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1.
Radiologe ; 61(10): 880-887, 2021 Oct.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427228

ABSTRACT

Mutations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can enhance the spread and the infectiousness and decrease the protective effect of antibodies present after infection, vaccination or antibody treatment. The alpha variant (B.1.1.7), first seen in Kent/United Kingdom, has increased the R­value and therefore the infectiousness by 75%; however, the effectiveness of the vaccines against SARS-CoV­2 available in Germany seems to be only slightly impaired by these mutations. In the case of the beta variant (B.1.351), first described in South Africa, the neutralization ability of antibodies towards SARS-CoV­2 is decreased. The monoclonal antibodies bamlanivimab and etesivimab, which are used therapeutically, are ineffective. The AstraZeneca vaccine offers almost no protection against mild or moderate disease caused by the beta variant. The gamma variant (P.1 or B.1.1.28.1), which was first found in Brazil, is probably 1.7-2.6 times more transmissible than previous virus strains circulating in Brazil. In addition to the infectiousness, the mortality risk of the gamma variant also seems to be increased between 1.2 and 1.9-fold in adults and between 5 and 8-fold in young persons. The delta variant (B.1.617), first described in India, is now dominant in most countries. It is 50% more infectious than the alpha variant, and the protective effect of vaccinations against symptomatic disease can be decreased (Biontech: delta variant 88%, alpha variant 93.7%; AstraZeneca: delta variant 67%, alpha variant 74.5%). Furthermore, the course of the disease with the delta variant is often more severe than with the wild type. Disease courses with the delta variant are less severe in vaccinated than in nonvaccinated persons, and fatal outcomes are substantially rarer. A high vaccination rate is essential in order to approach herd immunity and to bring the pandemic under control. Even where the protective effect towards mild or moderate disease is decreased, as a rule, vaccination still offers excellent protection against life-threatening and fatal disease courses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 145(21): 1582, 2020 10.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042116
3.
Radiologe ; 60(10): 893-898, 2020 Oct.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-856126

ABSTRACT

Until July 31, 2020, about 17.6 million SARS-CoV­2 infections and 680,000 deaths from COVID-19 were reported. SARS-CoV­2 is most likely transmitted by droplets and probably by aerosols. Patients become infectious 2-3 days before the onset of symptoms, and persons with asymptomatic infections are also infectious. COVID-19 affects the upper respiratory tract, lungs (pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS]), heart, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs. SARS-CoV­2 uses ACE2 a receptor to enter host cells. Vasculitis, endothelial damage, thromboembolic events and organ failure are accompanied by a massive cytokine response. Elderly people and those with pre-existing diseases are particularly vulnerable. An efficient antiviral therapy is not yet available. Severely ill patients may benefit from dexamethasone and early treatment of complications. Candidate vaccines are currently being tested in clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift ; 2020.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-615176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In children, the infection with SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID-19, tends to be clinically inapparent more often or less severe than in adults. The spread of this infection from children poses a danger to vulnerable adults. Therefore, child care institutions and schools currently are widely closed. METHODS: Since the status of infection tends to be congruent in mothers and their children, we tested 401 mothers of children between 1 and 10 years in the city of Rostock (State of Mecklenburg-Westpomerania, northeast of Germany), for the presence of RNA of SARS-CoV-2 in throat swabs, and of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in serum. RESULTS: In none of the mothers tested, RNA of this virus was detected in the throat swab. In the ELISA test, IgG antibodies were positive in one serum sample, IgA antibodies were positive in 11, and borderline in 3 serum samples. All 401 sera were negative in the indirect immunofluorescence test (IIFT) with FITC-labeled IgG, IgA, und IgM antibodies. CONCLUSION: At the time of this study, neither SARS-CoV-2 RNA, nor specific antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detectable in the mothers tested in Rostock.

5.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 145(17): e96-e100, 2020 08.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612422

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In children, the infection with SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID-19, tends to be clinically inapparent more often or less severe than in adults. The spread of this infection from children poses a danger to vulnerable adults. Therefore, child care institutions and schools currently are widely closed. METHODS: Since the status of infection tends to be congruent in mothers and their children, we tested 401 mothers of children between 1 and 10 years in the city of Rostock (State of Mecklenburg-Westpomerania, northeast of Germany), for the presence of RNA of SARS-CoV-2 in throat swabs, and of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in serum. RESULTS: In none of the mothers tested, RNA of this virus was detected in the throat swab. In the ELISA test, IgG antibodies were positive in one serum sample, IgA antibodies were positive in 11, and borderline in 3 serum samples. All 401 sera were negative in the indirect immunofluorescence test (IIFT) with FITC-labeled IgG, IgA, und IgM antibodies. CONCLUSION: At the time of this study, neither SARS-CoV-2 RNA, nor specific antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detectable in the mothers tested in Rostock.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Oropharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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