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1.
Cell Rep ; 39(13): 111009, 2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944463

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron BA.2 sub-lineage has gained in proportion relative to BA.1. Because spike (S) protein variations may underlie differences in their pathobiology, here we determine cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of the BA.2 S ectodomain and compare these with previously determined BA.1 S structures. BA.2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) mutations induce remodeling of the RBD structure, resulting in tighter packing and improved thermostability. Interprotomer RBD interactions are enhanced in the closed (or 3-RBD-down) BA.2 S, while the fusion peptide is less accessible to antibodies than in BA.1. Binding and pseudovirus neutralization assays reveal extensive immune evasion while defining epitopes of two outer RBD face-binding antibodies, DH1044 and DH1193, that neutralize both BA.1 and BA.2. Taken together, our results indicate that stabilization of the closed state through interprotomer RBD-RBD packing is a hallmark of the Omicron variant and show differences in key functional regions in the BA.1 and BA.2 S proteins.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
Mol Cell ; 82(11): 2050-2068.e6, 2022 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937002

ABSTRACT

Aided by extensive spike protein mutation, the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant overtook the previously dominant Delta variant. Spike conformation plays an essential role in SARS-CoV-2 evolution via changes in receptor-binding domain (RBD) and neutralizing antibody epitope presentation, affecting virus transmissibility and immune evasion. Here, we determine cryo-EM structures of the Omicron and Delta spikes to understand the conformational impacts of mutations in each. The Omicron spike structure revealed an unusually tightly packed RBD organization with long range impacts that were not observed in the Delta spike. Binding and crystallography revealed increased flexibility at the functionally critical fusion peptide site in the Omicron spike. These results reveal a highly evolved Omicron spike architecture with possible impacts on its high levels of immune evasion and transmissibility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-333084

ABSTRACT

Summary The BA.2 lineage of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has gained in proportion relative to BA.1. As differences in their spike (S) proteins may underlie differences in their pathobiology, here we determined cryo-EM structures of a BA.2 S protein ectodomain and compared these to previously determined BA.1 S structures. BA.2 Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) mutations induced remodeling of the internal RBD structure resulting in its improved thermostability and tighter packing within the 3-RBD-down spike. In the S2 subunit, the fusion peptide in the BA.2 was less accessible to antibodies than in BA.1. Pseudovirus neutralization and spike binding assays revealed extensive immune evasion while defining epitopes of two RBD-directed antibodies, DH1044 and DH1193, that bound the outer RBD face to neutralize both BA.1 and BA.2. Taken together, our results indicate that stabilization of the 3-RBD-down state through interprotomer RBD-RBD packing is a hallmark of the Omicron lineages, and reveal differences in key functional regions in the BA.1 and BA.2 S proteins.

4.
Cell Rep ; 38(11): 110514, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739598

ABSTRACT

The success of nucleoside-modified mRNAs in lipid nanoparticles (mRNA-LNP) as COVID-19 vaccines heralded a new era of vaccine development. For HIV-1, multivalent envelope (Env) trimer protein nanoparticles are superior immunogens compared with trimers alone for priming of broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) B cell lineages. The successful expression of complex multivalent nanoparticle immunogens with mRNAs has not been demonstrated. Here, we show that mRNAs can encode antigenic Env trimers on ferritin nanoparticles that initiate bnAb precursor B cell expansion and induce serum autologous tier 2 neutralizing activity in bnAb precursor VH + VL knock-in mice. Next-generation sequencing demonstrates acquisition of critical mutations, and monoclonal antibodies that neutralize heterologous HIV-1 isolates are isolated. Thus, mRNA-LNP can encode complex immunogens and may be of use in design of germline-targeting and sequential boosting immunogens for HIV-1 vaccine development.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines , COVID-19 , HIV-1 , Nanoparticles , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes , Ferritins/genetics , HIV Antibodies , Humans , Liposomes , Mice , RNA, Messenger , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics
5.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327134

ABSTRACT

Aided by extensive spike protein mutation, the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant overtook the previously dominant Delta variant. Spike conformation plays an essential role in SARS-CoV-2 evolution via changes in receptor binding domain (RBD) and neutralizing antibody epitope presentation affecting virus transmissibility and immune evasion. Here, we determine cryo-EM structures of the Omicron and Delta spikes to understand the conformational impacts of mutations in each. The Omicron spike structure revealed an unusually tightly packed RBD organization with long range impacts that were not observed in the Delta spike. Binding and crystallography revealed increased flexibility at the functionally critical fusion peptide site in the Omicron spike. These results reveal a highly evolved Omicron spike architecture with possible impacts on its high levels of immune evasion and transmissibility.

6.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295545

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY The success of nucleoside-modified mRNAs in lipid nanoparticles (mRNA-LNP) as COVID-19 vaccines heralded a new era of vaccine development. For HIV-1, multivalent envelope (Env) trimer protein nanoparticles are superior immunogens compared to trimers alone for priming of broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) B cell lineages. The successful expression of complex multivalent nanoparticle immunogens with mRNAs has not been demonstrated. Here we show that mRNAs can encode antigenic Env trimers on ferritin nanoparticles that initiate bnAb precursor B cell expansion and induce serum autologous tier 2 neutralizing activity in bnAb precursor VH + VL knock-in mice. Next generation sequencing demonstrated acquisition of critical mutations, and monoclonal antibodies that neutralized heterologous HIV-1 isolates were isolated. Thus, mRNA- LNP can encode complex immunogens and are of use in design of germline-targeting and sequential boosting immunogens for HIV-1 vaccine development.

7.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750472

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has escalated into a global crisis. The spike (S) protein that mediates cell entry and membrane fusion is the current focus of vaccine and therapeutic antibody development efforts. The S protein, like many other viral fusion proteins such as HIV-1 envelope (Env) and influenza hemagglutinin, is glycosylated with both complex and high mannose glycans. Here we demonstrate binding to the SARS-CoV-2 S protein by a category of Fab-dimerized glycan-reactive (FDG) HIV-1-induced broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). A 3.1 A resolution cryo-EM structure of the S protein ectodomain bound to glycan-dependent HIV-1 bnAb 2G12 revealed a quaternary glycan epitope on the spike S2 domain involving multiple protomers. These data reveal a new epitope on the SARS-CoV-2 spike that can be targeted for vaccine design. Highlights: Fab-dimerized, glycan-reactive (FDG) HIV-1 bnAbs cross-react with SARS-CoV-2 spike.3.1 A resolution cryo-EM structure reveals quaternary S2 epitope for HIV-1 bnAb 2G12.2G12 targets glycans, at positions 709, 717 and 801, in the SARS-CoV-2 spike.Our studies suggest a common epitope for FDG antibodies centered around glycan 709.

8.
Non-conventional in English | MEDLINE, Grey literature | ID: grc-750460

ABSTRACT

The glycan shield of the beta-coronavirus (ß-CoV) Spike (S) glycoprotein provides protection from host immune responses, acting as a steric block to potentially neutralizing antibody responses. The conformationally dynamic S-protein is the primary immunogenic target of vaccine design owing to its role in host-cell fusion, displaying multiple receptor binding domain (RBD) 'up' and 'down' state configurations. Here, we investigated the potential for RBD adjacent, N-terminal domain (NTD) glycans to influence the conformational equilibrium of these RBD states. Using a combination of antigenic screens and high-resolution cryo-EM structure determination, we show that an N-glycan deletion at position 234 results in a dramatically reduced population of the 'up' state RBD position. Conversely, glycan deletion at position N165 results in a discernable increase in 'up' state RBDs. This indicates the glycan shield acts not only as a passive hinderance to antibody meditated immunity but also as a conformational control element. Together, our results demonstrate this highly dynamic conformational machine is responsive to glycan modification with implications in viral escape and vaccine design.

9.
Science ; 373(6555)2021 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282050

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants with multiple spike mutations enable increased transmission and antibody resistance. We combined cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), binding, and computational analyses to study variant spikes, including one that was involved in transmission between minks and humans, and others that originated and spread in human populations. All variants showed increased angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor binding and increased propensity for receptor binding domain (RBD)-up states. While adaptation to mink resulted in spike destabilization, the B.1.1.7 (UK) spike balanced stabilizing and destabilizing mutations. A local destabilizing effect of the RBD E484K mutation was implicated in resistance of the B.1.1.28/P.1 (Brazil) and B.1.351 (South Africa) variants to neutralizing antibodies. Our studies revealed allosteric effects of mutations and mechanistic differences that drive either interspecies transmission or escape from antibody neutralization.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/veterinary , COVID-19/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Host Adaptation , Humans , Immune Evasion , Mink/virology , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Structure, Quaternary , Protein Subunits/chemistry , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
10.
Cell ; 184(11): 2955-2972.e25, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237636

ABSTRACT

Natural antibodies (Abs) can target host glycans on the surface of pathogens. We studied the evolution of glycan-reactive B cells of rhesus macaques and humans using glycosylated HIV-1 envelope (Env) as a model antigen. 2G12 is a broadly neutralizing Ab (bnAb) that targets a conserved glycan patch on Env of geographically diverse HIV-1 strains using a unique heavy-chain (VH) domain-swapped architecture that results in fragment antigen-binding (Fab) dimerization. Here, we describe HIV-1 Env Fab-dimerized glycan (FDG)-reactive bnAbs without VH-swapped domains from simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected macaques. FDG Abs also recognized cell-surface glycans on diverse pathogens, including yeast and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike. FDG precursors were expanded by glycan-bearing immunogens in macaques and were abundant in HIV-1-naive humans. Moreover, FDG precursors were predominately mutated IgM+IgD+CD27+, thus suggesting that they originated from a pool of antigen-experienced IgM+ or marginal zone B cells.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , Polysaccharides/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/immunology , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Dimerization , Epitopes/immunology , Glycosylation , HIV Antibodies/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/chemistry , Macaca mulatta , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/chemistry , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics , Vaccines/immunology , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/chemistry , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics
11.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 28(2): 128-131, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010060

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein, a primary target for COVID-19 vaccine development, presents its receptor binding domain in two conformations, the receptor-accessible 'up' or receptor-inaccessible 'down' states. Here we report that the commonly used stabilized S ectodomain construct '2P' is sensitive to cold temperatures, and this cold sensitivity is abrogated in a 'down' state-stabilized ectodomain. Our findings will impact structural, functional and vaccine studies that use the SARS-CoV-2 S ectodomain.


Subject(s)
Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Cold Temperature , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Protein Denaturation , Protein Domains , Protein Stability , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Surface Plasmon Resonance
12.
Cell Rep ; 34(2): 108630, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987231

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) protein is the target of vaccine design efforts to end the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Despite a low mutation rate, isolates with the D614G substitution in the S protein appeared early during the pandemic and are now the dominant form worldwide. Here, we explore S conformational changes and the effects of the D614G mutation on a soluble S ectodomain construct. Cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures reveal altered receptor binding domain (RBD) disposition; antigenicity and proteolysis experiments reveal structural changes and enhanced furin cleavage efficiency of the G614 variant. Furthermore, furin cleavage alters the up/down ratio of the RBDs in the G614 S ectodomain, demonstrating an allosteric effect on RBD positioning triggered by changes in the SD2 region, which harbors residue 614 and the furin cleavage site. Our results elucidate SARS-CoV-2 S conformational landscape and allostery and have implications for vaccine design.


Subject(s)
Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutation , Protein Domains , Protein Stability , Protein Structure, Quaternary , Protein Subunits/metabolism , Proteolysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
13.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 27(10): 925-933, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-662441

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus (CoV) spike (S) protein, involved in viral-host cell fusion, is the primary immunogenic target for virus neutralization and the current focus of many vaccine design efforts. The highly flexible S-protein, with its mobile domains, presents a moving target to the immune system. Here, to better understand S-protein mobility, we implemented a structure-based vector analysis of available ß-CoV S-protein structures. Despite an overall similarity in domain organization, we found that S-proteins from different ß-CoVs display distinct configurations. Based on this analysis, we developed two soluble ectodomain constructs for the SARS-CoV-2 S-protein, in which the highly immunogenic and mobile receptor binding domain (RBD) is either locked in the all-RBDs 'down' position or adopts 'up' state conformations more readily than the wild-type S-protein. These results demonstrate that the conformation of the S-protein can be controlled via rational design and can provide a framework for the development of engineered CoV S-proteins for vaccine applications.


Subject(s)
Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Binding Sites , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Microscopy, Electron/methods , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains , Protein Subunits/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
14.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636940

ABSTRACT

The glycan shield of the beta-coronavirus (ß-CoV) Spike (S) glycoprotein provides protection from host immune responses, acting as a steric block to potentially neutralizing antibody responses. The conformationally dynamic S-protein is the primary immunogenic target of vaccine design owing to its role in host-cell fusion, displaying multiple receptor binding domain (RBD) 'up' and 'down' state configurations. Here, we investigated the potential for RBD adjacent, N-terminal domain (NTD) glycans to influence the conformational equilibrium of these RBD states. Using a combination of antigenic screens and high-resolution cryo-EM structure determination, we show that an N-glycan deletion at position 234 results in a dramatically reduced population of the 'up' state RBD position. Conversely, glycan deletion at position N165 results in a discernable increase in 'up' state RBDs. This indicates the glycan shield acts not only as a passive hinderance to antibody meditated immunity but also as a conformational control element. Together, our results demonstrate this highly dynamic conformational machine is responsive to glycan modification with implications in viral escape and vaccine design.

15.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636939

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has escalated into a global crisis. The spike (S) protein that mediates cell entry and membrane fusion is the current focus of vaccine and therapeutic antibody development efforts. The S protein, like many other viral fusion proteins such as HIV-1 envelope (Env) and influenza hemagglutinin, is glycosylated with both complex and high mannose glycans. Here we demonstrate binding to the SARS-CoV-2 S protein by a category of Fab-dimerized glycan-reactive (FDG) HIV-1-induced broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). A 3.1 Å resolution cryo-EM structure of the S protein ectodomain bound to glycan-dependent HIV-1 bnAb 2G12 revealed a quaternary glycan epitope on the spike S2 domain involving multiple protomers. These data reveal a new epitope on the SARS-CoV-2 spike that can be targeted for vaccine design. HIGHLIGHTS: Fab-dimerized, glycan-reactive (FDG) HIV-1 bnAbs cross-react with SARS-CoV-2 spike.3.1 Å resolution cryo-EM structure reveals quaternary S2 epitope for HIV-1 bnAb 2G12.2G12 targets glycans, at positions 709, 717 and 801, in the SARS-CoV-2 spike.Our studies suggest a common epitope for FDG antibodies centered around glycan 709.

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