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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317008

ABSTRACT

Vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have been associated with vaccine-induced thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (VITT/TTS), but the causative factors are still unresolved. We comprehensively analyzed ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (AstraZeneca) and Ad26.COV2.S (Johnson & Johnson). ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 contains significant amounts of host cell protein impurities, including functionally active proteasomes, and adenoviral proteins. In Ad26.COV2.S much less impurities were found. Platelet-factor 4 (PF4) formed complexes with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 constituents, but not with purified virions from ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or with Ad26.COV2.S. Vascular hyperpermeability was induced by ChAdOx nCoV-19 but not by Ad26.COV2.S.These differences in impurities together with EDTA-induced capillary leakage might contribute to the higher incidence rate of VITT associated with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 compared to Ad26.COV2.S.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311513

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 vaccine ChAdOx1 nCov-19 rarely causes vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) that—like autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia—is mediated by platelet-activating anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4) antibodies. Methods: We investigated vaccine, PF4, and VITT patient-derived anti-PF4 antibody interactions using dynamic light scattering, 3D-super-resolution microscopy, and electron microscopy. Mass spectrometry was used to analyze vaccine composition. We investigated the mechanism for early post-vaccine inflammatory reactions as potential co-stimulant for anti-PF4 immune response. Finally, we evaluated VITT antibodies for inducing release of procoagulant DNA-containing neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and measured DNase activity in VITT patient serum. Results: Biophysical analyses showed formation of complexes between PF4 and vaccine constituents, including virus proteins that were recognized by VITT antibodies. EDTA, a vaccine constituent, increased microvascular leakage in mice allowing for circulation of virus- and virus-producing cell culture-derived proteins. Antibodies in normal sera cross-reacted with human proteins in the vaccine and likely contribute to commonly observed acute ChAdOx1 nCov-19 post-vaccination inflammatory reactions. Polyphosphates and DNA enhanced PF4-dependent platelet activation by VITT antibodies. In the presence of platelets, PF4 enhanced VITT antibody-driven procoagulant NETs formation, while DNase activity was reduced in VITT sera, with granulocyte-rich cerebral vein thrombosis observed in a VITT patient. Conclusions: ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine constituents (i) form antigenic complexes with PF4, (ii) EDTA increases microvascular permeability, and (iii) vaccine components cause acute inflammatory reactions. Antigen formation in a proinflammatory milieu offers an explanation for anti-PF4 antibody production. High-titer anti-PF4 antibodies activate platelets and induce neutrophil activation and NETs formation, fueling the VITT prothrombotic response.

3.
Haematologica ; 107(4): 947-957, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635447

ABSTRACT

Vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have been associated with vaccine- induced thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (VITT/TTS), but the causative factors are still unresolved. We comprehensively analyzed the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca) and Ad26.COV2.S (Johnson and Johnson) vaccines. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 contains significant amounts of host cell protein impurities, including functionally active proteasomes, and adenoviral proteins. A much smaller amount of impurities was found in Ad26.COV2.S. Platelet factor 4 formed complexes with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 constituents, but not with purified virions from ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or with Ad26.COV2.S. Vascular hyperpermeability was induced by ChAdOx nCoV-19 but not by Ad26.COV2.S. These differences in impurities together with EDTAinduced capillary leakage might contribute to the higher incidence rate of VITT associated with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 compared to Ad26.COV2.S.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Blood ; 138(22): 2256-2268, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443788

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca) causes a thromboembolic complication termed vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). Using biophysical techniques, mouse models, and analysis of VITT patient samples, we identified determinants of this vaccine-induced adverse reaction. Super-resolution microscopy visualized vaccine components forming antigenic complexes with platelet factor 4 (PF4) on platelet surfaces to which anti-PF4 antibodies obtained from VITT patients bound. PF4/vaccine complex formation was charge-driven and increased by addition of DNA. Proteomics identified substantial amounts of virus production-derived T-REx HEK293 proteins in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-containing vaccine. Injected vaccine increased vascular leakage in mice, leading to systemic dissemination of vaccine components known to stimulate immune responses. Together, PF4/vaccine complex formation and the vaccine-stimulated proinflammatory milieu trigger a pronounced B-cell response that results in the formation of high-avidity anti-PF4 antibodies in VITT patients. The resulting high-titer anti-PF4 antibodies potently activated platelets in the presence of PF4 or DNA and polyphosphate polyanions. Anti-PF4 VITT patient antibodies also stimulated neutrophils to release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in a platelet PF4-dependent manner. Biomarkers of procoagulant NETs were elevated in VITT patient serum, and NETs were visualized in abundance by immunohistochemistry in cerebral vein thrombi obtained from VITT patients. Together, vaccine-induced PF4/adenovirus aggregates and proinflammatory reactions stimulate pathologic anti-PF4 antibody production that drives thrombosis in VITT. The data support a 2-step mechanism underlying VITT that resembles the pathogenesis of (autoimmune) heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.


Subject(s)
Antigen-Antibody Complex/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Capsid Proteins/adverse effects , Drug Contamination , Genetic Vectors/adverse effects , HEK293 Cells/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/adverse effects , Adenoviridae/immunology , Animals , Antigen-Antibody Complex/ultrastructure , Autoantibodies/biosynthesis , Capillary Leak Syndrome/etiology , Capsid Proteins/immunology , Cell Line, Transformed , /immunology , Dynamic Light Scattering , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/immunology , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Extravasation of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Materials/etiology , Genetic Vectors/immunology , HEK293 Cells/chemistry , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Inflammation , Mice , Microscopy/methods , Platelet Activation , Proteomics , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/blood , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/immunology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Virus Cultivation
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