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1.
Front Neurol ; 12: 820049, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709257

ABSTRACT

We present three cases fulfilling diagnostic criteria of hemorrhagic variants of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (acute hemorrhagic encephalomyelitis, AHEM) occurring within 9 days after the first shot of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. AHEM was diagnosed using magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid analysis and brain biopsy in one case. The close temporal association with the vaccination, the immune-related nature of the disease as well as the lack of other canonical precipitating factors suggested that AHEM was a vaccine-related adverse effect. We believe that AHEM might reflect a novel COVID-19 vaccine-related adverse event for which physicians should be vigilant and sensitized.

2.
Mult Scler ; : 13524585211069068, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700239

ABSTRACT

Over the recent years, the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) has evolved very rapidly and a large number of disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) are now available. However, most DMTs are associated with adverse events, the most frequent of which being infections. Consideration of all DMT-associated risks facilitates development of risk mitigation strategies. An international focused workshop with expert-led discussions was sponsored by the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) and was held in April 2021 to review our current knowledge about the risk of infections associated with the use of DMTs for people with MS and NMOSD and corresponding risk mitigation strategies. The workshop addressed DMT-associated infections in specific populations, such as children and pregnant women with MS, or people with MS who have other comorbidities or live in regions with an exceptionally high infection burden. Finally, we reviewed the topic of DMT-associated infectious risks in the context of the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Herein, we summarize available evidence and identify gaps in knowledge which justify further research.

3.
Frontiers in neurology ; 12, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1688506

ABSTRACT

We present three cases fulfilling diagnostic criteria of hemorrhagic variants of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (acute hemorrhagic encephalomyelitis, AHEM) occurring within 9 days after the first shot of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. AHEM was diagnosed using magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid analysis and brain biopsy in one case. The close temporal association with the vaccination, the immune-related nature of the disease as well as the lack of other canonical precipitating factors suggested that AHEM was a vaccine-related adverse effect. We believe that AHEM might reflect a novel COVID-19 vaccine-related adverse event for which physicians should be vigilant and sensitized.

4.
Mult Scler ; 28(1): 132-138, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597064

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spread of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) poses unique challenges in the management of people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). OBJECTIVES: To collect data about the impact of COVID-19 emergency on access to care for PwMS and on MS treatment practices. METHODS: Between March and July 2020, the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) promoted an online survey covering patient access to care, management of relapses and visits, disease-modifying therapy (DMT) and experience with COVID-19. RESULTS: Three-hundred and sixty neurologists from 52 countries (68% from Europe) completed the survey. 98% reported COVID-19-related restrictions. Telemedicine was adopted to overcome the limited access to care and was newly activated (73%) or widely implemented (17%). 70% reported changes in DMT management. Interferons and glatiramer were considered safe. Dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide and fingolimod were considered safe except for patients developing lymphopenia. No modifications were considered for natalizumab in 64%, cladribine in 24%, anti-CD20 in 22% and alemtuzumab in 17%; 18% (for alemtuzumab and cladribine) and 43% (for anti-CD20) considered postponing treatment. CONCLUSION: The ECTRIMS survey highlighted the challenges in keeping standards of care in clinical practice. Telemedicine clearly needs to be implemented. Gathering data on DMT safety will remain crucial to inform treatment decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(1)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A descriptive analysis of COVID-19 infection in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) receiving fingolimod or siponimod. METHODS: We reviewed the cases of COVID-19 from postmarketing or ongoing clinical trials reported to Novartis through December 27, 2020. RESULTS: As of December 27, 2020, 283 cases had been reported in fingolimod-treated patients. The mean age was 44 years (from n = 224; range 11-69 years), and 190 were women. Of 161 cases with available information, 138 were asymptomatic (6), mild (100), or moderate (32); 50 cases required hospitalization. At the last follow-up, 140 patients were reported as recovered/recovering, condition was unchanged in 22, and deteriorated in 3 patients; 4 patients had a fatal outcome. Information was not available for 114 patients. Of the 54 cases of COVID-19 reported in siponimod-treated patients, 45 were from the postmarketing setting and 9 from an ongoing open-label clinical trial. The mean age was 54 years (from n = 45; range 31-70), and 30 were women. Of 28 cases with available information, 24 were asymptomatic (2), mild (17), or moderate (5); 9 cases required hospitalization. At the last follow-up, 27 patients were reported as recovered/recovering, condition remained unchanged for 1, and 3 patients had a fatal outcome. Information was not available for 23 patients. DISCUSSION: Based on a review of available information, the risk of more severe COVID-19 in patients receiving fingolimod or siponimod seems to be similar to that reported in the general population and the MS population with COVID-19. However, limitations of spontaneous reporting, especially missing data, should be considered in the interpretation of these observations.


Subject(s)
Azetidines/administration & dosage , Benzyl Compounds/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Clinical Trials as Topic , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
8.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105175, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-664024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused public lockdowns around the world. We analyzed if the public lockdown altered the referral pattern of Code Stroke patients by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) to our Comprehensive Stroke Center. METHODS: Retrospective single-center study at a Bavarian Comprehensive Stroke Center. Patients who were directly referred to our stroke unit by EMS between the 1st of January 2020 and the 19th of April 2020 were identified and number of referrals, clinical characteristics and treatment strategies were analyzed during the public lockdown and before. The public lockdown started on 21st of March and ended on 19th April 2020. RESULTS: In total 241 patients were referred to our center during the study period, i.e. 171 before and 70 during the lockdown. The absolute daily number of Code Stroke referrals and the portion of patients with stroke mimics remained stable. The portion of female stroke patients decreased (55% to 33%; p = 0.03), and stroke severity as measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (median 3 (IQR 0-7) versus 6 (IQR 1-15.5) points; p = 0.04) increased during the lockdown. There was no difference of daily numbers of patients receiving thrombolysis and thrombectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Referral of Code Stroke patients by EMS could be maintained sufficiently despite the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. However, patients' health care utilization of the EMS may have changed within the public lockdown. EMS remains a useful tool for Code Stroke patient referral during lockdowns, but public education about stroke is required prior to further lockdowns.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/trends , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Psychological Distance , Quarantine , Referral and Consultation/trends , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/trends , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Time Factors
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