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J Vasc Surg ; 73(6): 1876-1880.e1, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065425


OBJECTIVE: The delays in elective surgery caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have resulted in a substantial backlog of cases. In the present study, we sought to determine the estimated time to recovery for vascular surgery procedures delayed by the COVID-19 pandemic in a regional health system. METHODS: Using data from a 35-hospital regional vascular surgical collaborative consisting of all hospitals performing vascular surgery in the state of Michigan, we estimated the number of delayed surgical cases for adults undergoing carotid endarterectomy, carotid stenting, endovascular and open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, and lower extremity bypass. We used seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average models to predict the surgical volume in the absence of the COVID-19 pandemic and historical data to predict the elective surgical recovery time. RESULTS: The median statewide monthly vascular surgical volume for the study period was 439 procedures, with a maximum statewide monthly case volume of 519 procedures. For the month of April 2020, the elective vascular surgery procedural volume decreased by ∼90%. Significant variability was seen in the estimated hospital capacity and estimated number of backlogged cases, with the recovery of elective cases estimated to require ∼8 months. If hospitals across the collaborative were to share the burden of backlogged cases, the recovery could be shortened to ∼3 months. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study of vascular surgical volume in a regional health collaborative, elective surgical procedures decreased by 90%, resulting in a backlog of >700 cases. The recovery time if all hospitals in the collaborative were to share the burden of backlogged cases would be reduced from 8 months to 3 months, underscoring the necessity of regional and statewide policies to minimize patient harm by delays in recovery for elective surgery.

COVID-19 , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Models, Statistical , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Vascular Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Retrospective Studies
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 9(1): 23-35, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988707


OBJECTIVE: Infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus confers a risk of significant coagulopathy, with the resulting development of venous thromboembolism (VTE), potentially contributing to the morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the present review was to evaluate the potential mechanisms that contribute to this increased risk of coagulopathy and the role of anticoagulants in treatment. METHODS: A literature review of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and/or SARS-CoV-2 and cell-mediated inflammation, clinical coagulation abnormalities, hypercoagulability, pulmonary intravascular coagulopathy, and anticoagulation was performed. The National Clinical Trials database was queried for ongoing studies of anticoagulation and/or antithrombotic treatment or the incidence or prevalence of thrombotic events in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: The reported rate of VTE among critically ill patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 has been 21% to 69%. The phenomenon of breakthrough VTE, or the acute development of VTE despite adequate chemoprophylaxis or treatment dose anticoagulation, has been shown to occur with severe infection. The pathophysiology of overt hypercoagulability and the development of VTE is likely multifactorial, with evidence supporting the role of significant cell-mediated responses, including neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, endothelialitis, cytokine release syndrome, and dysregulation of fibrinolysis. Collectively, this inflammatory process contributes to the severe pulmonary pathology experienced by patients with COVID-19. As the infection worsens, extreme D-dimer elevations, significant thrombocytopenia, decreasing fibrinogen, and prolongation of prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time occur, often associated with deep vein thrombosis, in situ pulmonary thrombi, and/or pulmonary embolism. A new phenomenon, termed pulmonary intravascular coagulopathy, has been associated with morbidity in patients with severe infection. Heparin, both unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin, have emerged as agents that can address the viral infection, inflammation, and thrombosis in this syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The overwhelming inflammatory response in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to a hypercoagulable state, microthrombosis, large vessel thrombosis, and, ultimately, death. Early VTE prophylaxis should be provided to all admitted patients. Therapeutic anticoagulation therapy might be beneficial for critically ill patients and is the focus of 39 ongoing trials. Close monitoring for thrombotic complications is imperative, and, if confirmed, early transition from prophylactic to therapeutic anticoagulation should be instituted. The interplay between inflammation and thrombosis has been shown to be a hallmark of the SARS-CoV-2 viral infection.

COVID-19/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/virology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/physiopathology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Inflammation/physiopathology , Inflammation/virology , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/physiopathology
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 8(4): 526-534, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72055


A markedly increased demand for vascular ultrasound laboratory and other imaging studies in COVID-19-positive patients has occurred, due to most of these patients having a markedly elevated D-dimer and a presumed prothrombotic state in many of the very ill patients. In the present report, we have summarized a broad institutional consensus focusing on evaluation and recommended empirical therapy for COVID-19-positive patients. We recommend following the algorithms with the idea that as more data becomes available these algorithms may well change.

Algorithms , Clinical Protocols , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Critical Care , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control