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Viruses ; 12(12)2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954243


The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in 2019 has caused a major health and economic crisis around the globe. Gaining knowledge about its attributes and interactions with human host cells is crucial. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are involved in the host cells' innate antiviral immune response. In RNA interference, microRNAs (miRNAs) may bind to complementary sequences of the viral RNA strand, forming an miRNA-induced silencing complex, which destroys the viral RNA, thereby inhibiting viral protein expression. There are several targets for human miRNAs on SARS-CoV-2's RNA, most of which are in the 5' and 3' untranslated regions. Mutations of the viral genome causing the creation or loss of miRNA binding sites may have crucial effects on SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity. In addition to mediating immunity, the ncRNA landscape of host cells further influences their susceptibility to virus infection, as certain miRNAs are essential in the regulation of cellular receptors that are necessary for virus invasion. Conversely, virus infection also changes the host ncRNA expression patterns, possibly augmenting conditions for viral replication and dissemination. Hence, ncRNAs typically upregulated in SARS-CoV-2 infection could be useful biomarkers for disease progression and severity. Understanding these mechanisms could provide further insight into the pathogenesis and possible treatment options against COVID-19.

Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , RNA, Untranslated/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Mutation , RNA Interference , RNA, Untranslated/genetics , RNA, Untranslated/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral/genetics