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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765732

ABSTRACT

Formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a two-faced innate host defense mechanism, which, on the one hand, can counteract microbial infections, but on the other hand, can contribute to massive detrimental effects on the host. Cholesterol depletion from the cellular membrane by Methyl-ß-cyclodextrin (MßCD) is known as one of the processes initiating NET formation. Since neutrophils mainly act in an inflammatory environment with decreased, so-called hypoxic, oxygen conditions, we aimed to study the effect of oxygen and the oxygen stress regulator hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α on cholesterol-dependent NET formation. Thus, murine bone marrow-derived neutrophils from wild-type and HIF-knockout mice or human neutrophils were stimulated with MßCD under normoxic (21% O2) compared to hypoxic (1% O2) conditions, and the formation of NETs were studied by immunofluorescence microscopy. We found significantly induced NET formation after treatment with MßCD in murine neutrophils derived from wild-type as well as HIF-1α KO mice at both hypoxic (1% O2) as well as normoxic (21% O2) conditions. Similar observations were made in freshly isolated human neutrophils after stimulation with MßCD or statins, which block the HMG-CoA reductase as the key enzyme in the cholesterol metabolism. HPLC was used to confirm the reduction of cholesterol in treated neutrophils. In summary, we were able to show that NET formation via MßCD or statin-treatment is oxygen and HIF-1α independent.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Traps , Animals , Cholesterol/metabolism , Hypoxia/metabolism , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Mice , Neutrophils/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism
2.
Cell Death Differ ; 28(11): 3125-3139, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241944

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection poses a major threat to the lungs and multiple other organs, occasionally causing death. Until effective vaccines are developed to curb the pandemic, it is paramount to define the mechanisms and develop protective therapies to prevent organ dysfunction in patients with COVID-19. Individuals that develop severe manifestations have signs of dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses. Emerging evidence implicates neutrophils and the disbalance between neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and degradation plays a central role in the pathophysiology of inflammation, coagulopathy, organ damage, and immunothrombosis that characterize severe cases of COVID-19. Here, we discuss the evidence supporting a role for NETs in COVID-19 manifestations and present putative mechanisms, by which NETs promote tissue injury and immunothrombosis. We present therapeutic strategies, which have been successful in the treatment of immunο-inflammatory disorders and which target dysregulated NET formation or degradation, as potential approaches that may benefit patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Citrullination , Complement Activation , Humans , Neutrophils/metabolism , Platelet Activation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/etiology
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