each other (r values ranged from .18 to .50 and all p values were < .05). A further mediation analysis confirmed that the total effect of psychological burden on addictive SMU was significant (ß = .654, SE = .033, 95% CI .589-.720), and this relationship remained significant with inclusion of the mediator. Significant mediation was evident across the total sample as well as within each country-specific subsample. CONCLUSION: These results provide insight into the factors that contribute to the development of addictive SMU in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings are discussed in relation to the emotion regulation function that SMU might play for individuals in the midst of emotional distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics
4.
Prev Med Rep ; 27: 101764, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747639

ABSTRACT

Anxiety associated with the COVID-19 pandemic and home confinement has been associated with adverse health behaviors, such as unhealthy eating, smoking, and drinking. However, most studies have been limited by regional sampling, which precludes the examination of behavioral consequences associated with the pandemic at a global level. Further, few studies operationalized pandemic-related stressors to enable the investigation of the impact of different types of stressors on health outcomes. This study examined the association between perceived risk of COVID-19 infection and economic burden of COVID-19 with health-promoting and health-damaging behaviors using data from the PsyCorona Study: an international, longitudinal online study of psychological and behavioral correlates of COVID-19. Analyses utilized data from 7,402 participants from 86 countries across three waves of assessment between May 16 and June 13, 2020. Participants completed self-report measures of COVID-19 infection risk, COVID-19-related economic burden, physical exercise, diet quality, cigarette smoking, sleep quality, and binge drinking. Multilevel structural equation modeling analyses showed that across three time points, perceived economic burden was associated with reduced diet quality and sleep quality, as well as increased smoking. Diet quality and sleep quality were lowest among respondents who perceived high COVID-19 infection risk combined with high economic burden. Neither binge drinking nor exercise were associated with perceived COVID-19 infection risk, economic burden, or their interaction. Findings point to the value of developing interventions to address COVID-related stressors, which have an impact on health behaviors that, in turn, may influence vulnerability to COVID-19 and other health outcomes.

5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3824, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735265

ABSTRACT

The present paper examines longitudinally how subjective perceptions about COVID-19, one's community, and the government predict adherence to public health measures to reduce the spread of the virus. Using an international survey (N = 3040), we test how infection risk perception, trust in the governmental response and communications about COVID-19, conspiracy beliefs, social norms on distancing, tightness of culture, and community punishment predict various containment-related attitudes and behavior. Autoregressive analyses indicate that, at the personal level, personal hygiene behavior was predicted by personal infection risk perception. At social level, social distancing behaviors such as abstaining from face-to-face contact were predicted by perceived social norms. Support for behavioral mandates was predicted by confidence in the government and cultural tightness, whereas support for anti-lockdown protests was predicted by (lower) perceived clarity of communication about the virus. Results are discussed in light of policy implications and creating effective interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence , Health Behavior , Public Health , Attitude , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Norms , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Patterns (N Y) ; 3(4): 100482, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730022

ABSTRACT

Before vaccines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) became available, a set of infection-prevention behaviors constituted the primary means to mitigate the virus spread. Our study aimed to identify important predictors of this set of behaviors. Whereas social and health psychological theories suggest a limited set of predictors, machine-learning analyses can identify correlates from a larger pool of candidate predictors. We used random forests to rank 115 candidate correlates of infection-prevention behavior in 56,072 participants across 28 countries, administered in March to May 2020. The machine-learning model predicted 52% of the variance in infection-prevention behavior in a separate test sample-exceeding the performance of psychological models of health behavior. Results indicated the two most important predictors related to individual-level injunctive norms. Illustrating how data-driven methods can complement theory, some of the most important predictors were not derived from theories of health behavior-and some theoretically derived predictors were relatively unimportant.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322256

ABSTRACT

Momentary emotional experiences constitute a key ingredient of psychological wellbeing. Here, we examine the role of emotional experiences for wellbeing during the prolonged stress of the COVID-19 pandemic. Study 1 compared the relative importance of emotional experiences for wellbeing before versus during the pandemic using pre-registered analyses with representative samples. Negative emotional experiences were more detrimental and positive emotional experiences less protective for wellbeing during the pandemic. Study 2 examined the role of specific emotional experiences for wellbeing during the pandemic using survey data from 24,221 participants in 51 countries. Momentary feelings of calm, hope, anxiety, loneliness, and sadness were, across countries, central to wellbeing. These results were replicated in pre-registered studies with representative samples and in a diary study. These findings highlight the particular role of momentary emotional experiences for wellbeing during prolonged stress, and point to specific types of momentary emotional experiences as prime candidates for wellbeing interventions.

8.
Health Commun ; : 1-10, 2022 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655861

ABSTRACT

Understanding the determinants of COVID-19 vaccine uptake is important to inform policy decisions and plan vaccination campaigns. The aims of this research were to: (1) explore the individual- and country-level determinants of intentions to be vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2, and (2) examine worldwide variation in vaccination intentions. This cross-sectional online survey was conducted during the first wave of the pandemic, involving 6697 respondents across 20 countries. Results showed that 72.9% of participants reported positive intentions to be vaccinated against COVID-19, whereas 16.8% were undecided, and 10.3% reported they would not be vaccinated. At the individual level, prosociality was a significant positive predictor of vaccination intentions, whereas generic beliefs in conspiracy theories and religiosity were negative predictors. Country-level determinants, including cultural dimensions of individualism/collectivism and power distance, were not significant predictors of vaccination intentions. Altogether, this study identifies individual-level predictors that are common across multiple countries, provides further evidence on the importance of combating conspiracy theories, involving religious institutions in vaccination campaigns, and stimulating prosocial motives to encourage vaccine uptake.

9.
Curr Res Ecol Soc Psychol ; 3: 100028, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560426

ABSTRACT

Tightening social norms is thought to be adaptive for dealing with collective threat yet it may have negative consequences for increasing prejudice. The present research investigated the role of desire for cultural tightness, triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic, in increasing negative attitudes towards immigrants. We used participant-level data from 41 countries (N = 55,015) collected as part of the PsyCorona project, a cross-national longitudinal study on responses to COVID-19. Our predictions were tested through multilevel and SEM models, treating participants as nested within countries. Results showed that people's concern with COVID-19 threat was related to greater desire for tightness which, in turn, was linked to more negative attitudes towards immigrants. These findings were followed up with a longitudinal model (N = 2,349) which also showed that people's heightened concern with COVID-19 in an earlier stage of the pandemic was associated with an increase in their desire for tightness and negative attitudes towards immigrants later in time. Our findings offer insight into the trade-offs that tightening social norms under collective threat has for human groups.

10.
J Public Health Res ; 10(4)2021 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Workaholism is described as a constant, internal drive to work and behavioral addiction to work. Studies have shown the negative associations between workaholism, job performance, and health results as disrupted sleep. The purpose of this research was to compare the prevalence of workaholics among the academic staff of practical and theoretical Faculties in Egyptian universities using the Dutch Workaholism Scale (DUWAS) and to determine associated sleep problems. Also, it studied the added impact of E-learning on the prevalence of workaholism frequency during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 336 participants. Work addiction was assessed using DUWAS (17 items) as well as questionnaires on personal, occupational characteristics, and sleep problems. DUWAS scale was repeated after six months during COVID 19 pandemic to investigate the impact of E-learning on the workaholic behavior of the studied groups. RESULTS: Our study revealed that the prevalence of workaholism was 33 percent. 32.8% and 33.7% were listed for the faculties of Medicine and Arts, respectively. After the COVID-19 pandemic, workaholic frequency was significantly increased to be 46.4%. Adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that workaholism had negatively impacted sleep in terms of difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and insufficient sleep. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of workaholism appears to be high among university staff members especially after COVID-19 crisis. Sleep problems were linked to workaholics more than other workers. We recommend encouraging employees to work to their contracted hours, as excess work over extended periods may have adverse effects not only on organizational productivity but also on their health.

11.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 741964, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477880

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in substantial changes to the normalcy of daily life. Research conducted in Western Europe point to elevated levels of depression, rumination and worry as well psychological burden. These in turn impact the capacity of individuals to adhere to lockdown measures and health-protective behaviours. Investigations of these pandemic-related mental health constructs in the Middle East appears sparse. Moreover, there is an immense need to investigate the potential for simple strategies that might be used by individuals whilst in lockdown to combat the onset of mental health difficulties. Regular physical exercise may prove valuable in this regard. Objective: To investigate the potential mediational role of engagement in physical exercise on the association between depression and psychological burden related to COVID-19. Method: A sample of 1,322 participants (mage = 19.50 years, SD = 1.54) completed measures of depression and psychological burden related to COVID-19 and self-reported their frequency of physical exercise. Data were collected between February and May 2021 in Egypt and the United Arab Emirates. Results: Analyses revealed statistically significant associations between depression and psychological burden as well as between elevated depression and reduced physical exercise. Mediation analyses in which the potential mediational role of physical exercise was examined were not significant. Conclusions: Depression and psychological burden related to the pandemic appear to be prevalent in these Middle Eastern locations. Whilst physical exercise appears to be beneficial in combating depression, it does not appear to be a sufficient strategy for impeding the experience of psychological burden. Investigation of the contribution of additional strategies is required.

12.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0256740, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477523

ABSTRACT

During the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, U.S. conservative politicians and the media downplayed the risk of both contracting COVID-19 and the effectiveness of recommended health behaviors. Health behavior theories suggest perceived vulnerability to a health threat and perceived effectiveness of recommended health-protective behaviors determine motivation to follow recommendations. Accordingly, we predicted that-as a result of politicization of the pandemic-politically conservative Americans would be less likely to enact recommended health-protective behaviors. In two longitudinal studies of U.S. residents, political conservatism was inversely associated with perceived health risk and adoption of health-protective behaviors over time. The effects of political orientation on health-protective behaviors were mediated by perceived risk of infection, perceived severity of infection, and perceived effectiveness of the health-protective behaviors. In a global cross-national analysis, effects were stronger in the U.S. (N = 10,923) than in an international sample (total N = 51,986), highlighting the increased and overt politicization of health behaviors in the U.S.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Behavior , Motivation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Politics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged
13.
J Community Appl Soc Psychol ; 32(2): 332-347, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460153

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a global health crisis. Consequently, many countries have adopted restrictive measures that caused a substantial change in society. Within this framework, it is reasonable to suppose that a sentiment of societal discontent, defined as generalized concern about the precarious state of society, has arisen. Literature shows that collectively experienced situations can motivate people to help each other. Since societal discontent is conceptualized as a collective phenomenon, we argue that it could influence intention to help others, particularly those who suffer from coronavirus. Thus, in the present study, we aimed (a) to explore the relationship between societal discontent and intention to help at the individual level and (b) to investigate a possible moderating effect of societal discontent at the country level on this relationship. To fulfil our purposes, we used data collected in 42 countries (N = 61,734) from the PsyCorona Survey, a cross-national longitudinal study. Results of multilevel analysis showed that, when societal discontent is experienced by the entire community, individuals dissatisfied with society are more prone to help others. Testing the model with longitudinal data (N = 3,817) confirmed our results. Implications for those findings are discussed in relation to crisis management. Please refer to the Supplementary Material section to find this article's Community and Social Impact Statement.

14.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 48(9): 1315-1330, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374040

ABSTRACT

We examine how social contacts and feelings of solidarity shape experiences of loneliness during the COVID-19 lockdown in early 2020. From the PsyCorona database, we obtained longitudinal data from 23 countries, collected between March and May 2020. The results demonstrated that although online contacts help to reduce feelings of loneliness, people who feel more lonely are less likely to use that strategy. Solidarity played only a small role in shaping feelings of loneliness during lockdown. Thus, it seems we must look beyond the current focus on online contact and solidarity to help people address feelings of loneliness during lockdown. Finally, online contacts did not function as a substitute for face-to-face contacts outside the home-in fact, more frequent online contact in earlier weeks predicted more frequent face-to-face contacts in later weeks. As such, this work provides relevant insights into how individuals manage the impact of restrictions on their social lives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Longitudinal Studies
15.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 63: 102753, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306830

ABSTRACT

The study provides a comprehensive analysis of trends of the global scientific research on the effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental health from the first published literature up to June 27, 2021. Relevant documents were searched using mesh terms based on the query of two searches, "COVID-19 & Mental Health" scenarios joined by the Boolean operator "AND" to retrieve relevant literature using the Web of Science (WOS) database. Bibliometric indicators were analyzed using HistCite, Bibliometrix, an R package, and VOSviewer.Var1.6.6. A total of 5449 publications with an h-index of 97 were retrieved from the database. Overall, articles retrieved were written by 24123 authors, published in 1224 journals, 132 countries represented, and 10.01 average citations per document. Kings College London led the list of contributing institutions with 76 articles. The United States Department of Human Health Services, the National Institutes of Health, the USA, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China was the top funding agencies that enhanced research on mental health and supported more than 180 articles. USA contributed the most significant proportion 1157 (21.23 %) of COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental health publication closely followed by China in the number of publications 741(13.60 %). The study provides insight into the global research perspective for the scientific progress on the COVID-19 Pandemic public health emergency and the mental health issues, thus significantly impacting and supporting intervention towards improving people's mental health post-COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Bibliometrics , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9669, 2021 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219752

ABSTRACT

This paper examines whether compliance with COVID-19 mitigation measures is motivated by wanting to save lives or save the economy (or both), and which implications this carries to fight the pandemic. National representative samples were collected from 24 countries (N = 25,435). The main predictors were (1) perceived risk to contract coronavirus, (2) perceived risk to suffer economic losses due to coronavirus, and (3) their interaction effect. Individual and country-level variables were added as covariates in multilevel regression models. We examined compliance with various preventive health behaviors and support for strict containment policies. Results show that perceived economic risk consistently predicted mitigation behavior and policy support-and its effects were positive. Perceived health risk had mixed effects. Only two significant interactions between health and economic risk were identified-both positive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Employment , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Health Behavior , Health Status , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perception , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Work
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